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YANG Modules Describing Capabilities for Systems and Datastore Update Notifications
RFC 9196

Document Type RFC - Proposed Standard (February 2022) Errata
Authors Balázs Lengyel , Alexander Clemm , Benoît Claise
Last updated 2022-12-06
Replaces draft-lengyel-netconf-notification-capabilities
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Formats
Yang Validation 6 errors, 11 warnings
Reviews
Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication
Document shepherd Kent Watsen
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2021-05-10
IESG IESG state RFC 9196 (Proposed Standard)
Action Holders
(None)
Consensus boilerplate Yes
Telechat date (None)
Responsible AD Robert Wilton
Send notices to Kent Watsen <kent+ietf@watsen.net>
IANA IANA review state Version Changed - Review Needed
IANA action state RFC-Ed-Ack
IANA expert review state Reviews assigned
RFC 9196


Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        B. Lengyel
Request for Comments: 9196                                      Ericsson
Category: Standards Track                                       A. Clemm
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                Futurewei
                                                               B. Claise
                                                                  Huawei
                                                           February 2022

 YANG Modules Describing Capabilities for Systems and Datastore Update
                             Notifications

Abstract

   This document defines two YANG modules, "ietf-system-capabilities"
   and "ietf-notification-capabilities".

   The module "ietf-system-capabilities" provides a placeholder
   structure that can be used to discover YANG-related system
   capabilities for servers.  The module can be used to report
   capability information from the server at runtime or at
   implementation time by making use of the YANG instance data file
   format.

   The module "ietf-notification-capabilities" augments "ietf-system-
   capabilities" to specify capabilities related to "Subscription to
   YANG Notifications for Datastore Updates" (RFC 8641).

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9196.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Revised BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the
   Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described
   in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  Terminology
   2.  Providing System Capability Information
   3.  Providing YANG-Push Notification Capabilities Information
   4.  System Capabilities Model
     4.1.  Tree Diagram
     4.2.  YANG Module
   5.  Notification Capabilities Model
     5.1.  Tree Diagram
     5.2.  YANG Module
   6.  Security Considerations
   7.  IANA Considerations
     7.1.  The IETF XML Registry
     7.2.  The YANG Module Names Registry
   8.  References
     8.1.  Normative References
     8.2.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  Instance Data Example #1
   Appendix B.  Instance Data Example #2
   Acknowledgments
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   Servers and/or publishers often have capabilities, which can be
   represented by values that designate operational behavior, that need
   to be conveyed to clients.  The YANG modules that are defined in this
   document facilitate this.

   There is a need to publish this capability information as it is part
   of the API contract between the server and client.  Examples include
   the maximum size of data that can be stored or transferred,
   information about counters (whether a node supports "on-change"
   telemetry), etc.  Such capabilities are often dependent on a vendor's
   implementation or the available resources at deployment.  Many such
   capabilities are specific to the complete system, individual YANG
   datastores [RFC8342], specific parts of the YANG schema, or even
   individual data nodes.  It is a goal of this document to provide a
   common way to represent such capabilities in a format that is:

   *  vendor independent,

   *  machine readable, and

   *  available in an identical format both at implementation time and
      at runtime.

   Implementation-time information is needed by Network Management
   System (NMS) implementers.  An NMS implementation that supports
   notifications needs information about a system's capability so it can
   send "on-change" notifications.  If the information is not documented
   in a way that is readily available to the NMS designer, but only as
   instance data from the network node once it is deployed, the NMS
   implementation will be delayed because it has to wait for the network
   node to be ready.  In addition, the assumption that all NMS
   implementers will have a correctly configured network node available
   from which to retrieve data is an expensive proposition and may not
   always hold.  (An NMS may need to be able to handle many dozens of
   network node types.)  Often, a fully functional NMS is a requirement
   for introducing a new network node type into a network, so delaying
   NMS readiness effectively also delays the time at which a new network
   node type can be introduced into the network.

