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Bundle Protocol Version 7
RFC 9171

Document Type RFC - Proposed Standard (January 2022)
Authors Scott Burleigh , Kevin Fall , Edward J. Birrane
Last updated 2022-01-31
Replaces draft-dtnwg-bp
Stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Formats plain text html xml pdf htmlized bibtex
Reviews
Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication
Document shepherd Fred Templin
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2019-07-25
IESG IESG state RFC 9171 (Proposed Standard)
Action Holders
(None)
Consensus boilerplate Yes
Telechat date (None)
Responsible AD Zaheduzzaman Sarker
Send notices to "Fred Templin" <fred.l.templin@boeing.com>
IANA IANA review state Version Changed - Review Needed
IANA action state RFC-Ed-Ack
IANA expert review state Expert Reviews OK
IANA expert review comments URI scheme expert asked that references (cf. https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc7595#section-7.4) be added to the dtn and ipn templates, but called it non-blocking.
RFC 9171


Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                       S. Burleigh
Request for Comments: 9171                                      IPNGROUP
Category: Standards Track                                        K. Fall
ISSN: 2070-1721                                Roland Computing Services
                                                         E. Birrane, III
                                           APL, Johns Hopkins University
                                                            January 2022

                       Bundle Protocol Version 7

Abstract

   This document presents a specification for the Bundle Protocol,
   adapted from the experimental Bundle Protocol specification developed
   by the Delay-Tolerant Networking Research Group of the Internet
   Research Task Force and documented in RFC 5050.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9171.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Revised BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the
   Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described
   in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
   2.  Conventions Used in This Document
   3.  Service Description
     3.1.  Definitions
     3.2.  Discussion of BP Concepts
     3.3.  Services Offered by Bundle Protocol Agents
   4.  Bundle Format
     4.1.  Bundle Structure
     4.2.  BP Fundamental Data Structures
       4.2.1.  CRC Type
       4.2.2.  CRC
       4.2.3.  Bundle Processing Control Flags
       4.2.4.  Block Processing Control Flags
       4.2.5.  Identifiers
         4.2.5.1.  Endpoint ID
           4.2.5.1.1.  The dtn URI Scheme
           4.2.5.1.2.  The ipn URI Scheme
         4.2.5.2.  Node ID
       4.2.6.  DTN Time
       4.2.7.  Creation Timestamp
       4.2.8.  Block-Type-Specific Data
     4.3.  Block Structures
       4.3.1.  Primary Bundle Block
       4.3.2.  Canonical Bundle Block Format
     4.4.  Extension Blocks
       4.4.1.  Previous Node
       4.4.2.  Bundle Age
       4.4.3.  Hop Count
   5.  Bundle Processing
     5.1.  Generation of Administrative Records
     5.2.  Bundle Transmission
     5.3.  Bundle Dispatching
     5.4.  Bundle Forwarding
       5.4.1.  Forwarding Contraindicated
       5.4.2.  Forwarding Failed
     5.5.  Bundle Expiration
     5.6.  Bundle Reception
     5.7.  Local Bundle Delivery
     5.8.  Bundle Fragmentation
     5.9.  Application Data Unit Reassembly
     5.10. Bundle Deletion
     5.11. Discarding a Bundle
     5.12. Canceling a Transmission
   6.  Administrative Record Processing
     6.1.  Administrative Records
       6.1.1.  Bundle Status Reports
     6.2.  Generation of Administrative Records
   7.  Services Required of the Convergence Layer
     7.1.  The Convergence Layer
     7.2.  Summary of Convergence-Layer Services
   8.  Security Considerations
   9.  IANA Considerations
     9.1.  Bundle Block Types
     9.2.  Primary Bundle Protocol Version
     9.3.  Bundle Processing Control Flags
     9.4.  Block Processing Control Flags
     9.5.  Bundle Status Report Reason Codes
     9.6.  Bundle Protocol URI Scheme Types
     9.7.  dtn URI Scheme
     9.8.  ipn URI Scheme
   10. References
     10.1.  Normative References
     10.2.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  Significant Changes from RFC 5050
   Appendix B.  CDDL Expression
   Acknowledgments
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   Since the publication of the Bundle Protocol specification
   (Experimental RFC 5050 [RFC5050]) in 2007, the Delay-Tolerant
   Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) has been implemented in
   multiple programming languages and deployed to a wide variety of
   computing platforms.  This implementation and deployment experience
   has identified opportunities for making the protocol simpler, more
   capable, and easier to use.  The present document, standardizing the
   Bundle Protocol, is adapted from RFC 5050 in that context, reflecting
   lessons learned.  Significant changes from the Bundle Protocol
   specification defined in RFC 5050 are listed in Appendix A.

   This document describes BP version 7 (BPv7).

   Delay-Tolerant Networking is a network architecture providing
   communications in and/or through highly stressed environments.
   Stressed networking environments include those with intermittent
   connectivity, large and/or variable delays, and high bit error rates.
   To provide its services, BP may be viewed as sitting at the
   application layer of some number of constituent networks, forming a
   store-carry-forward overlay network.  Key capabilities of BP include:

   *  Ability to use physical motility for the movement of data.

   *  Ability to move the responsibility for error control from one node
      to another.

   *  Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, including cases
      where the sender and receiver are not concurrently present in the
      network.

   *  Ability to take advantage of scheduled, predicted, and
      opportunistic connectivity, whether bidirectional or
      unidirectional, in addition to continuous connectivity.

   *  Late binding of overlay-network endpoint identifiers to underlying
      constituent network addresses.

   For descriptions of these capabilities and the rationale for the DTN
   architecture, see [ARCH] and [SIGC].

   BP's location within the standard protocol stack is as shown in
   Figure 1.  BP uses underlying "integrated" transport and/or network
   protocols for communications within a given constituent network.  The
   layer at which those underlying protocols are located is here termed
   the "convergence layer", and the interface between the Bundle
   Protocol and a specific underlying protocol is termed a "convergence-
   layer adapter".

   Figure 1 shows three distinct transport and network protocols
   (denoted T1/N1, T2/N2, and T3/N3).

   +-----------+                                         +-----------+
   |   BP app  |                                         |   BP app  |
   +---------v-|   +->>>>>>>>>>v-+     +->>>>>>>>>>v-+   +-^---------+
   |   BP    v |   | ^    BP   v |     | ^   BP    v |   | ^   BP    |
   +---------v-+   +-^---------v-+     +-^---------v-+   +-^---------+
   | T1      v |   + ^  T1/T2  v |     + ^  T2/T3  v |   | ^ T3      |
   +---------v-+   +-^---------v-+     +-^---------v +   +-^---------+
   | N1      v |   | ^  N1/N2  v |     | ^  N2/N3  v |   | ^ N3      |
   +---------v-+   +-^---------v +     +-^---------v-+   +-^---------+
   |         >>>>>>>>^         >>>>>>>>>>^         >>>>>>>>^         |
   +-----------+   +-------------+     +-------------+   +-----------+
   |                     |                     |                     |
   |<---- A network ---->|                     |<---- A network ---->|
   |                     |                     |                     |

         Figure 1: The Bundle Protocol in the Protocol Stack Model

   This document describes the format of the protocol data units (PDUs)
   (called "bundles") passed between entities participating in BP
   communications.

   The entities are referred to as "bundle nodes".  This document does
   not address:

   *  Operations in the convergence-layer adapters that bundle nodes use
      to transport data through specific types of internets.  (However,
      the document does discuss the services that must be provided by
      each adapter at the convergence layer.)

   *  The bundle route computation algorithm.

   *  Mechanisms for populating the routing or forwarding information
      bases of bundle nodes.

   *  The mechanisms for securing bundles en route.

   *  The mechanisms for managing bundle nodes.

   Note that implementations of the specification presented in this
   document will not be interoperable with implementations of RFC 5050.

2.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  Service Description

3.1.  Definitions

   Bundle:  A bundle is a PDU of BP, so named because negotiation of the
      parameters of a data exchange may be impractical in a delay-
      tolerant network: it is often better practice to "bundle" with a
      unit of application data all metadata that might be needed in
      order to make the data immediately usable when delivered to the
      application.  Each bundle comprises a sequence of two or more
      "blocks" of protocol data, which serve various purposes.

   Block:  A Bundle Protocol block is one of the protocol data
      structures that together constitute a well-formed bundle.

   Application Data Unit:  An application data unit (ADU) is the unit of
      data whose conveyance to the bundle's destination is the purpose
      for the transmission of some bundle that is not a fragment (as
      defined below).

   Bundle payload:  A bundle payload (or simply "payload") is the
      content of the bundle's payload block.  The terms "bundle
      content", "bundle payload", and "payload" are used interchangeably
      in this document.  For a bundle that is not a fragment (as defined
      below), the payload is an ADU.

   Partial payload:  A partial payload is a payload that comprises
      either the first N bytes or the last N bytes of some other payload
      of length M, such that 0 < N < M.  Note that every partial payload
      is a payload and therefore can be further subdivided into partial
      payloads.

   Fragment:  A fragment, a.k.a. "fragmentary bundle", is a bundle whose
      payload block contains a partial payload.

   Bundle node:  A bundle node (or, in the context of this document,
      simply a "node") is any entity that can send and/or receive
      bundles.  Each bundle node has three conceptual components,
      defined below, as shown in Figure 2: a "Bundle Protocol Agent", a
      set of zero or more "convergence-layer adapters", and an
      "application agent".  ("CL1 PDUs" are the PDUs of the convergence-
      layer protocol used in network 1.)

   +-----------------------------------------------------------+
   |Node                                                       |
   |                                                           |
   | +-------------------------------------------------------+ |
   | |Application Agent                                      | |
   | |                                                       | |
   | | +--------------------------+ +----------------------+ | |
   | | |Administrative element    | |Application-specific  | | |
   | | |                          | |element               | | |
   | | |                          | |                      | | |
   | | +--------------------------+ +----------------------+ | |
   | |                ^                          ^           | |
   | |           Admin|records        Application|data       | |
   | |                |                          |           | |
   | +----------------v--------------------------v-----------+ |
   |                               ^                           |
   |                               | ADUs                      |
   |                               |                           |
   | +-----------------------------v-------------------------+ |
   | |Bundle Protocol Agent                                  | |
   | |                                                       | |
   | |                                                       | |
   | +-------------------------------------------------------+ |
   |        ^                 ^                        ^       |
   |        | Bundles         | Bundles        Bundles |       |
   |        |                 |                        |       |
   | +------v-----+     +-----v------+           +-----v-----+ |
   | |CLA 1       |     |CLA 2       |           |CLA n      | |
   | |            |     |            |   . . .   |           | |
   | |            |     |            |           |           | |
   +-+------------+-----+------------+-----------+-----------+-+
            ^                 ^                        ^
         CL1|PDUs          CL2|PDUs                 CLn|PDUs
            |                 |                        |
     +------v-----+     +-----v------+           +-----v-----+
      Network 1          Network 2                Network n

                   Figure 2: Components of a Bundle Node

   Bundle Protocol Agent:  The Bundle Protocol Agent (BPA) of a node is
      the node component that offers the BP services and executes the
      procedures of the Bundle Protocol.

   Convergence-layer adapter:  A convergence-layer adapter (CLA) is a
      node component that sends and receives bundles on behalf of the
      BPA, utilizing the services of some "integrated" protocol stack
      that is supported in one of the networks within which the node is
      functionally located.

   Application agent:  The application agent (AA) of a node is the node
      component that utilizes the BP services to effect communication
      for some user purpose.  The application agent in turn has two
      elements: an administrative element and an application-specific
      element.

   Application-specific element:  The application-specific element of an
      AA is the node component that constructs, requests transmission
      of, accepts delivery of, and processes units of user application
      data.

   Administrative element:  The administrative element of an AA is the
      node component that constructs and requests transmission of
      administrative records (defined below), including status reports,
      and accepts delivery of and processes any administrative records
      that the node receives.

   Administrative record:  A BP administrative record is an ADU that is
      exchanged between the administrative elements of nodes'
      application agents for some BP administrative purpose.  The only
      administrative record defined in this specification is the status
      report, discussed later.

   Bundle endpoint:  A bundle endpoint (or simply "endpoint") is a set
      of zero or more bundle nodes that all identify themselves for BP
      purposes by some common identifier, called a "bundle endpoint ID"
      (or, in this document, simply "endpoint ID"); endpoint IDs are
      described in detail in Section 4.2.5.1.

   Singleton endpoint:  A singleton endpoint is an endpoint that always
      contains exactly one member.

   Registration:  A registration is the state machine characterizing a
      given node's membership in a given endpoint.  Any single
      registration has an associated delivery failure action as defined
      below and must at any time be in one of two states: Active or
      Passive.  Registrations are local; information about a node's
      registrations is not expected to be available at other nodes, and
      the Bundle Protocol does not include a mechanism for distributing
      information about registrations.