   Implementation-time information is needed by system integrators.
   When introducing a network node type into their network, operators
   often need to integrate the node type into their own management
   system.  The NMS may have management functions that depend on "on-
   change" notifications.  The network operators need to plan their
   management practices and NMS implementation before they decide to buy
   the specific network node type.  Moreover, the decision to buy the
   node type sometimes depends on these management possibilities.

   Runtime capability information is needed:

   *  for any "purely model-driven" application, e.g., a NETCONF
      browser.  Such applications depend on reading models and
      capabilities at runtime to support all the publisher's available
      functionality.

   *  in case the capability might change during runtime, e.g., due to
      licensing, hardware constraints, etc.

   *  to check that that capability information provided earlier, at
      implementation time, is what the publisher has implemented.

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   The terms "YANG-Push", "on-change subscription", and "periodic
   subscription" are used as defined in [RFC8641].

   The terms "subscriber", "publisher", and "receiver" are used as
   defined in [RFC8639].

   The term "server" is used as defined in [RFC8342].

   The terms "YANG instance data file format", "instance data", and
   "instance data set" are used as defined in [RFC9195].

   In addition, this document defines the following terms:

   Implementation-time information:  Information about the server's
      behavior that is made available during the implementation of the
      server, available from a source other than a running server.

   Runtime information:  Information about the server's behavior that is
      available from the running server via management protocols such as
      NETCONF [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040].

2.  Providing System Capability Information

   Capability information is represented by instance data based on one
   or more "capability-defining YANG modules".  This allows a user to
   discover capabilities both at implementation time and at runtime.

   For the implementation-time use case:  Capabilities SHOULD be
      provided by the implementer as YANG instance data files complying
      with [RFC9195].  When provided, the file MUST already be available
      at implementation time and retrievable in a way that does not
      depend on a live network node, e.g., downloading from a product
      website.

   For the runtime use case:  Capabilities SHOULD be available via
      NETCONF [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040] from the live server
      (implementing the publisher) during runtime.  Implementations that
      support changing these capabilities at runtime SHOULD support "on-
      change" notifications about the system-capabilities container.

   The module "ietf-system-capabilities" provides a placeholder
   structure to be used to specify any YANG-related system capability.

   The module "ietf-notification-capabilities" is defined to allow a
   publisher to specify capabilities related to "Subscription to YANG
   Notifications for Datastore Updates" [RFC8641], also known as YANG-
   Push, augmenting "ietf-system-capabilities".

   The YANG data models in this document conform to the Network
   Management Datastore Architecture (NMDA) defined in [RFC8342].

3.  Providing YANG-Push Notification Capabilities Information

   A specific case is the need to specify capabilities in the YANG-Push
   functionality.  As defined in [RFC8641], a publisher may allow
   subscribers to subscribe to updates from a datastore and will
   subsequently push such update notifications to the receiver.
   Notifications may be sent periodically or "on change" (more or less
   immediately after each change).

   A publisher supporting YANG-Push has a number of capabilities defined
   in [RFC8641] that are often determined during the implementation of
   the publisher.  These include:

   *  supported (reporting) periods for "periodic" subscriptions.

   *  the maximum number of objects that can be sent in an update.

   *  the set of datastores or data nodes for which "periodic"
      notification is supported.

   Additional capabilities if the optional "on-change" feature is
   supported include:

   *  supported dampening periods for "on-change" subscriptions.

   *  the set of datastores or data nodes for which "on-change"
      notification is supported.

   Publishers might have some capabilities (or limitations) to document
   -- for example, how many update notifications and how many datastore
   node updates they can send out in a certain time period.  Other
   publishers might not support "periodic" subscriptions to all
   datastores.  In some cases, a publisher supporting "on-change"
   notifications will not be able to push updates for some object types
   "on change".  Reasons for this might be that the value of the
   datastore node changes frequently (e.g., in-octet counter), that
   small object changes are frequent and irrelevant to the receiver
   (e.g., a temperature gauge changing 0.1 degrees within a
   predetermined and acceptable range), or that the implementation is
   not capable of on-change notification for a particular object.  In
   all those cases, it will be important for subscriber applications to
   have a way to identify the objects for which "on-change"
   notifications are supported and the objects for which they are not.

   Support for "on-change" notifications does not mean that such
   notifications will be sent for any specific data node, as the ability
   to do so may not be supported for every data node.  Therefore,
   subscriber/management applications cannot rely on the "on-change"
   functionality unless the subscriber has some means to identify the
   objects for which "on-change" notifications are in fact supported.
   YANG data models are meant to be used as an interface contract.
   Without identification of the data nodes actually supporting "on-
   change" notifications, this contract would be incomplete.

   Clients of a server (and subscribers to a publisher, as subscribers
   are also clients) need a method to gather capability information.

4.  System Capabilities Model

   The module "ietf-system-capabilities" is defined to provide a
   structure that can be used to discover (as a read-only operational
   state) any YANG-related system capability.

   This module itself does not contain any capabilities; it provides
   augmentation points for capabilities to be defined in subsequent YANG
   modules. "ietf-system-capabilities" is used by other modules to
   augment in specific capability information.  Every set of such
   capabilities MUST be wrapped in a container under the augment
   statement to cleanly separate different groups of capabilities.
   These "wrapper containers" SHALL be augmented at /sysc:system-
   capabilities and /sysc:system-capabilities/sysc:datastore-
   capabilities/sysc:per-node-capabilities.

   Capability values can be specified at the system level, at the
   datastore level (by selecting all nodes in the datastore), or for
   specific data nodes of a specific datastore (and their contained
   subtrees).  Capability values specified for a specific datastore or
   node-set override values specified at the system level.

      Note: The solution is usable for both NMDA and non-NMDA systems.
      For non-NMDA servers, "config false" data is considered as if it
      were part of the running datastore.

4.1.  Tree Diagram

   The following tree diagram [RFC8340] provides an overview of the data
   model.

   module: ietf-system-capabilities
     +--ro system-capabilities
        +--ro datastore-capabilities* [datastore]
           +--ro datastore       -> /yanglib:yang-library/datastore/name
           +--ro per-node-capabilities* []
              +--ro (node-selection)?
                 +--:(node-selector)
                    +--ro node-selector?   nacm:node-instance-identifier

4.2.  YANG Module

   This YANG module imports typedefs from [RFC8341] and a reference path
   from [RFC8525].

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-system-capabilities@2022-02-17.yang"
   module ietf-system-capabilities {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-system-capabilities";
     prefix sysc;

     import ietf-netconf-acm {
       prefix nacm;
       reference
         "RFC 8341: Network Configuration Access Control Model";
     }
     import ietf-yang-library {
       prefix yanglib;
       description
         "This module requires ietf-yang-library to be implemented.
          Revision 2019-01-04 or a revision derived from it
          is REQUIRED.";
       reference
         "RFC8525: YANG Library";
     }

     organization
       "IETF NETCONF (Network Configuration) Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/netconf/>
        WG List:  <mailto:netconf@ietf.org>

        Editor:   Balazs Lengyel
                  <mailto:balazs.lengyel@ericsson.com>";
     description
       "This module specifies a structure to specify system
        capabilities for a server or a publisher.  System capabilities
        may include capabilities of a NETCONF or RESTCONF server or a
        notification publisher.

        This module does not contain any specific capabilities; it only
        provides a structure where containers containing the actual
        capabilities are augmented in.

        Capability values can be specified at the system level, at the
        datastore level (by selecting all nodes in the datastore), or
        for specific data nodes of a specific datastore (and their
        contained subtrees).
        Capability values specified for a specific datastore or
        node-set override values specified on the system/publisher
        level.

        The same grouping MUST be used to define hierarchical
        capabilities supported both at the system level and at the
        datastore/data-node level.