   Delivery:  A bundle is considered to have been delivered at a node
      subject to a registration as soon as the ADU that is the payload
      of the bundle, together with any relevant metadata (an
      implementation matter), has been presented to the node's
      application agent in a manner consistent with the state of that
      registration.

   Deliverability:  A bundle is considered "deliverable" subject to a
      registration if and only if (a) the bundle's destination endpoint
      is the endpoint with which the registration is associated, (b) the
      bundle has not yet been delivered subject to this registration,
      and (c) the bundle has not yet been "abandoned" (as defined below)
      subject to this registration.

   Abandonment:  To abandon a bundle subject to some registration is to
      assert that the bundle is not deliverable subject to that
      registration.

   Delivery failure action:  The delivery failure action of a
      registration is the action that is to be taken when a bundle that
      is "deliverable" subject to that registration is received at a
      time when the registration is in the Passive state.

   Destination:  The destination of a bundle is the endpoint comprising
      the node(s) at which the bundle is to be delivered (as defined
      above).

   Transmission:  A transmission is an attempt by a node's BPA to cause
      copies of a bundle to be delivered to one or more of the nodes
      that are members of some endpoint (the bundle's destination) in
      response to a transmission request issued by the node's
      application agent.

   Forwarding:  To forward a bundle to a node is to invoke the services
      of one or more CLAs in a sustained effort to cause a copy of the
      bundle to be received by that node.

   Discarding:  To discard a bundle is to cease all operations on the
      bundle and functionally erase all references to it.  The specific
      procedures by which this is accomplished are an implementation
      matter.

   Retention constraint:  A retention constraint is an element of the
      state of a bundle that prevents the bundle from being discarded.
      That is, a bundle cannot be discarded while it has any retention
      constraints.

   Deletion:  To delete a bundle is to remove unconditionally all of the
      bundle's retention constraints, enabling the bundle to be
      discarded.

3.2.  Discussion of BP Concepts

   Multiple instances of the same bundle (the same unit of DTN protocol
   data) might exist concurrently in different parts of a network --
   possibly differing in some blocks -- in the memory local to one or
   more bundle nodes and/or in transit between nodes.  In the context of
   the operation of a bundle node, a bundle is an instance (copy), in
   that node's local memory, of some bundle that is in the network.

   The payload for a bundle forwarded in response to a bundle
   transmission request is the ADU whose location is provided as a
   parameter to that request.  The payload for a bundle forwarded in
   response to reception of a bundle is the payload of the received
   bundle.

   In the most familiar case, a bundle node is instantiated as a single
   process running on a general-purpose computer, but in general the
   definition is meant to be broader: a bundle node might alternatively
   be a thread, an object in an object-oriented operating system, a
   special-purpose hardware device, etc.

   The manner in which the functions of the BPA are performed is wholly
   an implementation matter.  For example, BPA functionality might be
   coded into each node individually; it might be implemented as a
   shared library that is used in common by any number of bundle nodes
   on a single computer; it might be implemented as a daemon whose
   services are invoked via inter-process or network communication by
   any number of bundle nodes on one or more computers; it might be
   implemented in hardware.

   Every CLA implements its own thin layer of protocol, interposed
   between BP and the (usually "top") protocol(s) of the underlying
   integrated protocol stack; this "CL protocol" may only serve to
   multiplex and demultiplex bundles to and from the underlying
   integrated protocol, or it may offer additional CL-specific
   functionality.  The manner in which a CLA sends and receives bundles,
   as well as the definitions of CLAs and CL protocols, are beyond the
   scope of this specification.

   Note that the administrative element of a node's application agent
   may itself, in some cases, function as a CLA.  That is, outgoing
   bundles may be "tunneled" through encapsulating bundles:

   *  An outgoing bundle constitutes a byte array.  This byte array may,
      like any other, be presented to the BPA as an ADU that is to be
      transmitted to some endpoint.

   *  The original bundle thus forms the payload of an encapsulating
      bundle that is forwarded using some other convergence-layer
      protocol(s).

   *  When the encapsulating bundle is received, its payload is
      delivered to the peer application agent administrative element,
      which then instructs the BPA to dispatch that original bundle in
      the usual way.

   The purposes for which this technique may be useful (such as cross-
   domain security) are beyond the scope of this specification.

   The only interface between the BPA and the application-specific
   element of the AA is the BP service interface.  But between the BPA
   and the administrative element of the AA there is a (conceptual)
   private control interface in addition to the BP service interface.
   This private control interface enables the BPA and the administrative
   element of the AA to direct each other to take action under specific
   circumstances.

   In the case of a node that serves simply as a BP "router", the AA may
   have no application-specific element at all.  The application-
   specific elements of other nodes' AAs may perform arbitrarily complex
   application functions, perhaps even offering multiplexed DTN
   communication services to a number of other applications.  As with
   the BPA, the manner in which the AA performs its functions is wholly
   an implementation matter.

   Singletons are the most familiar sort of endpoint, but in general the
   endpoint notion is meant to be broader.  For example, the nodes in a
   sensor network might constitute a set of bundle nodes that are all
   registered in a single common endpoint and will all receive any data
   delivered at that endpoint. *Note* too that any given bundle node
   might be registered in multiple bundle endpoints and receive all data
   delivered at each of those endpoints.

   Recall that every node, by definition, includes an application agent,
   which in turn includes an administrative element, which exchanges
   administrative records with the administrative elements of other
   nodes.  As such, every node is permanently, structurally registered
   in the singleton endpoint at which administrative records received
   from other nodes are delivered.  Registration in no other endpoint
   can ever be assumed to be permanent.  This endpoint, termed the
   node's "administrative endpoint", is therefore uniquely and
   permanently associated with the node, and for this reason the ID of a
   node's administrative endpoint may always serve as the "node ID" (see
   Section 4.2.5.2) of the node.

   The destination of every bundle is an endpoint, which may or may not
   be singleton.  The source of every bundle is a node, identified by
   node ID.  Note, though, that the source node ID asserted in a given
   bundle may be the null endpoint ID (as described later) rather than
   the ID of the source node; bundles for which the asserted source node
   ID is the null endpoint ID are termed "anonymous" bundles.

   Any number of transmissions may be concurrently undertaken by the BPA
   of a given node.

   When the BPA of a node determines that it must forward a bundle
   either to a node that is a member of the bundle's destination
   endpoint or to some intermediate forwarding node, the BPA invokes the
   services of one or more CLAs in a sustained effort to cause a copy of
   the bundle to be received by that node.

   Upon reception, the processing of a bundle depends on whether or not
   the receiving node is registered in the bundle's destination
   endpoint.  If it is, and if the payload of the bundle is non-
   fragmentary (possibly as a result of successful payload reassembly
   from fragmentary payloads, including the original payload of the
   newly received bundle), then the bundle is normally delivered to the
   node's application agent subject to the registration characterizing
   the node's membership in the destination endpoint.

   The Bundle Protocol itself does not ensure delivery of a bundle to
   its destination.  Data loss along the path to the destination node
   can be minimized by utilizing reliable convergence-layer protocols
   between neighbors on all segments of the end-to-end path; however,
   for end-to-end bundle delivery assurance it will be necessary to
   develop extensions to the Bundle Protocol and/or application-layer
   mechanisms.

   The Bundle Protocol is designed for extensibility.  Bundle Protocol
   extensions, documented elsewhere, may extend this specification by
   defining additional:

   *  blocks

   *  administrative records

   *  bundle processing control flags

   *  block processing control flags

   *  types of bundle status reports

   *  bundle status report reason codes

   *  mandates and constraints on processing that conformant BPAs must
      perform at specified points in the inbound and outbound bundle
      processing cycles

3.3.  Services Offered by Bundle Protocol Agents

   The BPA of each node is expected to provide the following services to
   the node's application agent:

   *  commencing a registration (registering the node in an endpoint).

   *  terminating a registration.

   *  switching a registration between Active and Passive states.

   *  transmitting a bundle to an identified bundle endpoint.

   *  canceling a transmission.

   *  polling a registration that is in the Passive state.

   *  delivering a received bundle.

   Note that the details of registration functionality are an
   implementation matter and are beyond the scope of this specification.

4.  Bundle Format

4.1.  Bundle Structure

   The format of bundles SHALL conform to the Concise Binary Object
   Representation (CBOR) [RFC8949].

   Cryptographic verification of a block is possible only if the
   sequence of octets on which the verifying node computes its hash --
   the canonicalized representation of the block -- is identical to the
   sequence of octets on which the hash declared for that block was
   computed.  To ensure that blocks are always in canonical
   representation when they are transmitted and received, the CBOR
   encodings of the values of all fields in all blocks MUST conform to
   the core deterministic encoding requirements as specified in
   [RFC8949], except that indefinite-length items are not prohibited.

   Each bundle SHALL be a concatenated sequence of at least two blocks,
   represented as a CBOR indefinite-length array.  The first block in
   the sequence (the first item of the array) MUST be a primary bundle
   block in CBOR encoding as described below; the bundle MUST have
   exactly one primary bundle block.  The primary block MUST be followed
   by one or more canonical bundle blocks (additional array items) in
   CBOR encoding as described in Section 4.3.2.  Every block following
   the primary block SHALL be the CBOR encoding of a canonical block.
   The last such block MUST be a payload block; the bundle MUST have
   exactly one payload block.  The payload block SHALL be followed by a
   CBOR "break" stop code, terminating the array.

      |  (Note that, while CBOR permits considerable flexibility in the
      |  encoding of bundles, this flexibility must not be interpreted
      |  as inviting increased complexity in PDU structure.)

   Associated with each block of a bundle is a block number.  The block
   number uniquely identifies the block within the bundle, enabling
   blocks (notably Bundle Protocol Security blocks) to reference other
   blocks in the same bundle without ambiguity.  The block number of the
   primary block is implicitly zero; the block numbers of all other
   blocks are explicitly stated in block headers as noted below.  Block
   numbering is unrelated to the order in which blocks are sequenced in
   the bundle.  The block number of the payload block is always 1.

   An implementation of the Bundle Protocol MAY discard any sequence of
   bytes that does not conform to the Bundle Protocol specification.

   An implementation of the Bundle Protocol MAY accept a sequence of
   bytes that does not conform to the Bundle Protocol specification
   (e.g., one that represents data elements in fixed-length arrays
   rather than indefinite-length arrays) and transform it into
   conformant BP structure before processing it.  Procedures for
   accomplishing such a transformation are beyond the scope of this
   specification.

4.2.  BP Fundamental Data Structures

4.2.1.  CRC Type

   CRC type is an unsigned integer type code for which the following
   values (and no others) are valid:

   *  0 indicates "no Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) is present."

   *  1 indicates "a standard X-25 CRC-16 is present."  [CRC16]

   *  2 indicates "a standard CRC32C (Castagnoli) CRC-32 is present."
      [RFC4960]

   CRC type SHALL be represented as a CBOR unsigned integer.

   For examples of CRC32C CRCs, see Appendix A.4 of [RFC7143].

   Note that more robust protection of BP data integrity, as needed, may
   be provided by means of Block Integrity Blocks (BIBs) as defined in
   the Bundle Protocol Security specification [BPSEC].

4.2.2.  CRC

   The CRC SHALL be omitted from a block if and only if the block's CRC
   type code is zero.

   When not omitted, the CRC SHALL be represented as a CBOR byte string
   of two bytes (that is, CBOR additional information 2, if CRC type is
   1) or of four bytes (that is, CBOR additional information 4, if CRC
   type is 2); in each case, the sequence of bytes SHALL constitute an
   unsigned integer value (of 16 or 32 bits, respectively) in network
   byte order.

4.2.3.  Bundle Processing Control Flags

   Bundle processing control flags assert properties of the bundle as a
   whole rather than of any particular block of the bundle.  They are
   conveyed in the primary block of the bundle.

   The following properties are asserted by the bundle processing
   control flags:

   *  The bundle is a fragment.  (Boolean)

   *  The bundle's payload is an administrative record.  (Boolean)

   *  The bundle must not be fragmented.  (Boolean)

   *  Acknowledgment by the user application is requested.  (Boolean)

   *  Status time is requested in all status reports.  (Boolean)

   *  Flags requesting types of status reports (all Boolean):

      -  Request reporting of bundle reception.

      -  Request reporting of bundle forwarding.

      -  Request reporting of bundle delivery.

      -  Request reporting of bundle deletion.

   If the bundle processing control flags indicate that the bundle's ADU
   is an administrative record, then all status report request flag
   values MUST be zero.

   If the bundle's source node is omitted (i.e., the source node ID is
   the ID of the null endpoint, which has no members as discussed below;
   this option enables anonymous bundle transmission), then the bundle
   is not uniquely identifiable and all Bundle Protocol features that
   rely on bundle identity must therefore be disabled: the "Bundle must
   not be fragmented" flag value MUST be 1, and all status report
   request flag values MUST be zero.