        To find a capability value for a specific data node in a
        specific datastore, the user SHALL:

        1) search for a datastore-capabilities list entry for
        the specific datastore.  When stating a specific capability, the
        relative path for any specific capability must be the same
        under the system-capabilities container and under the
        per-node-capabilities list.

        2) If the datastore entry is found within that entry, process
        all per-node-capabilities entries in the order they appear in
        the list.  The first entry that specifies the specific
        capability and has a node-selector selecting the specific data
        node defines the capability value.

        3) If the capability value is not found above and the specific
        capability is specified under the system-capabilities container
        (outside the datastore-capabilities list), this value shall be
        used.

        4) If no values are found in the previous steps, the
        system/publisher is not capable of providing a value.  Possible
        reasons are that it is unknown, the capability is changing for
        some reason, there is no specified limit, etc.  In this case,
        the system's behavior is unspecified.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL',
        'SHALL NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED',
        'NOT RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this document
        are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 (RFC 2119)
        (RFC 8174) when, and only when, they appear in all
        capitals, as shown here.

        Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
        the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License set
        forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 9196
        (https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9196); see the RFC itself
        for full legal notices.";

     revision 2022-02-17 {
       description
         "Initial version";
       reference
         "RFC 9196: YANG Modules Describing Capabilities for Systems
          and Datastore Update Notifications";
     }

     container system-capabilities {
       config false;
       description
         "System capabilities.
          Capability values specified here at the system level
          are valid for all datastores and are used when the
          capability is not specified at the datastore level
          or for specific data nodes.";
       /*
        * "Augmentation point for system-level capabilities."
        */
       list datastore-capabilities {
         key "datastore";
         description
           "Capabilities values per datastore.

            For non-NMDA servers/publishers, 'config false' data is
            considered as if it were part of the running datastore.";
         leaf datastore {
           type leafref {
             path
               "/yanglib:yang-library/yanglib:datastore/yanglib:name";
           }
           description
             "The datastore for which capabilities are defined.
              Only one specific datastore can be specified,
              e.g., ds:conventional must not be used, as it
              represents a set of configuration datastores.";
         }
         list per-node-capabilities {
           description
             "Each list entry specifies capabilities for the selected
              data nodes.  The same capabilities apply to the data nodes
              in the subtree below the selected nodes.

              The system SHALL order the entries according to their
              precedence. The order of the entries MUST NOT change
              unless the underlying capabilities also change.

              Note that the longest patch matching can be achieved
              by ordering more specific matches before less
              specific ones.";
           choice node-selection {
             description
               "A method to select some or all nodes within a
                datastore.";
             leaf node-selector {
               type nacm:node-instance-identifier;
               description
                 "Selects the data nodes for which capabilities are
                  specified. The special value '/' denotes all data
                  nodes in the datastore, consistent with the path
                  leaf node on page 41 of [RFC8341].";
               reference
                 "RFC 8341: Network Configuration Access Control Model";
             }
           }
           /*
            * "Augmentation point for datastore- or data-node-level
            * capabilities."
            */
         }
       }
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

5.  Notification Capabilities Model

   The YANG module "ietf-notification-capabilities" provides information
   related to the YANG-Push capability.

5.1.  Tree Diagram

   The following tree diagram [RFC8340] provides an overview of the data
   model.

   module: ietf-notification-capabilities
     augment /sysc:system-capabilities:
       +--ro subscription-capabilities
          +--ro max-nodes-per-update?               uint32
          +--ro periodic-notifications-supported?   notification-support
          +--ro (update-period)?
          |  +--:(minimum-update-period)
          |  |  +--ro minimum-update-period?        uint32
          |  +--:(supported-update-period)
          |     +--ro supported-update-period*      uint32
          +--ro on-change-supported?                notification-support
          |       {yp:on-change}?
          +--ro minimum-dampening-period?           uint32
          |       {yp:on-change}?
          +--ro supported-excluded-change-type*     union
                  {yp:on-change}?
     augment /sysc:system-capabilities/sysc:datastore-capabilities
               /sysc:per-node-capabilities:
       +--ro subscription-capabilities
          +--ro max-nodes-per-update?               uint32
          +--ro periodic-notifications-supported?   notification-support
          +--ro (update-period)?
          |  +--:(minimum-update-period)
          |  |  +--ro minimum-update-period?        uint32
          |  +--:(supported-update-period)
          |     +--ro supported-update-period*      uint32
          +--ro on-change-supported?                notification-support
          |       {yp:on-change}?
          +--ro minimum-dampening-period?           uint32
          |       {yp:on-change}?
          +--ro supported-excluded-change-type*     union
                  {yp:on-change}?