   Bundle processing control flags that are unrecognized MUST be
   ignored, as future definitions of additional flags might not be
   integrated simultaneously into the Bundle Protocol implementations
   operating at all nodes.

   The bundle processing control flags SHALL be represented as a CBOR
   unsigned integer item, the value of which SHALL be processed as a bit
   field indicating the control flag values as follows (note that bit
   numbering in this instance is reversed from the usual practice,
   beginning with the low-order bit instead of the high-order bit, in
   recognition of the potential definition of additional control flag
   values in the future):

   Bit 0 (the low-order bit, 0x000001):  Bundle is a fragment.

   Bit 1 (0x000002):  ADU is an administrative record.

   Bit 2 (0x000004):  Bundle must not be fragmented.

   Bit 3 (0x000008):  Reserved.

   Bit 4 (0x000010):  Reserved.

   Bit 5 (0x000020):  Acknowledgement by application is requested.

   Bit 6 (0x000040):  Status time requested in reports.

   Bit 7 (0x000080):  Reserved.

   Bit 8 (0x000100):  Reserved.

   Bit 9 (0x000200):  Reserved.

   Bit 10 (0x000400):  Reserved.

   Bit 11 (0x000800):  Reserved.

   Bit 12 (0x001000):  Reserved.

   Bit 13 (0x002000):  Reserved.

   Bit 14 (0x004000):  Request reporting of bundle reception.

   Bit 15 (0x008000):  Reserved.

   Bit 16 (0x010000):  Request reporting of bundle forwarding.

   Bit 17 (0x020000):  Request reporting of bundle delivery.

   Bit 18 (0x040000):  Request reporting of bundle deletion.

   Bits 19-20:  Reserved.

   Bits 21-63:  Unassigned.

4.2.4.  Block Processing Control Flags

   The block processing control flags assert properties of canonical
   bundle blocks.  They are conveyed in the header of the block to which
   they pertain.

   Block processing control flags that are unrecognized MUST be ignored,
   as future definitions of additional flags might not be integrated
   simultaneously into the Bundle Protocol implementations operating at
   all nodes.

   The block processing control flags SHALL be represented as a CBOR
   unsigned integer item, the value of which SHALL be processed as a bit
   field indicating the control flag values as follows (note that bit
   numbering in this instance is reversed from the usual practice,
   beginning with the low-order bit instead of the high-order bit, for
   agreement with the bit numbering of the bundle processing control
   flags):

   Bit 0 (the low-order bit, 0x01):  Block must be replicated in every
      fragment.

   Bit 1 (0x02):  Transmit status report if block can't be processed.

   Bit 2 (0x04):  Delete bundle if block can't be processed.

   Bit 3 (0x08):  Reserved.

   Bit 4 (0x10):  Discard block if it can't be processed.

   Bit 5 (0x20):  Reserved.

   Bit 6 (0x40):  Reserved.

   Bits 7-63:  Unassigned.

   For each bundle whose bundle processing control flags indicate that
   the bundle's ADU is an administrative record, or whose source node ID
   is the null endpoint ID as defined below, the value of the "Transmit
   status report if block can't be processed" flag in every canonical
   block of the bundle MUST be zero.

4.2.5.  Identifiers

4.2.5.1.  Endpoint ID

   The destinations of bundles are bundle endpoints, identified by text
   strings termed "endpoint IDs" (see Section 3.1).  Each endpoint ID
   (EID) is a Uniform Resource Identifier [URI].  As such, each endpoint
   ID can be characterized as having this general structure:

   < scheme name > : < scheme-specific part, or "SSP" >

   The scheme identified by the < scheme name > in an endpoint ID is a
   set of syntactic and semantic rules that fully explain how to parse
   and interpret the scheme-specific part (SSP).  Each scheme that may
   be used to form a BP endpoint ID must be added to the "Bundle
   Protocol URI Scheme Types" registry, maintained by IANA as described
   in Section 9.6; association of a unique URI scheme code number with
   each scheme name in this registry helps to enable compact
   representation of endpoint IDs in bundle blocks.  Note that the set
   of allowable schemes is effectively unlimited.  Any scheme conforming
   to [URIREG] may be added to the registry of URI scheme code numbers
   and thereupon used in a Bundle Protocol endpoint ID.

   Each entry in the registry of URI scheme code numbers MUST contain a
   reference to a scheme code number definition document, which defines
   the manner in which the scheme-specific part of any URI formed in
   that scheme is parsed and interpreted and MUST be CBOR encoded for
   transmission as a BP endpoint ID.  The scheme code number definition
   document may also contain information as to (a) which convergence-
   layer protocol(s) may be used to forward a bundle to a BP destination
   endpoint identified by such an ID and (b) how the ID of the
   convergence-layer protocol endpoint to use for that purpose can be
   inferred from that destination endpoint ID.

   Note that, although endpoint IDs are URIs, implementations of the BP
   service interface may support expression of endpoint IDs in some
   internationalized manner (e.g., Internationalized Resource
   Identifiers (IRIs); see [RFC3987]).

   Each BP endpoint ID (EID) SHALL be represented as a CBOR array
   comprising two items.

   The first item of the array SHALL be the code number identifying the
   endpoint ID's URI scheme, as defined in the registry of URI scheme
   code numbers for the Bundle Protocol.  Each URI scheme code number
   SHALL be represented as a CBOR unsigned integer.

   The second item of the array SHALL be the applicable CBOR encoding of
   the scheme-specific part of the EID, defined as noted in the
   references(s) for the URI scheme code number registry entry for the
   EID's URI scheme.

4.2.5.1.1.  The dtn URI Scheme

   The "dtn" scheme supports the identification of BP endpoints by
   arbitrarily expressive character strings.  It is specified as
   follows:

   Scheme syntax:  This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur
      Form (ABNF) notation of [RFC5234].

   dtn-uri = "dtn:" ("none" / dtn-hier-part)

   dtn-hier-part = "//" node-name name-delim demux ; a path-rootless

   node-name = reg-name

   name-delim = "/"

   demux = *VCHAR

   Scheme semantics:  URIs of the dtn scheme are used as endpoint
      identifiers in the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol
      (BP) as described in the present document.

   The endpoint ID "dtn:none" identifies the "null endpoint", the
   endpoint that by definition never has any members.

   All BP endpoints identified by all other dtn-scheme endpoint IDs for
   which the first character of demux is a character other than '~'
   (tilde) are singleton endpoints.  All BP endpoints identified by dtn-
   scheme endpoint IDs for which the first character *is* '~' (tilde)
   are *not* singleton endpoints.

   A dtn-scheme endpoint ID for which the demux is of length zero MAY
   identify the administrative endpoint for the node identified by node-
   name, and as such may serve as a node ID.  No dtn-scheme endpoint ID
   for which the demux is of non-zero length may do so.

   Note that these syntactic rules impose constraints on dtn-scheme
   endpoint IDs that were not imposed by the original specification of
   the dtn scheme as provided in [RFC5050].  It is believed that the
   dtn-scheme endpoint IDs employed by BP applications conforming to
   [RFC5050] are in most cases unlikely to be in violation of these
   rules, but the developers of such applications are advised of the
   potential for compromised interoperation.

   Encoding considerations:  For transmission as a BP endpoint ID, the
      scheme-specific part of a URI of the dtn scheme SHALL be
      represented as a CBOR text string unless the EID's SSP is "none",
      in which case the SSP SHALL be represented as a CBOR unsigned
      integer with the value zero.  For all other purposes, URIs of the
      dtn scheme are encoded exclusively in US-ASCII characters.

   Interoperability considerations:  None.

   Security considerations:

      Reliability and consistency:  None of the BP endpoints identified
         by the URIs of the dtn scheme are guaranteed to be reachable at
         any time, and the identity of the processing entities operating
         on those endpoints is never guaranteed by the Bundle Protocol
         itself.  Verification of the signature provided by the Block
         Integrity Block targeting the bundle's primary block, as
         defined by Bundle Protocol Security [BPSEC], is required for
         this purpose.

      Malicious construction:  Malicious construction of a conformant
         dtn-scheme URI is limited to the malicious selection of node
         names and the malicious selection of demux strings.  That is, a
         maliciously constructed dtn-scheme URI could be used to direct
         a bundle to an endpoint that might be damaged by the arrival of
         that bundle or, alternatively, to declare a false source for a
         bundle and thereby cause incorrect processing at a node that
         receives the bundle.  In both cases (and indeed in all bundle
         processing), the node that receives a bundle should verify its
         authenticity and validity before operating on it in any way.

      Back-end transcoding:  The limited expressiveness of URIs of the
         dtn scheme effectively eliminates the possibility of threat due
         to errors in back-end transcoding.

      Rare IP address formats:  Not relevant, as IP addresses do not
         appear anywhere in conformant dtn-scheme URIs.

      Sensitive information:  Because dtn-scheme URIs are used only to
         represent the identities of Bundle Protocol endpoints, the risk
         of disclosure of sensitive information due to interception of
         these URIs is minimal.  Examination of dtn-scheme URIs could be
         used to support traffic analysis; where traffic analysis is a
         plausible danger, bundles should be conveyed by secure
         convergence-layer protocols that do not expose endpoint IDs.

      Semantic attacks:  The simplicity of dtn-scheme URI syntax
         minimizes the possibility of misinterpretation of a URI by a
         human user.

4.2.5.1.2.  The ipn URI Scheme

   The "ipn" scheme supports the identification of BP endpoints by pairs
   of unsigned integers, for compact representation in bundle blocks.
   It is specified as follows:

   Scheme syntax:  This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur
      Form (ABNF) notation of [RFC5234], including the core ABNF syntax
      rule for DIGIT defined by that specification.

   ipn-uri = "ipn:" ipn-hier-part

   ipn-hier-part = node-nbr nbr-delim service-nbr ; a path-rootless

   node-nbr = 1*DIGIT

   nbr-delim = "."

   service-nbr = 1*DIGIT

   Scheme semantics:  URIs of the ipn scheme are used as endpoint
      identifiers in the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol
      (BP) as described in the present document.

   All BP endpoints identified by ipn-scheme endpoint IDs are singleton
   endpoints.

   An ipn-scheme endpoint ID for which service-nbr is zero MAY identify
   the administrative endpoint for the node identified by node-nbr, and
   as such may serve as a node ID.  No ipn-scheme endpoint ID for which
   service-nbr is non-zero may do so.

   Encoding considerations:  For transmission as a BP endpoint ID, the
      scheme-specific part of a URI of the ipn scheme SHALL be
      represented as a CBOR array comprising two items.  The first item
      of this array SHALL be the EID's node number (a number that
      identifies the node) represented as a CBOR unsigned integer.  The
      second item of this array SHALL be the EID's service number (a
      number that identifies some application service) represented as a
      CBOR unsigned integer.  For all other purposes, URIs of the ipn
      scheme are encoded exclusively in US-ASCII characters.

   Interoperability considerations:  None.

   Security considerations:

      Reliability and consistency:  None of the BP endpoints identified
         by the URIs of the ipn scheme are guaranteed to be reachable at
         any time, and the identity of the processing entities operating
         on those endpoints is never guaranteed by the Bundle Protocol
         itself.  Verification of the signature provided by the Block
         Integrity Block targeting the bundle's primary block, as
         defined by Bundle Protocol Security [BPSEC], is required for
         this purpose.

      Malicious construction:  Malicious construction of a conformant
         ipn-scheme URI is limited to the malicious selection of node
         numbers and the malicious selection of service numbers.  That
         is, a maliciously constructed ipn-scheme URI could be used to
         direct a bundle to an endpoint that might be damaged by the
         arrival of that bundle or, alternatively, to declare a false
         source for a bundle and thereby cause incorrect processing at a
         node that receives the bundle.  In both cases (and indeed in
         all bundle processing), the node that receives a bundle should
         verify its authenticity and validity before operating on it in
         any way.

      Back-end transcoding:  The limited expressiveness of URIs of the
         ipn scheme effectively eliminates the possibility of threat due
         to errors in back-end transcoding.

      Rare IP address formats:  Not relevant, as IP addresses do not
         appear anywhere in conformant ipn-scheme URIs.

      Sensitive information:  Because ipn-scheme URIs are used only to
         represent the identities of Bundle Protocol endpoints, the risk
         of disclosure of sensitive information due to interception of
         these URIs is minimal.  Examination of ipn-scheme URIs could be
         used to support traffic analysis; where traffic analysis is a
         plausible danger, bundles should be conveyed by secure
         convergence-layer protocols that do not expose endpoint IDs.

      Semantic attacks:  The simplicity of ipn-scheme URI syntax
         minimizes the possibility of misinterpretation of a URI by a
         human user.

4.2.5.2.  Node ID

   For many purposes of the Bundle Protocol, it is important to identify
   the node that is operative in some context.