5.2.  YANG Module

   This YANG module imports a feature and typedefs from [RFC8641] and
   also imports the "ietf-system-capabilities" specified in this
   document.

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-notification-capabilities@2022-02-17.yang"
   module ietf-notification-capabilities {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace
       "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-notification-capabilities";
     prefix notc;

     import ietf-yang-push {
       prefix yp;
       description
         "This module requires ietf-yang-push to be implemented.";
       reference
         "RFC 8641: Subscription to YANG Notifications for
          Datastore Updates";
     }
     import ietf-system-capabilities {
       prefix sysc;
       description
         "This module requires ietf-system-capabilities to be
          implemented.";
       reference
         "RFC 9196: YANG Modules Describing Capabilities for Systems
          and Datastore Update Notifications";
     }

     organization
       "IETF NETCONF (Network Configuration) Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/netconf/>
        WG List:  <mailto:netconf@ietf.org>

        Editor:   Balazs Lengyel
                  <mailto:balazs.lengyel@ericsson.com>";
     description
       "This module specifies publisher capabilities related to
        YANG-Push (RFC 8641).

        The module contains:

        - a specification of the data nodes that support 'on-change' or
        'periodic' notifications.

        - capabilities related to the throughput of notification data
        that the publisher can support.  (Note that for a specific
        subscription, the publisher MAY allow only longer periods
        or smaller updates depending on, e.g., actual load conditions.)

        Capability values can be specified at the system/publisher
        level, at the datastore level, or for specific data nodes of
        a specific datastore (and their contained subtrees), as defined
        in the ietf-system-capabilities module.

        If different data nodes covered by a single subscription
        have different values for a specific capability, then using
        values that are only acceptable for some of these data nodes,
        but not for others, may result in the rejection of the
        subscription.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL',
        'SHALL NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED',
        'NOT RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this document
        are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 (RFC 2119)
        (RFC 8174) when, and only when, they appear in all
        capitals, as shown here.

        Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
        the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License set
        forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 9196
        (https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9196); see the RFC itself
        for full legal notices.";

     revision 2022-02-17 {
       description
         "Initial version";
       reference
         "RFC 9196: YANG Modules Describing Capabilities for Systems
          and Datastore Update Notifications";
     }

     grouping subscription-capabilities {
       description
         "Capabilities related to YANG-Push subscriptions
          and notifications";
       container subscription-capabilities {
         description
           "Capabilities related to YANG-Push subscriptions
            and notifications";
         typedef notification-support {
           type bits {
             bit config-changes {
               description
                 "The publisher is capable of sending
                  notifications for 'config true' nodes for the
                  relevant scope and subscription type.";
             }
             bit state-changes {
               description
                 "The publisher is capable of sending
                  notifications for 'config false' nodes for the
                  relevant scope and subscription type.";
             }
           }
           description
             "Type for defining whether 'on-change' or
              'periodic' notifications are supported for all data nodes,
              'config false' data nodes, 'config true' data nodes, or
              no data nodes.

              The bits config-changes or state-changes have no effect
              when they are set for a datastore or for a set of nodes
              that does not contain nodes with the indicated config
              value.  In those cases, the effect is the same as if no
              support was declared.  One example of this is indicating
              support for state-changes for a candidate datastore that
              has no effect.";
         }

         leaf max-nodes-per-update {
           type uint32 {
             range "1..max";
           }
           description
             "Maximum number of data nodes that can be sent
              in an update. The publisher MAY support more data nodes
              but SHOULD support at least this number.