   As discussed in Section 3.1, nodes are distinct from endpoints;
   specifically, an endpoint is a set of zero or more nodes.  But rather
   than define a separate namespace for node identifiers, we instead use
   endpoint identifiers to identify nodes as discussed in Section 3.2.
   Formally:

   *  Every node is, by definition, permanently registered in the
      singleton endpoint at which administrative records are delivered
      to its application agent's administrative element, termed the
      node's "administrative endpoint".

   *  As such, the EID of a node's administrative endpoint SHALL
      uniquely identify that node.

   *  The EID of any singleton endpoint is allowed to serve as a "node
      ID" identifying the node that is the sole member of that endpoint.

4.2.6.  DTN Time

   A DTN time is an unsigned integer indicating the number of
   milliseconds that have elapsed since the DTN Epoch, 2000-01-01
   00:00:00 +0000 (UTC).  DTN time is not affected by leap seconds.

   Each DTN time SHALL be represented as a CBOR unsigned integer item.
   Implementers need to be aware that DTN time values conveyed in CBOR
   encoding in bundles will nearly always exceed (2^32 - 1); the manner
   in which a DTN time value is represented in memory is an
   implementation matter.  The DTN time value zero indicates that the
   time is unknown.

4.2.7.  Creation Timestamp

   Each bundle's creation timestamp SHALL be represented as a CBOR array
   comprising two items.

   The first item of the array, termed "bundle creation time", SHALL be
   the DTN time at which the transmission request was received that
   resulted in the creation of the bundle, represented as a CBOR
   unsigned integer.

   The second item of the array, termed the creation timestamp's
   "sequence number", SHALL be the latest value (as of the time at which
   the transmission request was received) of a monotonically increasing
   positive integer counter managed by the source node's BPA,
   represented as a CBOR unsigned integer.  The sequence counter MAY be
   reset to zero whenever the current time advances by one millisecond.

   For nodes that lack accurate clocks, it is recommended that bundle
   creation time be set to zero and that the counter used as the source
   of the bundle sequence count never be reset to zero.

   Note that, in general, the creation of two distinct bundles with the
   same source node ID and bundle creation timestamp may result in
   unexpected network behavior and/or suboptimal performance.  The
   combination of source node ID and bundle creation timestamp serves to
   identify a single transmission request, enabling it to be
   acknowledged by the receiving application (provided the source node
   ID is not the null endpoint ID).

4.2.8.  Block-Type-Specific Data

   Block-type-specific data in each block (other than the primary block)
   SHALL be the applicable CBOR encoding of the content of the block.
   Details of this representation are included in the specification
   defining the block type.

4.3.  Block Structures

   This section describes the primary block in detail and non-primary
   blocks in general.  Rules for processing these blocks appear in
   Section 5.

   Note that supplementary DTN protocol specifications (including, but
   not restricted to, Bundle Protocol Security [BPSEC]) may require that
   BP implementations conforming to those protocols construct and
   process additional blocks.

4.3.1.  Primary Bundle Block

   The primary bundle block contains the basic information needed to
   forward bundles to their destinations.

   Each primary block SHALL be represented as a CBOR array; the number
   of elements in the array SHALL be 8 (if the bundle is not a fragment
   and the block has no CRC), 9 (if the block has a CRC and the bundle
   is not a fragment), 10 (if the bundle is a fragment and the block has
   no CRC), or 11 (if the bundle is a fragment and the block has a CRC).

   The primary block of each bundle SHALL be immutable.  The CBOR-
   encoded values of all fields in the primary block MUST remain
   unchanged from the time the block is created to the time it is
   delivered.

   The fields of the primary bundle block SHALL be as follows, listed in
   the order in which they MUST appear:

   Version:  An unsigned integer value indicating the version of the
      Bundle Protocol that constructed this block.  The present document
      describes BPv7.  This version number SHALL be represented as a
      CBOR unsigned integer item.

   Bundle Processing Control Flags:  The bundle processing control flags
      are discussed in Section 4.2.3.

   CRC Type:  CRC type codes are discussed in Section 4.2.1.  The CRC
      type code for the primary block MAY be zero if the bundle contains
      a BPSec Block Integrity Block [BPSEC] whose target is the primary
      block; otherwise, the CRC type code for the primary block MUST be
      non-zero.

   Destination EID:  The Destination EID field identifies the bundle
      endpoint that is the bundle's destination, i.e., the endpoint that
      contains the node(s) at which the bundle is to be delivered.

   Source node ID:  The Source node ID field identifies the bundle node
      at which the bundle was initially transmitted, except that source
      node ID may be the null endpoint ID in the event that the bundle's
      source chooses to remain anonymous.

   Report-to EID:  The Report-to EID field identifies the bundle
      endpoint to which status reports pertaining to the forwarding and
      delivery of this bundle are to be transmitted.

   Creation Timestamp:  The creation timestamp comprises two unsigned
      integers that, together with the source node ID and (if the bundle
      is a fragment) the fragment offset and payload length, serve to
      identify the bundle.  See Section 4.2.7 for the definition of this
      field.

   Lifetime:  The Lifetime field is an unsigned integer that indicates
      the time at which the bundle's payload will no longer be useful,
      encoded as a number of milliseconds past the creation time.  (For
      high-rate deployments with very brief disruptions, fine-grained
      expression of bundle lifetime may be useful.)  When a bundle's age
      exceeds its lifetime, bundle nodes need no longer retain or
      forward the bundle; the bundle SHOULD be deleted from the network.

      If the asserted lifetime for a received bundle is so lengthy that
      retention of the bundle until its expiration time might degrade
      operation of the node at which the bundle is received, or if the
      BPA of that node determines that the bundle must be deleted in
      order to prevent network performance degradation (e.g., the bundle
      appears to be part of a denial-of-service attack), then that BPA
      MAY impose a temporary overriding lifetime of shorter duration;
      such an overriding lifetime SHALL NOT replace the lifetime
      asserted in the bundle but SHALL serve as the bundle's effective
      lifetime while the bundle resides at that node.  Procedures for
      imposing lifetime overrides are beyond the scope of this
      specification.

      For bundles originating at nodes that lack accurate clocks, it is
      recommended that bundle age be obtained from the Bundle Age
      extension block (see Section 4.4.2) rather than from the
      difference between current time and bundle creation time.  Bundle
      lifetime SHALL be represented as a CBOR unsigned integer item.

   Fragment offset:  If and only if the bundle processing control flags
      of this primary block indicate that the bundle is a fragment,
      fragment offset SHALL be present in the primary block.  Fragment
      offset SHALL be represented as a CBOR unsigned integer indicating
      the offset from the start of the original ADU at which the bytes
      comprising the payload of this bundle were located.

   Total Application Data Unit Length:  If and only if the bundle
      processing control flags of this primary block indicate that the
      bundle is a fragment, total application data unit length SHALL be
      present in the primary block.  Total application data unit length
      SHALL be represented as a CBOR unsigned integer indicating the
      total length of the original ADU of which this bundle's payload is
      a part.

   CRC:  A CRC SHALL be present in the primary block unless the bundle
      includes a BPSec Block Integrity Block [BPSEC] whose target is the
      primary block, in which case a CRC MAY be present in the primary
      block.  The length and nature of the CRC SHALL be as indicated by
      the CRC type.  The CRC SHALL be computed over the concatenation of
      all bytes (including CBOR "break" characters) of the primary block
      including the CRC field itself, which, for this purpose, SHALL be
      temporarily populated with all bytes set to zero.

4.3.2.  Canonical Bundle Block Format

   Every block other than the primary block (all such blocks are termed
   "canonical" blocks) SHALL be represented as a CBOR array; the number
   of elements in the array SHALL be 5 (if CRC type is zero) or 6
   (otherwise).

   The fields of every canonical block SHALL be as follows, listed in
   the order in which they MUST appear:

   Block type code:  An unsigned integer.  Bundle block type code 1
      indicates that the block is a Bundle Payload Block.  Other block
      type codes are described in Section 9.1.  Block type codes 192
      through 255 are not reserved and are available for private and/or
      experimental use.  All other block type code values are reserved
      for future use.

   Block number:  An unsigned integer as discussed in Section 4.1.  The
      block number SHALL be represented as a CBOR unsigned integer.

   Block processing control flags:  As discussed in Section 4.2.4.

   CRC type:  As discussed in Section 4.2.1.

   Block-type-specific data:  Represented as a single definite-length
      CBOR byte string, i.e., a CBOR byte string that is not of
      indefinite length.  For each type of block, the block-type-
      specific data byte string is the serialization, in a block-type-
      specific manner, of the data conveyed by that type of block;
      definitions of blocks are required to define the manner in which
      block-type-specific data are serialized within the block-type-
      specific data field.  For the Bundle Payload Block in particular
      (block type 1), the block-type-specific data field, termed the
      "payload", SHALL be an ADU, or some contiguous extent thereof,
      represented as a definite-length CBOR byte string.

   If and only if the value of the CRC type field of this block is
   non-zero:  A CRC.  If present, the length and nature of the CRC SHALL
      be as indicated by the CRC type and the CRC SHALL be computed over
      the concatenation of all bytes of the block (including CBOR
      "break" characters) including the CRC field itself, which, for
      this purpose, SHALL be temporarily populated with all bytes set to
      zero.

4.4.  Extension Blocks

   "Extension blocks" are all blocks other than the primary and payload
   blocks.  Three types of extension blocks are defined below.  All
   implementations of the Bundle Protocol specification (the present
   document) MUST include procedures for recognizing, parsing, and
   acting on, but not necessarily producing, these types of extension
   blocks.

   The specifications for additional types of extension blocks must
   indicate whether or not BP implementations conforming to those
   specifications must recognize, parse, act on, and/or produce blocks
   of those types.  As not all nodes will necessarily instantiate BP
   implementations that conform to those additional specifications, it
   is possible for a node to receive a bundle that includes extension
   blocks that the node cannot process.  The values of the block
   processing control flags indicate the action to be taken by the BPA
   when this is the case.

   No mandated procedure in this specification is unconditionally
   dependent on the absence or presence of any extension block.
   Therefore, any BPA MAY insert or remove any extension block in any
   bundle, subject to all mandates in the Bundle Protocol specification
   and all extension block specifications to which the node's BP
   implementation conforms.  Note that removal of an extension block
   will probably disable one or more elements of bundle processing that
   were intended by the BPA that inserted that block.  In particular,
   note that removal of an extension block that is one of the targets of
   a BPSec security block may render the bundle unverifiable.

   The following extension blocks are defined in the current document.

4.4.1.  Previous Node

   The Previous Node Block, block type 6, identifies the node that
   forwarded this bundle to the local node (i.e., to the node at which
   the bundle currently resides); its block-type-specific data is the
   node ID of that forwarder node.  That node ID SHALL conform to
   Section 4.2.5.2.  If the local node is the source of the bundle, then
   the bundle MUST NOT contain any Previous Node Block.  Otherwise, the
   bundle SHOULD contain one (1) occurrence of this type of block and
   MUST NOT contain more than one.

4.4.2.  Bundle Age

   The Bundle Age Block, block type 7, contains the number of
   milliseconds that have elapsed between the time the bundle was
   created and the time at which it was most recently forwarded.  It is
   intended for use by nodes lacking access to an accurate clock, to aid
   in determining the time at which a bundle's lifetime expires.  The
   block-type-specific data of this block is an unsigned integer
   containing the age of the bundle in milliseconds, which SHALL be
   represented as a CBOR unsigned integer item.  (The age of the bundle
   is the sum of all known intervals of the bundle's residence at
   forwarding nodes, up to the time at which the bundle was most
   recently forwarded, plus the summation of signal propagation time
   over all episodes of transmission between forwarding nodes.
   Determination of these values is an implementation matter.)  If the
   bundle's creation time is zero, then the bundle MUST contain exactly
   one (1) occurrence of this type of block; otherwise, the bundle MAY
   contain at most one (1) occurrence of this type of block.  A bundle
   MUST NOT contain multiple occurrences of the Bundle Age Block, as
   this could result in processing anomalies.

4.4.3.  Hop Count

   The Hop Count Block, block type 10, contains two unsigned integers:
   hop limit and hop count.  A "hop" is here defined as an occasion on
   which a bundle was forwarded from one node to another node.  The hop
   limit MUST be in the range 1 through 255.  The hop limit value SHOULD
   NOT be changed at any time after creation of the Hop Count Block; the
   hop count value SHOULD initially be zero and SHOULD be increased by 1
   on each hop.

   The Hop Count Block is mainly intended as a safety mechanism, a means
   of identifying bundles for removal from the network that can never be
   delivered due to a persistent forwarding error.  The hop count is
   particularly valuable as a defense against routing anomalies that
   might cause a bundle to be forwarded in a cyclical "ping-pong"
   fashion between two nodes.  When a bundle's hop count exceeds its hop
   limit, the bundle SHOULD be deleted for the reason "Hop limit
   exceeded", following the Bundle Deletion procedure defined in
   Section 5.10.

   Procedures for determining the appropriate hop limit for a bundle are
   beyond the scope of this specification.