              May be used to avoid the 'update-too-big' error
              during subscription.";
           reference
             "RFC 8641: Subscription to YANG Notifications for
              Datastore Updates, the 'update-too-big' error/identity";
         }
         leaf periodic-notifications-supported {
           type notification-support;
           description
             "Specifies whether the publisher is capable of
              sending 'periodic' notifications for the selected
              data nodes, including any subtrees that may exist
              below them.";
           reference
             "RFC 8641: Subscription to YANG Notifications for
              Datastore Updates, 'periodic' subscription concept";
         }
         choice update-period {
           description
             "Supported update period value or values for
              'periodic' subscriptions.";
           leaf minimum-update-period {
             type uint32;
             units "centiseconds";
             description
               "Indicates the minimal update period that is
                supported for a 'periodic' subscription.

                A subscription request to the selected data nodes with
                a smaller period than what this leaf specifies is
                likely to result in a 'period-unsupported' error.";
             reference
               "RFC 8641: Subscription to YANG Notifications for
                Datastore Updates, the period leaf in the ietf-yang-push
                YANG module";
           }
           leaf-list supported-update-period {
             type uint32;
             units "centiseconds";
             description
               "Supported update period values for a 'periodic'
                subscription.

                A subscription request to the selected data nodes with a
                period not included in the leaf-list will result in a
                'period-unsupported' error.";
             reference
               "RFC 8641: Subscription to YANG Notifications for
                Datastore Updates, the period leaf in the ietf-yang-push
                YANG module";
           }
         }
         leaf on-change-supported {
           if-feature "yp:on-change";
           type notification-support;
           description
             "Specifies whether the publisher is capable of
              sending 'on-change' notifications for the selected
              data nodes and the subtree below them.";
           reference
             "RFC 8641: Subscription to YANG Notifications for Datastore
              Updates, on-change concept";
         }
         leaf minimum-dampening-period {
           if-feature "yp:on-change";
           type uint32;
           units "centiseconds";
           description
             "The minimum dampening period supported for 'on-change'
              subscriptions for the selected data nodes.

              If this value is present and greater than zero,
              that implies dampening is mandatory.";
           reference
             "RFC 8641: Subscription to YANG Notifications for
              Datastore Updates, the dampening-period leaf in the
              ietf-yang-push YANG module";
         }
         leaf-list supported-excluded-change-type {
           if-feature "yp:on-change";
           type union {
             type enumeration {
               enum none {
                 value -2;
                 description
                   "None of the change types can be excluded.";
               }
               enum all {
                 value -1;
                 description
                   "Any combination of change types can be excluded.";
               }
             }
             type yp:change-type;
           }
           description
             "The change types that can be excluded in
              YANG-Push subscriptions for the selected data nodes.";
           reference
             "RFC 8641: Subscription to YANG Notifications for Datastore
              Updates, the change-type typedef in the ietf-yang-push
              YANG module";
         }
       }
     }

     augment "/sysc:system-capabilities" {
       description
         "Add system level capabilities";
       uses subscription-capabilities {
         refine
           "subscription-capabilities/supported-excluded-change-type" {
           default "none";
         }
       }
     }

     augment "/sysc:system-capabilities/sysc:datastore-capabilities"
           + "/sysc:per-node-capabilities" {
       description
         "Add datastore and node-level capabilities";
       uses subscription-capabilities {
         refine
           "subscription-capabilities/supported-excluded-change-type" {
           default "none";
         }
       }
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

   <CODE ENDS>

6.  Security Considerations

   The YANG modules specified in this document define a schema for data
   that is designed to be accessed via network management protocols such
   as NETCONF [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040] or as YANG instance data.
   The lowest NETCONF layer is the secure transport layer, and the
   mandatory-to-implement secure transport is Secure Shell (SSH)
   [RFC6242].  The lowest RESTCONF layer is HTTPS, and the mandatory-to-
   implement secure transport is TLS [RFC8446].