   The block-type-specific data in a Hop Count Block SHALL be
   represented as a CBOR array comprising two items.  The first item of
   this array SHALL be the bundle's hop limit, represented as a CBOR
   unsigned integer.  The second item of this array SHALL be the
   bundle's hop count, represented as a CBOR unsigned integer.  A bundle
   MAY contain one occurrence of this type of block but MUST NOT contain
   more than one.

5.  Bundle Processing

   The bundle-processing procedures mandated in this section and in
   Section 6 govern the operation of the BPA and the application agent
   administrative element of each bundle node.  They are neither
   exhaustive nor exclusive.  Supplementary DTN protocol specifications
   (including, but not restricted to, Bundle Protocol Security [BPSEC])
   may augment, override, or supersede the mandates of this document.

5.1.  Generation of Administrative Records

   All transmission of bundles is in response to bundle transmission
   requests presented by nodes' application agents.  When required to
   "generate" an administrative record (such as a bundle status report),
   the BPA itself is responsible for causing a new bundle to be
   transmitted, conveying that record.  In concept, the BPA discharges
   this responsibility by directing the administrative element of the
   node's application agent to construct the record and request its
   transmission as detailed in Section 6.  In practice, the manner in
   which administrative record generation is accomplished is an
   implementation matter, provided the constraints noted in Section 6
   are observed.

   Status reports are relatively small bundles.  Moreover, even when the
   generation of status reports is enabled, the decision on whether or
   not to generate a requested status report is left to the discretion
   of the BPA.  Nonetheless, note that requesting status reports for any
   single bundle might easily result in the generation of (1 + (2
   *(N-1))) status report bundles, where N is the number of nodes on the
   path from the bundle's source to its destination, inclusive.  That
   is, the requesting of status reports for large numbers of bundles
   could result in an unacceptable increase in the bundle traffic in the
   network.  For this reason, the generation of status reports MUST be
   disabled by default and enabled only when the risk of excessive
   network traffic is deemed acceptable.  Mechanisms that could assist
   in assessing and mitigating this risk, such as pre-placed agreements
   authorizing the generation of status reports under specified
   circumstances, are beyond the scope of this specification.

   Notes on administrative record terminology:

   *  A "bundle reception status report" is a bundle status report with
      the "Reporting node received bundle" flag set to 1.

   *  A "bundle forwarding status report" is a bundle status report with
      the "Reporting node forwarded the bundle" flag set to 1.

   *  A "bundle delivery status report" is a bundle status report with
      the "Reporting node delivered the bundle" flag set to 1.

   *  A "bundle deletion status report" is a bundle status report with
      the "Reporting node deleted the bundle" flag set to 1.

5.2.  Bundle Transmission

   The steps in processing a bundle transmission request are as follows:

   Step 1:  Transmission of the bundle is initiated.  An outbound bundle
            MUST be created per the parameters of the bundle
            transmission request, with the retention constraint
            "Dispatch pending".  The source node ID of the bundle MUST
            be either (a) the null endpoint ID, indicating that the
            source of the bundle is anonymous or (b) the EID of a
            singleton endpoint whose only member is the node of which
            the BPA is a component.

   Step 2:  Processing proceeds from Step 1 of Section 5.4.

5.3.  Bundle Dispatching

   (Note that this procedure is initiated only following completion of
   Step 4 of Section 5.6.)

   The steps in dispatching a bundle are as follows:

   Step 1:  If the bundle's destination endpoint is an endpoint of which
            the node is a member, the Bundle Delivery procedure defined
            in Section 5.7 MUST be followed and, for the purposes of all
            subsequent processing of this bundle at this node, the
            node's membership in the bundle's destination endpoint SHALL
            be disavowed; specifically, even though the node is a member
            of the bundle's destination endpoint, the node SHALL NOT
            undertake to forward the bundle to itself in the course of
            performing the procedure described in Section 5.4.

   Step 2:  Processing proceeds from Step 1 of Section 5.4.

5.4.  Bundle Forwarding

   The steps in forwarding a bundle are as follows:

   Step 1:  The retention constraint "Forward pending" MUST be added to
            the bundle, and the bundle's "Dispatch pending" retention
            constraint MUST be removed.

   Step 2:  The BPA MUST determine whether or not forwarding is
            contraindicated (that is, rendered inadvisable) for any of
            the reasons listed in the IANA "Bundle Status Report Reason
            Codes" registry (see Section 9.5), whose initial contents
            are listed in Table 1.  In particular:

            *  The BPA MAY choose to either forward the bundle directly
               to its destination node(s) (if possible) or forward the
               bundle to some other node(s) for further forwarding.  The
               manner in which this decision is made may depend on the
               scheme name in the destination endpoint ID and/or on
               other state but in any case is beyond the scope of this
               document; one possible mechanism is described in [SABR].
               If the BPA elects to forward the bundle to some other
               node(s) for further forwarding but finds it impossible to
               select any node(s) to forward the bundle to, then
               forwarding is contraindicated.

            *  Provided the BPA succeeded in selecting the node or nodes
               to forward the bundle to, the BPA MUST subsequently
               select the CLA(s) whose services will enable the node to
               send the bundle to those nodes.  The manner in which
               specific appropriate CLAs are selected is beyond the
               scope of this document; the TCP CLA [TCPCL] MUST be
               implemented when some or all of the bundles forwarded by
               the BPA must be forwarded via the Internet but may not be
               appropriate for the forwarding of any particular bundle.
               If the agent finds it impossible to select any
               appropriate CLA(s) to use in forwarding this bundle, then
               forwarding is contraindicated.

   Step 3:  If forwarding of the bundle is determined to be
            contraindicated for any of the reasons listed in the IANA
            "Bundle Status Report Reason Codes" registry (see
            Section 9.5), then the Forwarding Contraindicated procedure
            defined in Section 5.4.1 MUST be followed; the remaining
            steps of this Bundle Forwarding procedure are skipped at
            this time.

   Step 4:  For each node selected for forwarding, the BPA MUST invoke
            the services of the selected CLA(s) in order to effect the
            sending of the bundle to that node.  Determining the time at
            which the BPA invokes CLA services is a BPA implementation
            matter.  Determining the time at which each CLA subsequently
            responds to this service invocation by sending the bundle is
            a CLA implementation matter.  Note that:

            *  If the bundle has a Previous Node Block, as defined in
               Section 4.4.1, then that block MUST be removed from the
               bundle before the bundle is forwarded.

            *  If the BPA is configured to attach Previous Node Blocks
               to forwarded bundles, then a Previous Node Block
               containing the node ID of the forwarding node MUST be
               inserted into the bundle before the bundle is forwarded.

            *  If the bundle has a Bundle Age Block, as defined in
               Section 4.4.2, then at the last possible moment before
               the CLA initiates conveyance of the bundle via the CL
               protocol the bundle age value MUST be increased by the
               difference between the current time and the time at which
               the bundle was received (or, if the local node is the
               source of the bundle, created).

   Step 5:  When all selected CLAs have informed the BPA that they have
            concluded their data-sending procedures with regard to this
            bundle, processing may depend on the results of those
            procedures.

   If completion of the data-sending procedures by all selected CLAs has
   not resulted in successful forwarding of the bundle (an
   implementation-specific determination that is beyond the scope of
   this specification), then the BPA MAY choose (in an implementation-
   specific manner, again beyond the scope of this specification) to
   initiate another attempt to forward the bundle.  In that event,
   processing proceeds from Step 4.  The minimum number of times a given
   node will initiate another forwarding attempt for any single bundle
   in this event (a number that may be zero) is a node configuration
   parameter that must be exposed to other nodes in the network to the
   extent that this is required by the operating environment.

   If completion of the data-sending procedures by all selected CLAs
   *HAS* resulted in successful forwarding of the bundle, or if it has
   not but the BPA does not choose to initiate another attempt to
   forward the bundle, then:

   *  If the "request reporting of bundle forwarding" flag in the
      bundle's status report request field is set to 1 and status
      reporting is enabled, then a bundle forwarding status report
      SHOULD be generated, destined for the bundle's report-to endpoint
      ID.  The reason code on this bundle forwarding status report MUST
      be "no additional information".

   *  If any applicable Bundle Protocol extensions mandate generation of
      status reports upon conclusion of convergence-layer data-sending
      procedures, all such status reports SHOULD be generated with
      extension-mandated reason codes.

   *  The bundle's "Forward pending" retention constraint MUST be
      removed.

5.4.1.  Forwarding Contraindicated

   The steps in responding to contraindication of forwarding are as
   follows:

   Step 1:  The BPA MUST determine whether or not to declare failure in
            forwarding the bundle.  Note: This decision is likely to be
            influenced by the reason for which forwarding is
            contraindicated.

   Step 2:  If forwarding failure is declared, then the Forwarding
            Failed procedure defined in Section 5.4.2 MUST be followed.

   Otherwise, when -- at some future time -- the forwarding of this
   bundle ceases to be contraindicated, processing proceeds from Step 4
   of Section 5.4.

5.4.2.  Forwarding Failed

   The steps in responding to a declaration of forwarding failure are as
   follows:

   Step 1:  The BPA MAY forward the bundle back to the node that sent
            it, as identified by the Previous Node Block, if present.
            This forwarding, if performed, SHALL be accomplished by
            performing Step 4 and Step 5 of Section 5.4 where the sole
            node selected for forwarding SHALL be the node that sent the
            bundle.

   Step 2:  If the bundle's destination endpoint is an endpoint of which
            the node is a member, then the bundle's "Forward pending"
            retention constraint MUST be removed.  Otherwise, the bundle
            MUST be deleted: the Bundle Deletion procedure defined in
            Section 5.10 MUST be followed, citing the reason for which
            forwarding was determined to be contraindicated.

5.5.  Bundle Expiration

   A bundle expires when the bundle's age exceeds its lifetime as
   specified in the primary bundle block or as overridden by the BPA.
   Bundle age MAY be determined by subtracting the bundle's creation
   timestamp time from the current time if (a) that timestamp time is
   not zero and (b) the local node's clock is known to be accurate;
   otherwise, bundle age MUST be obtained from the Bundle Age extension
   block.  Bundle expiration MAY occur at any point in the processing of
   a bundle.  When a bundle expires, the BPA MUST delete the bundle for
   the reason "Lifetime expired" (when the expired lifetime is the
   lifetime as specified in the primary block) or "Traffic pared" (when
   the expired lifetime is a lifetime override as imposed by the BPA):
   the Bundle Deletion procedure defined in Section 5.10 MUST be
   followed.

5.6.  Bundle Reception

   The steps in processing a bundle that has been received from another
   node are as follows:

   Step 1:  The retention constraint "Dispatch pending" MUST be added to
            the bundle.

   Step 2:  If the "request reporting of bundle reception" flag in the
            bundle's status report request field is set to 1 and status
            reporting is enabled, then a bundle reception status report
            with reason code "No additional information" SHOULD be
            generated, destined for the bundle's report-to endpoint ID.

   Step 3:  CRCs SHOULD be computed for every block of the bundle that
            has an attached CRC.  If any block of the bundle is
            malformed according to this specification (including
            syntactically invalid CBOR), or if any block has an attached
            CRC and the CRC computed for this block upon reception
            differs from that attached CRC, then the BPA MUST delete the
            bundle for the reason "Block unintelligible".  The Bundle
            Deletion procedure defined in Section 5.10 MUST be followed,
            and all remaining steps of the Bundle Reception procedure
            MUST be skipped.

   Step 4:  For each block in the bundle that is an extension block that
            the BPA cannot process:

            *  If the block processing control flags in that block
               indicate that a status report is requested in this event
               and if status reporting is enabled, then a bundle
               reception status report with reason code "Block
               unsupported" SHOULD be generated, destined for the
               bundle's report-to endpoint ID.

            *  If the block processing control flags in that block
               indicate that the bundle must be deleted in this event,
               then the BPA MUST delete the bundle for the reason "Block
               unsupported"; the Bundle Deletion procedure defined in
               Section 5.10 MUST be followed, and all remaining steps of
               the Bundle Reception procedure MUST be skipped.

            *  If the block processing control flags in that block do
               *NOT* indicate that the bundle must be deleted in this
               event but do indicate that the block must be discarded,
               then the BPA MUST remove this block from the bundle.

            *  If the block processing control flags in that block
               neither indicate that the bundle must be deleted nor
               indicate that the block must be discarded, then
               processing continues with the next extension block that
               the BPA cannot process, if any; otherwise, processing
               proceeds from Step 5.

   Step 5:  Processing proceeds from Step 1 of Section 5.3.

5.7.  Local Bundle Delivery

   The steps in processing a bundle that is destined for an endpoint of
   which this node is a member are as follows:

   Step 1:  If the received bundle is a fragment, the ADU Reassembly
            procedure described in Section 5.9 MUST be followed.  If
            this procedure results in reassembly of the entire original
            ADU, processing of the fragmentary bundle whose payload has
            been replaced by the reassembled ADU (whether this bundle or
            a previously received fragment) proceeds from Step 2;
            otherwise, the retention constraint "Reassembly pending"
            MUST be added to the bundle, and all remaining steps of this
            procedure MUST be skipped.

   Step 2:  Delivery depends on the state of the registration whose
            endpoint ID matches that of the destination of the bundle:

            *  An additional implementation-specific delivery deferral
               procedure MAY optionally be associated with the
               registration.

            *  If the registration is in the Active state, then the
               bundle MUST be delivered automatically as soon as it is
               the next bundle that is due for delivery according to the
               BPA's bundle delivery scheduling policy (an
               implementation matter).

            *  If the registration is in the Passive state, or if
               delivery of the bundle fails for some implementation-
               specific reason, then the registration's delivery failure
               action MUST be taken.  The delivery failure action MUST
               be one of the following:

               -  Defer delivery of the bundle subject to this
                  registration until (a) this bundle is the least
                  recently received of all bundles currently deliverable
                  subject to this registration and (b) either the
                  registration is polled or the registration is in the
                  Active state, and also perform any additional delivery
                  deferral procedure associated with the registration,
                  or

               -  Abandon delivery of the bundle subject to this
                  registration (as defined in Section 3.1).

   Step 3:  As soon as the bundle has been delivered, if the "request
            reporting of bundle delivery" flag in the bundle's status
            report request field is set to 1 and bundle status reporting
            is enabled, then a bundle delivery status report SHOULD be
            generated, destined for the bundle's report-to endpoint ID.
            Note that this status report only states that the payload
            has been delivered to the application agent, not that the
            application agent has processed that payload.

5.8.  Bundle Fragmentation

   It may at times be advantageous for BPAs to reduce the sizes of
   bundles in order to forward them.  This might be the case, for
   example, if a node to which a bundle is to be forwarded is accessible
   only via intermittent contacts and no upcoming contact is long enough
   to enable the forwarding of the entire bundle.

   The size of a bundle can be reduced by "fragmenting" the bundle.  To
   fragment a bundle whose payload is of size M is to replace it with
   two "fragments" -- new bundles with the same source node ID and
   creation timestamp as the original bundle -- whose payloads MUST be
   the first N and the last (M - N) bytes of the original bundle's
   payload, where 0 < N < M.

   Note that fragments are bundles and therefore may themselves be
   fragmented, so multiple episodes of fragmentation may in effect
   replace the original bundle with more than two fragments.  (However,
   there is only one "level" of fragmentation, as in IP fragmentation.)

   Any bundle whose primary block's bundle processing control flags do
   *NOT* indicate that it must not be fragmented MAY be fragmented at
   any time, for any purpose, at the discretion of the BPA.  *NOTE*,
   however, that some combinations of bundle fragmentation, replication,
   and routing might result in unexpected traffic patterns.

   Fragmentation SHALL be constrained as follows:

   *  The concatenation of the payloads of all fragments produced by
      fragmentation MUST always be identical to the payload of the
      fragmented bundle (that is, the bundle that is being fragmented).
      Note that the payloads of fragments resulting from different
      fragmentation episodes, in different parts of the network, may be
      overlapping subsets of the fragmented bundle's payload.

   *  The primary block of each fragment MUST differ from that of the
      fragmented bundle, in that the bundle processing control flags of
      the fragment MUST indicate that the bundle is a fragment and both
      fragment offset and total application data unit length must be
      provided.  Additionally, the CRC of the primary block of the
      fragmented bundle, if any, MUST be replaced in each fragment by a
      new CRC computed for the primary block of that fragment.

   *  The payload blocks of fragments will differ from that of the
      fragmented bundle as noted above.

   *  If the fragmented bundle is not a fragment or is the fragment with
      offset zero, then all extension blocks of the fragmented bundle
      MUST be replicated in the fragment whose offset is zero.

   *  Each of the fragmented bundle's extension blocks whose "Block must
      be replicated in every fragment" flag is set to 1 MUST be
      replicated in every fragment.

   *  Beyond these rules, rules for the replication of extension blocks
      in the fragments must be defined in the specifications for those
      extension block types.

5.9.  Application Data Unit Reassembly

   Note that the Bundle Fragmentation procedure described in Section 5.8
   may result in the replacement of a single original bundle with an
   arbitrarily large number of fragmentary bundles.  In order to be
   delivered at a destination node, the original bundle's payload must
   be reassembled from the payloads of those fragments.

   The "material extents" of a received fragment's payload are all
   continuous sequences of bytes in that payload that do not overlap
   with the material extents of the payloads of any previously received
   fragments with the same source node ID and creation timestamp.  If
   the concatenation -- as informed by fragment offsets and payload
   lengths -- of the material extents of the payloads of this fragment
   and all previously received fragments with the same source node ID
   and creation timestamp as this fragment forms a continuous byte array
   whose length is equal to the total application data unit length noted
   in the fragment's primary block, then:

   *  This byte array -- the reassembled ADU -- MUST replace the payload
      of that fragment whose material extents include the extent at
      offset zero.  Note that this will enable delivery of the
      reconstituted original bundle as described in Step 1 of
      Section 5.7.

   *  The "Reassembly pending" retention constraint MUST be removed from
      every other fragment with the same source node ID and creation
      timestamp as this fragment.

   Note: Reassembly of ADUs from fragments occurs at the nodes that are
   members of destination endpoints as necessary; an ADU MAY also be
   reassembled at some other node on the path to the destination.

5.10.  Bundle Deletion

   The steps in deleting a bundle are as follows:

   Step 1:  If the "request reporting of bundle deletion" flag in the
            bundle's status report request field is set to 1 and if
            status reporting is enabled, then a bundle deletion status
            report citing the reason for deletion SHOULD be generated,
            destined for the bundle's report-to endpoint ID.

   Step 2:  All of the bundle's retention constraints MUST be removed.

5.11.  Discarding a Bundle

   As soon as a bundle has no remaining retention constraints, it MAY be
   discarded, thereby releasing any persistent storage that may have
   been allocated to it.

5.12.  Canceling a Transmission

   When requested to cancel a specified transmission, where the bundle
   created upon initiation of the indicated transmission has not yet
   been discarded, the BPA MUST delete that bundle for the reason
   "Transmission canceled".  For this purpose, the procedure defined in
   Section 5.10 MUST be followed.

6.  Administrative Record Processing

6.1.  Administrative Records

   Administrative records are standard ADUs that are used in providing
   some of the features of the Bundle Protocol.  Bundle Protocol
   administrative record types are registered in the IANA "Bundle
   Administrative Record Types" registry [RFC5050]; of these, only
   administrative record type 1, "Bundle status report", is defined for
   BPv7 at this time.  Note that additional types of administrative
   records may be defined by supplementary DTN protocol specification
   documents.

   Every administrative record consists of:

   *  A record type code (an unsigned integer for which valid values are
      as defined below).

   *  Record content in type-specific format.

   Each BP administrative record SHALL be represented as a CBOR array
   comprising two items.

   The first item of the array SHALL be a record type code, which SHALL
   be represented as a CBOR unsigned integer.

   The second element of this array SHALL be the applicable CBOR
   encoding of the content of the record.  Details of the CBOR encoding
   of administrative record type 1 are provided below.  Details of the
   CBOR encoding of other types of administrative records are included
   in the specifications defining those records.

6.1.1.  Bundle Status Reports

   The transmission of "bundle status reports" under specified
   conditions is an option that can be invoked when transmission of a
   bundle is requested.  These reports are intended to provide
   information about how bundles are progressing through the system,
   including notices of receipt, forwarding, final delivery, and
   deletion.  They are transmitted to the report-to endpoints of
   bundles.

   Each bundle status report SHALL be represented as a CBOR array.  The
   number of elements in the array SHALL be either 6 (if the subject
   bundle is a fragment) or 4 (otherwise).

   The first element of the bundle status report SHALL be bundle status
   information represented as a CBOR array of at least four elements.
   The first four elements of the bundle status information shall
   provide information on the following four status assertions, in this
   order:

   *  Reporting node received bundle.

   *  Reporting node forwarded the bundle.

   *  Reporting node delivered the bundle.

   *  Reporting node deleted the bundle.

   Each element of the bundle status information SHALL be a bundle
   status item encoded as a CBOR array.

   The number of elements in each bundle status item SHALL be either 2
   (if the value of the first element of the bundle status item is 1 AND
   the "Report status time" flag was set to 1 in the bundle processing
   control flags of the bundle whose status is being reported) or 1
   (otherwise).

   The first element of each bundle status item SHALL be a status
   indicator, a Boolean value indicating whether or not the
   corresponding bundle status is asserted, encoded as a CBOR Boolean
   value.  If present, the second element of each bundle status item
   SHALL indicate the time (as reported by the local system clock; this
   is an implementation matter) at which the indicated status was
   asserted for this bundle, represented as a DTN time as described in
   Section 4.2.6.

   The second element of the bundle status report SHALL be the bundle
   status report reason code explaining the value of the status
   indicator, represented as a CBOR unsigned integer.  Valid status
   report reason codes are registered in the IANA "Bundle Status Report
   Reason Codes" subregistry in the "Bundle Protocol" registry (see
   Section 9.5).  The initial contents of that registry are listed in
   Table 1, but the list of status report reason codes provided here is
   neither exhaustive nor exclusive; supplementary DTN protocol
   specifications (including, but not restricted to, Bundle Protocol
   Security [BPSEC]) may define additional reason codes.

   +========+============================================+
   | Value  | Meaning                                    |
   +========+============================================+
   | 0      | No additional information.                 |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 1      | Lifetime expired.                          |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 2      | Forwarded over unidirectional link.        |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 3      | Transmission canceled.                     |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 4      | Depleted storage.                          |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 5      | Destination endpoint ID unavailable.       |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 6      | No known route to destination from here.   |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 7      | No timely contact with next node on route. |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 8      | Block unintelligible.                      |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 9      | Hop limit exceeded.                        |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 10     | Traffic pared (e.g., status reports).      |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 11     | Block unsupported.                         |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 17-254 | Unassigned                                 |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | 255    | Reserved                                   |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------+

             Table 1: Status Report Reason Codes

   The third element of the bundle status report SHALL be the source
   node ID identifying the source of the bundle whose status is being
   reported, represented as described in Section 4.2.5.1.1.

   The fourth element of the bundle status report SHALL be the creation
   timestamp of the bundle whose status is being reported, represented
   as described in Section 4.2.7.

   The fifth element of the bundle status report SHALL be present if and
   only if the bundle whose status is being reported contained a
   fragment offset.  If present, it SHALL be the subject bundle's
   fragment offset represented as a CBOR unsigned integer item.

   The sixth element of the bundle status report SHALL be present if and
   only if the bundle whose status is being reported contained a
   fragment offset.  If present, it SHALL be the length of the subject
   bundle's payload represented as a CBOR unsigned integer item.

   Note that the forwarding parameters (such as lifetime, applicable
   security measures, etc.) of the bundle whose status is being reported
   MAY be reflected in the parameters governing the forwarding of the
   bundle that conveys a status report, but this is an implementation
   matter.  Bundle Protocol deployment experience to date has not been
   sufficient to suggest any clear guidance on this topic.

6.2.  Generation of Administrative Records

   Whenever the application agent's administrative element is directed
   by the BPA to generate an administrative record, the following
   procedure must be followed:

   Step 1:  The administrative record must be constructed.  If the
            administrative record references a bundle and the referenced
            bundle is a fragment, the administrative record MUST contain
            the fragment offset and fragment length.

   Step 2:  A request for transmission of a bundle whose payload is this
            administrative record MUST be presented to the BPA.

7.  Services Required of the Convergence Layer

7.1.  The Convergence Layer

   The successful operation of the end-to-end Bundle Protocol depends on
   the operation of underlying protocols at what is termed the
   "convergence layer"; these protocols accomplish communication between
   nodes.  A wide variety of protocols may serve this purpose, so long
   as each CLA provides a defined minimal set of services to the BPA.
   This convergence-layer service specification enumerates those
   services.

7.2.  Summary of Convergence-Layer Services

   Each CLA is expected to provide the following services to the BPA:

   *  sending a bundle to a bundle node that is reachable via the
      convergence-layer protocol.

   *  notifying the BPA of the disposition of its data-sending
      procedures with regard to a bundle, upon concluding those
      procedures.

   *  delivering to the BPA a bundle that was sent by a bundle node via
      the convergence-layer protocol.

   The convergence-layer service interface specified here is neither
   exhaustive nor exclusive.  That is, supplementary DTN protocol
   specifications (including, but not restricted to, Bundle Protocol
   Security [BPSEC]) may expect CLAs that serve BP implementations
   conforming to those protocols to provide additional services such as
   reporting on the transmission and/or reception progress of individual
   bundles (at completion and/or incrementally), retransmitting data
   that were lost in transit, discarding bundle-conveying data units
   that the convergence-layer protocol determines are corrupt or
   inauthentic, or reporting on the integrity and/or authenticity of
   delivered bundles.

   In addition, the Bundle Protocol relies on the capabilities of
   protocols at the convergence layer to minimize congestion in the
   store-carry-forward overlay network.  The potentially long round-trip
   times characterizing delay-tolerant networks are incompatible with
   end-to-end, reactive congestion-control mechanisms, so convergence-
   layer protocols MUST provide rate limiting or congestion control.

8.  Security Considerations

   The Bundle Protocol security architecture and the available security
   services are specified in an accompanying document, the Bundle
   Protocol Security (BPSec) specification [BPSEC].  Whenever Bundle
   Protocol security services (as opposed to the security services
   provided by overlying application protocols or underlying
   convergence-layer protocols) are required, those services SHALL be
   provided by BPSec rather than by some other mechanism with the same
   or similar scope.

   A Bundle Protocol Agent (BPA) that sources, cryptographically
   verifies, and/or accepts a bundle MUST implement support for BPSec.
   Use of BPSec for any single bundle is optional.

   The BPSec extensions to the Bundle Protocol enable each block of a
   bundle (other than a BPSec extension block) to be individually
   authenticated by a signature block (Block Integrity Block, or BIB)
   and also enable each block of a bundle other than the primary block
   (and the BPSec extension blocks themselves) to be individually
   encrypted by a Block Confidentiality Block (BCB).

   Because the security mechanisms are extension blocks that are
   themselves inserted into the bundle, the protections they afford
   apply while the bundle is at rest, awaiting transmission at the next
   forwarding opportunity, as well as in transit.

   Additionally, convergence-layer protocols that ensure authenticity of
   communication between adjacent nodes in a BP network topology SHOULD
   be used where available, to minimize the ability of unauthenticated
   nodes to introduce inauthentic traffic into the network.
   Convergence-layer protocols that ensure confidentiality of
   communication between adjacent nodes in a BP network topology SHOULD
   also be used where available, to minimize exposure of the bundle's
   primary block and other cleartext blocks, thereby offering some
   defense against traffic analysis.

   In order to provide authenticity and/or confidentiality of
   communication between BP nodes, the convergence-layer protocol
   requires as input the name or names of the expected communication
   peer(s).  These must be supplied by the CLA.  Details of the means by
   which the CLA determines which CL endpoint name(s) must be provided
   to the CL protocol are out of scope for this specification.  Note,
   though, that when the CL endpoint names are a function of BP endpoint
   IDs, the correctness and authenticity of that mapping will be vital
   to the overall security properties that the CL provides to the
   system.

   Note that, while the primary block must remain in the clear for
   routing purposes, the Bundle Protocol could be protected against
   traffic analysis to some extent by using bundle-in-bundle
   encapsulation [BIBE] to tunnel bundles to a safe forward distribution
   point: the encapsulated bundle could form the payload of an
   encapsulating bundle, and that payload block could be encrypted by a
   BCB.

   Note that the generation of bundle status reports is disabled by
   default because malicious initiation of bundle status reporting could
   result in the transmission of extremely large numbers of bundles,
   effecting a denial-of-service attack.  Imposing bundle lifetime
   overrides would constitute one defense against such an attack.

   Note also that the reception of large numbers of fragmentary bundles
   with very long lifetimes could constitute a denial-of-service attack,
   occupying storage while pending reassembly that will never occur.
   Imposing bundle lifetime overrides would, again, constitute one
   defense against such an attack.

   This protocol makes use of absolute timestamps for several purposes.
   Provisions are included for nodes without accurate clocks to retain
   most of the protocol functionality, but nodes that are unaware that
   their clock is inaccurate may exhibit unexpected behavior.

9.  IANA Considerations

   The Bundle Protocol includes fields requiring registries managed by
   IANA.

9.1.  Bundle Block Types

   The "Bundle Block Types" subregistry in the "Bundle Protocol"
   registry has been augmented by adding a column identifying the
   version of the Bundle Protocol (Bundle Protocol Version) that applies
   to the values.  IANA has added the following values, as described in
   Section 4.3.1, to the "Bundle Block Types" registry with a value of
   "7" for the Bundle Protocol Version.  IANA has set the Bundle
   Protocol Version to "6" or "6,7" for preexisting values in the
   "Bundle Block Types" registry, as shown below.

   +=================+=========+=========================+===========+
   | Bundle Protocol | Value   | Description             | Reference |
   | Version         |         |                         |           |
   +=================+=========+=========================+===========+
   | none            | 0       | Reserved                | [RFC6255] |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 1       | Bundle Payload Block    | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |         |                         | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 2       | Bundle Authentication   | [RFC6257] |
   |                 |         | Block                   |           |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 3       | Payload Integrity Block | [RFC6257] |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 4       | Payload Confidentiality | [RFC6257] |
   |                 |         | Block                   |           |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 5       | Previous-Hop Insertion  | [RFC6259] |
   |                 |         | Block                   |           |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 7               | 6       | Previous node           | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |         | (proximate sender)      |           |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 7               | 7       | Bundle age (in          | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |         | milliseconds)           |           |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 8       | Metadata Extension      | [RFC6258] |
   |                 |         | Block                   |           |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 9       | Extension Security      | [RFC6257] |
   |                 |         | Block                   |           |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 7               | 10      | Hop count (#prior xmit  | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |         | attempts)               |           |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 7               | 11-191  | Unassigned              |           |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 192-255 | Reserved for Private    | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |         | and/or Experimental Use | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+---------+-------------------------+-----------+

                  Table 2: "Bundle Block Types" Registry

9.2.  Primary Bundle Protocol Version

   IANA has added the following value to the "Primary Bundle Protocol
   Version" subregistry in the "Bundle Protocol" registry.

   +=======+=============+===========+
   | Value | Description | Reference |
   +=======+=============+===========+
   | 7     | Assigned    | [RFC9171] |
   +-------+-------------+-----------+

         Table 3: "Primary Bundle
        Protocol Version" Registry

   Values 8-255 (rather than 7-255) are now Unassigned.

9.3.  Bundle Processing Control Flags

   The "Bundle Processing Control Flags" subregistry in the "Bundle
   Protocol" registry has been augmented by adding a column identifying
   the version of the Bundle Protocol (Bundle Protocol Version) that
   applies to the new values.  IANA has added the following values, as
   described in Section 4.2.3, to the "Bundle Processing Control Flags"
   registry with a value of "7" for the Bundle Protocol Version.  IANA
   has set the Bundle Protocol Version to the value "6" or "6,7" for
   preexisting values in the "Bundle Processing Control Flags" registry,
   as shown below.

   +=================+=================+===================+===========+
   | Bundle Protocol | Bit Position    | Description       | Reference |
   | Version         | (right to       |                   |           |
   |                 | left)           |                   |           |
   +=================+=================+===================+===========+
   | 6,7             | 0               | Bundle is a       | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | fragment          | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 1               | ADU is an         | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | administrative    | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |                 | record            |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 2               | Bundle must not   | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | be fragmented     | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 3               | Custody transfer  | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | is requested      |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 4               | Destination       | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | endpoint is a     |           |
   |                 |                 | singleton         |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 5               | Acknowledgement   | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | by application is | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |                 | requested         |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 7               | 6               | Status time       | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |                 | requested in      |           |
   |                 |                 | reports           |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 7-8             | Class of service: | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | priority          |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 9-13            | Class of service: | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | reserved          |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 14              | Request reporting | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | of bundle         | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |                 | reception         |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 15              | Request reporting | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | of custody        |           |
   |                 |                 | acceptance        |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 16              | Request reporting | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | of bundle         | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |                 | forwarding        |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 17              | Request reporting | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | of bundle         | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |                 | delivery          |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 18              | Request reporting | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 | of bundle         | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |                 | deletion          |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 19              | Reserved          | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 |                   | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 20              | Reserved          | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |                 |                   | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+
   |                 | 21-63           | Unassigned        |           |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------+

            Table 4: "Bundle Processing Control Flags" Registry

9.4.  Block Processing Control Flags

   The "Block Processing Control Flags" subregistry in the "Bundle
   Protocol" registry has been augmented by adding a column identifying
   the version of the Bundle Protocol (Bundle Protocol Version) that
   applies to the related BP version.  IANA has set the Bundle Protocol
   Version to the value "6" or "6,7" for preexisting values in the
   "Bundle Processing Control Flags" registry, as shown below.

   +=================+==============+====================+===========+
   | Bundle Protocol | Bit Position | Description        | Reference |
   | Version         | (right to    |                    |           |
   |                 | left)        |                    |           |
   +=================+==============+====================+===========+
   | 6,7             | 0            | Block must be      | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |              | replicated in      | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |              | every fragment     |           |
   +-----------------+--------------+--------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 1            | Transmit status    | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |              | report if block    | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |              | can't be processed |           |
   +-----------------+--------------+--------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 2            | Delete bundle if   | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |              | block can't be     | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |              | processed          |           |
   +-----------------+--------------+--------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 3            | Last block         | [RFC5050] |
   +-----------------+--------------+--------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 4            | Discard block if   | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |              | it can't be        | [RFC9171] |
   |                 |              | processed          |           |
   +-----------------+--------------+--------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 5            | Block was          | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |              | forwarded without  |           |
   |                 |              | being processed    |           |
   +-----------------+--------------+--------------------+-----------+
   | 6               | 6            | Block contains an  | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |              | EID-reference      |           |
   |                 |              | field              |           |
   +-----------------+--------------+--------------------+-----------+
   |                 | 7-63         | Unassigned         |           |
   +-----------------+--------------+--------------------+-----------+

            Table 5: "Block Processing Control Flags" Registry

9.5.  Bundle Status Report Reason Codes

   The "Bundle Status Report Reason Codes" subregistry in the "Bundle
   Protocol" registry has been augmented by adding a column identifying
   the version of the Bundle Protocol (Bundle Protocol Version) that
   applies to the new values.  IANA has added the following values, as
   described in Section 6.1.1, to the "Bundle Status Report Reason
   Codes" registry with a value of "7" for the Bundle Protocol Version.
   IANA has set the Bundle Protocol Version to the value "6,7" for
   preexisting values in the "Bundle Status Report Reason Codes"
   registry, as shown below.

   +=================+========+========================+===========+
   | Bundle Protocol | Value  | Description            | Reference |
   | Version         |        |                        |           |
   +=================+========+========================+===========+
   | 6,7             | 0      | No additional          | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |        | information            | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 1      | Lifetime expired       | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |        |                        | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 2      | Forwarded over         | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |        | unidirectional link    | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 3      | Transmission canceled  | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |        |                        | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 4      | Depleted storage       | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |        |                        | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 5      | Destination endpoint   | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |        | ID unavailable         | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 6      | No known route to      | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |        | destination from here  | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 7      | No timely contact with | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |        | next node on route     | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 8      | Block unintelligible   | [RFC5050] |
   |                 |        |                        | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 7               | 9      | Hop limit exceeded     | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 7               | 10     | Traffic pared          | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 7               | 11     | Block unsupported      | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   |                 | 17-254 | Unassigned             |           |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+
   | 6,7             | 255    | Reserved               | [RFC6255] |
   |                 |        |                        | [RFC9171] |
   +-----------------+--------+------------------------+-----------+

         Table 6: "Bundle Status Report Reason Codes" Registry

9.6.  Bundle Protocol URI Scheme Types

   The Bundle Protocol has a URI scheme type field -- an unsigned
   integer of indefinite length -- for which IANA has created, and will
   maintain, a new "Bundle Protocol URI Scheme Types" subregistry in the
   "Bundle Protocol" registry.  The "Bundle Protocol URI Scheme Types"
   registry governs a namespace of unsigned integers.  Initial values
   for the "Bundle Protocol URI Scheme Types" registry are given below.

   The registration policy for this registry is Standards Action
   [RFC8126].  The allocation should only be granted for a Standards
   Track RFC approved by the IESG.

   The range of values is provided as unsigned integers.

   Each assignment consists of a URI scheme type name and its associated
   description, a reference to the document that defines the URI scheme,
   and a reference to the document that defines the use of this URI
   scheme in BP endpoint IDs (including the CBOR encoding of those
   endpoint IDs in transmitted bundles).

   +===========+==============+================+================+
   | Value     | Description  | BP Utilization | URI Definition |
   |           |              | Reference      | Reference      |
   +===========+==============+================+================+
   | 0         | Reserved     | n/a            |                |
   +-----------+--------------+----------------+----------------+
   | 1         | dtn          | [RFC9171]      | [RFC9171]      |
   +-----------+--------------+----------------+----------------+
   | 2         | ipn          | [RFC9171]      | [RFC6260]      |
   |           |              |                | [RFC9171]      |
   +-----------+--------------+----------------+----------------+
   | 3-254     | Unassigned   | n/a            |                |
   +-----------+--------------+----------------+----------------+
   | 255-65535 | Reserved     | n/a            |                |
   +-----------+--------------+----------------+----------------+
   | >65535    | Reserved for | n/a            |                |
   |           | Private Use  |                |                |
   +-----------+--------------+----------------+----------------+

        Table 7: "Bundle Protocol URI Scheme Types" Registry

9.7.  dtn URI Scheme

   In the "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Schemes" (uri-schemes)
   registry, IANA has updated the registration of the URI scheme with
   the string "dtn" as the scheme name, as follows:

   URI scheme name:  "dtn"

   Status:  Permanent

   Applications and/or protocols that use this URI scheme name:  The
      Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP).

   Contact:  Scott Burleigh <sburleig.sb@gmail.com>

   Change controller:  IETF (iesg@ietf.org)

   Reference:  [RFC9171]

9.8.  ipn URI Scheme

   In the "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Schemes" (uri-schemes)
   registry, IANA has updated the registration of the URI scheme with
   the string "ipn" as the scheme name, originally documented in RFC
   6260 [RFC6260], as follows.

   URI scheme name:  "ipn"

   Status:  Permanent

   Applications and/or protocols that use this URI scheme name:  The
      Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP).

   Contact:  Scott Burleigh <sburleig.sb@gmail.com>

   Change controller:  IETF (iesg@ietf.org)

   Reference:  [RFC9171]

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [BPSEC]    Birrane, III, E. and K. McKeever, "Bundle Protocol
              Security (BPSec)", RFC 9172, DOI 10.17487/RFC9172, January
              2022, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9172>.

   [CRC16]    ITU-T, "X.25: Interface between Data Terminal Equipment
              (DTE) and Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE) for
              terminals operating in the packet mode and connected to
              public data networks by dedicated circuit", p. 9,
              Section 2.2.7.4, ITU-T Recommendation X.25, October 1996,
              <https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-X.25-199610-I/>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4960]  Stewart, R., Ed., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol",
              RFC 4960, DOI 10.17487/RFC4960, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4960>.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5234>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8949]  Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object
              Representation (CBOR)", STD 94, RFC 8949,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8949, December 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8949>.

   [SABR]     Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, "Schedule-
              Aware Bundle Routing", CCSDS Recommended
              Standard 734.3-B-1, July 2019,
              <https://public.ccsds.org/Pubs/734x3b1.pdf>.

   [TCPCL]    Sipos, B., Demmer, M., Ott, J., and S. Perreault, "Delay-
              Tolerant Networking TCP Convergence-Layer Protocol Version
              4", RFC 9174, DOI 10.17487/RFC9174, January 2022,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9174>.

   [URI]      Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [URIREG]   Thaler, D., Ed., Hansen, T., and T. Hardie, "Guidelines
              and Registration Procedures for URI Schemes", BCP 35,
              RFC 7595, DOI 10.17487/RFC7595, June 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7595>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [ARCH]     Cerf, V., Burleigh, S., Hooke, A., Torgerson, L., Durst,
              R., Scott, K., Fall, K., and H. Weiss, "Delay-Tolerant
              Networking Architecture", RFC 4838, DOI 10.17487/RFC4838,
              April 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4838>.

   [BIBE]     Burleigh, S., "Bundle-in-Bundle Encapsulation", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-dtn-bibect-03, 18
              February 2020, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/
              draft-ietf-dtn-bibect-03>.

   [RFC3987]  Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, "Internationalized Resource
              Identifiers (IRIs)", RFC 3987, DOI 10.17487/RFC3987,
              January 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3987>.

   [RFC5050]  Scott, K. and S. Burleigh, "Bundle Protocol
              Specification", RFC 5050, DOI 10.17487/RFC5050, November
              2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5050>.

   [RFC6255]  Blanchet, M., "Delay-Tolerant Networking Bundle Protocol
              IANA Registries", RFC 6255, DOI 10.17487/RFC6255, May
              2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6255>.

   [RFC6257]  Symington, S., Farrell, S., Weiss, H., and P. Lovell,
              "Bundle Security Protocol Specification", RFC 6257,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6257, May 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6257>.

   [RFC6258]  Symington, S., "Delay-Tolerant Networking Metadata
              Extension Block", RFC 6258, DOI 10.17487/RFC6258, May
              2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6258>.

   [RFC6259]  Symington, S., "Delay-Tolerant Networking Previous-Hop
              Insertion Block", RFC 6259, DOI 10.17487/RFC6259, May
              2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6259>.

   [RFC6260]  Burleigh, S., "Compressed Bundle Header Encoding (CBHE)",
              RFC 6260, DOI 10.17487/RFC6260, May 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6260>.

   [RFC7143]  Chadalapaka, M., Satran, J., Meth, K., and D. Black,
              "Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) Protocol
              (Consolidated)", RFC 7143, DOI 10.17487/RFC7143, April
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7143>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [SIGC]     Fall, K., "A Delay-Tolerant Network Architecture for
              Challenged Internets", SIGCOMM 2003,
              DOI 10.1145/863955.863960, August 2003,
              <https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/863955.863960>.

Appendix A.  Significant Changes from RFC 5050

   This document makes the following significant changes from RFC 5050:

   *  Clarifies the difference between transmission and forwarding.

   *  Migrates custody transfer to the bundle-in-bundle encapsulation
      specification [BIBE].

   *  Introduces the concept of "node ID" as functionally distinct from
      endpoint ID, while having the same syntax.

   *  Restructures primary block, making it immutable.  Adds optional
      CRC.

   *  Adds optional CRCs to non-primary blocks.

   *  Adds block ID number to canonical block format (to support BPSec).

   *  Adds definition of Bundle Age extension block.

   *  Adds definition of Previous Node extension block.

   *  Adds definition of Hop Count extension block.

   *  Removes Quality of Service markings.

   *  Changes from Self-Delimiting Numeric Values (SDNVs) to CBOR
      encoding.

   *  Adds lifetime overrides.

   *  Clarifies that time values are denominated in milliseconds, not
      seconds.

Appendix B.  CDDL Expression

   For informational purposes, Carsten Bormann and Brian Sipos have
   kindly provided an expression of the Bundle Protocol specification in
   the Concise Data Definition Language (CDDL).  That CDDL expression is
   presented below.  Note that wherever the CDDL expression is in
   disagreement with the textual representation of the BP specification
   presented in the earlier sections of this document, the textual
   representation rules.

      bpv7_start = bundle / #6.55799(bundle)

      ; Times before 2000 are invalid

      dtn-time = uint

      ; CRC enumerated type

      crc-type = &(

        crc-none: 0,

        crc-16bit: 1,

        crc-32bit: 2

      )

      ; Either 16-bit or 32-bit

      crc-value = (bstr .size 2) / (bstr .size 4)

      creation-timestamp = [

        dtn-time, ; absolute time of creation

        sequence: uint ; sequence within the time

      ]

      eid = $eid .within eid-structure

      eid-structure = [

        uri-code: uint,

        SSP: any

      ]

      $eid /= [

        uri-code: 1,

        SSP: (tstr / 0)

      ]

      $eid /= [

        uri-code: 2,

        SSP: [

          nodenum: uint,

          servicenum: uint

        ]

      ]

      ; The root bundle array

      bundle = [primary-block, *extension-block, payload-block]

      primary-block = [

        version: 7,

        bundle-control-flags,

        crc-type,

        destination: eid,

        source-node: eid,

        report-to: eid,

        creation-timestamp,

        lifetime: uint,

        ? (

          fragment-offset: uint,

          total-application-data-length: uint

        ),

        ? crc-value,

      ]

      bundle-control-flags = uint .bits bundleflagbits

      bundleflagbits = &(

        reserved: 20,

        reserved: 19,

        bundle-deletion-status-reports-are-requested: 18,

        bundle-delivery-status-reports-are-requested: 17,

        bundle-forwarding-status-reports-are-requested: 16,

        reserved: 15,

        bundle-reception-status-reports-are-requested: 14,

        reserved: 13,

        reserved: 12,

        reserved: 11,

        reserved: 10,

        reserved: 9,

        reserved: 8,

        reserved: 7,

        status-time-is-requested-in-all-status-reports: 6,

        user-application-acknowledgement-is-requested: 5,

        reserved: 4,

        reserved: 3,

        bundle-must-not-be-fragmented: 2,

        payload-is-an-administrative-record: 1,

        bundle-is-a-fragment: 0

      )

      ; Abstract shared structure of all non-primary blocks

      canonical-block-structure = [

        block-type-code: uint,

        block-number: uint,

        block-control-flags,

        crc-type,

        ; Each block type defines the content within the byte string

        block-type-specific-data,

        ? crc-value

      ]

      block-control-flags = uint .bits blockflagbits

      blockflagbits = &(

        reserved: 7,

        reserved: 6,

        reserved: 5,

        block-must-be-removed-from-bundle-if-it-cannot-be-processed: 4,

        reserved: 3,

        bundle-must-be-deleted-if-block-cannot-be-processed: 2,

        status-report-must-be-transmitted-if-block-cannot-be-processed:
        1,

        block-must-be-replicated-in-every-fragment: 0

      )

      block-type-specific-data = bstr / #6.24(bstr)

      ; Actual CBOR data embedded in a byte string, with optional tag to
      indicate so.

      ; Additional plain bstr allows ciphertext data.

      embedded-cbor<Item> = (bstr .cbor Item) / #6.24(bstr .cbor Item) /
      bstr

      ; Extension block type, which does not specialize other than the
      code/number

      extension-block =
      $extension-block .within canonical-block-structure

      ; Generic shared structure of all non-primary blocks

      extension-block-use<CodeValue, BlockData> = [

        block-type-code: CodeValue,

        block-number: (uint .gt 1),

        block-control-flags,

        crc-type,

        BlockData,

        ? crc-value

      ]

      ; Payload block type

      payload-block = payload-block-structure .within canonical-block-
      structure

      payload-block-structure = [

        block-type-code: 1,

        block-number: 1,

        block-control-flags,

        crc-type,

        $payload-block-data,

        ? crc-value

      ]

      ; Arbitrary payload data, including non-CBOR byte string

      $payload-block-data /= block-type-specific-data

      ; Administrative record as a payload data specialization

      $payload-block-data /= embedded-cbor<admin-record>

      admin-record = $admin-record .within admin-record-structure

      admin-record-structure = [

        record-type-code: uint,

        record-content: any

      ]

      ; Only one defined record type

      $admin-record /= [1, status-record-content]

      status-record-content = [

        bundle-status-information,

        status-report-reason-code: uint,

        source-node-eid: eid,

        subject-creation-timestamp: creation-timestamp,

        ? (

          subject-payload-offset: uint,

          subject-payload-length: uint

        )

      ]

      bundle-status-information = [

        reporting-node-received-bundle: status-info-content,

        reporting-node-forwarded-bundle: status-info-content,

        reporting-node-delivered-bundle: status-info-content,

        reporting-node-deleted-bundle: status-info-content

      ]

      status-info-content = [

        status-indicator: bool,

        ? timestamp: dtn-time

      ]

      ; Previous Node extension block

      $extension-block /=

        extension-block-use<6, embedded-cbor<ext-data-previous-node>>

      ext-data-previous-node = eid

      ; Bundle Age extension block

      $extension-block /=

        extension-block-use<7, embedded-cbor<ext-data-bundle-age>>

      ext-data-bundle-age = uint

      ; Hop Count extension block

      $extension-block /=

        extension-block-use<10, embedded-cbor<ext-data-hop-count>>

      ext-data-hop-count = [

        hop-limit: uint,

        hop-count: uint

      ]

Acknowledgments

   This work is freely adapted from RFC 5050, which was an effort of the
   Delay-Tolerant Networking Research Group.  The following DTNRG
   participants contributed significant technical material and/or inputs
   to that document: Dr. Vinton Cerf of Google; Scott Burleigh, Adrian
   Hooke, and Leigh Torgerson of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Michael
   Demmer of the University of California at Berkeley; Robert Durst,
   Keith Scott, and Susan Symington of The MITRE Corporation; Kevin Fall
   of Carnegie Mellon University; Stephen Farrell of Trinity College
   Dublin; Howard Weiss and Peter Lovell of SPARTA, Inc.; and Manikantan
   Ramadas of Ohio University.

   Scott Burleigh would like to thank the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
   California Institute of Technology, for its generous and sustained
   support of this work.

Authors' Addresses

   Scott Burleigh
   IPNGROUP
   1435 Woodhurst Blvd.
   McLean, VA 22102
   United States of America

   Email: sburleig.sb@gmail.com

   Kevin Fall
   Roland Computing Services
   3871 Piedmont Ave. Suite 8
   Oakland, CA 94611
   United States of America

   Email: kfall+rcs@kfall.com

   Edward J. Birrane, III
   Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
   11100 Johns Hopkins Rd
   Laurel, MD 20723
   United States of America

   Phone: +1 443 778 7423
   Email: Edward.Birrane@jhuapl.edu