   The Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) [RFC8341]
   provides the means to restrict access for particular NETCONF or
   RESTCONF users to a preconfigured subset of all available NETCONF or
   RESTCONF protocol operations and content.

   This document outlines a framework for conveying system capability
   information that is inherently flexible and extensible.  While the
   full set of use cases is not known now, they may range as wide as
   conveying the minimum update period for periodic subscription updates
   and what protocols might be used for such notifications.  Knowledge
   of this type of value might, for example, allow an attacker to gain
   insight into how long unauthorized configuration changes might be
   active prior to detection and what communications channels might be
   disrupted to extend the period of non-detection.  Documents adding
   additional capabilities via augmenting this module are encouraged to
   document the security considerations of the new YANG nodes, according
   to the guidance in BCP 216 [RFC8407].

   All protocol-accessible data nodes in augmented modules are read-only
   and cannot be modified.  Access control may be configured to avoid
   exposing any read-only data that is defined by the augmenting module
   documentation as being security sensitive.

   When that data is in file format, the data should be protected
   against modification or unauthorized access using normal file-
   handling mechanisms.  The data in file format also inherits all the
   security considerations of [RFC9195], which includes additional
   considerations about read protections and distinguishes between data
   at rest and in motion.

7.  IANA Considerations

7.1.  The IETF XML Registry

   This document registers the following URIs in the "IETF XML Registry"
   [RFC3688]:

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-system-capabilities
   Registrant Contact:  The IESG.
   XML:  N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-notification-capabilities
   Registrant Contact:  The IESG.
   XML:  N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

7.2.  The YANG Module Names Registry

   This document registers the following YANG modules in the "YANG
   Module Names" registry [RFC6020]:

   name:  ietf-system-capabilities
   namespace:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-system-capabilities
   prefix:  sysc
   reference:  RFC 9196

   name:  ietf-notification-capabilities
   namespace:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-notification-
      capabilities
   prefix:  notc
   reference:  RFC 9196

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC6020]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for
              the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC6242]  Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure
              Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6242>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8341]  Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
              Access Control Model", STD 91, RFC 8341,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8341, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8341>.

   [RFC8342]  Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Shafer, P., Watsen, K.,
              and R. Wilton, "Network Management Datastore Architecture
              (NMDA)", RFC 8342, DOI 10.17487/RFC8342, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8342>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

   [RFC8525]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Watsen, K.,
              and R. Wilton, "YANG Library", RFC 8525,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8525, March 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8525>.

   [RFC8639]  Voit, E., Clemm, A., Gonzalez Prieto, A., Nilsen-Nygaard,
              E., and A. Tripathy, "Subscription to YANG Notifications",
              RFC 8639, DOI 10.17487/RFC8639, September 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8639>.

   [RFC8641]  Clemm, A. and E. Voit, "Subscription to YANG Notifications
              for Datastore Updates", RFC 8641, DOI 10.17487/RFC8641,
              September 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8641>.

   [RFC9195]  Lengyel, B. and B. Claise, "A File Format for YANG
              Instance Data", RFC 9195, DOI 10.17487/RFC9195, February
              2022, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9195>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC8340]  Bjorklund, M. and L. Berger, Ed., "YANG Tree Diagrams",
              BCP 215, RFC 8340, DOI 10.17487/RFC8340, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8340>.

   [RFC8407]  Bierman, A., "Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers of
              Documents Containing YANG Data Models", BCP 216, RFC 8407,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8407, October 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8407>.

   [RFC8792]  Watsen, K., Auerswald, E., Farrel, A., and Q. Wu,
              "Handling Long Lines in Content of Internet-Drafts and
              RFCs", RFC 8792, DOI 10.17487/RFC8792, June 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8792>.

Appendix A.  Instance Data Example #1

   The following examples use artwork folding [RFC8792] for better
   formatting.

   The following instance data example describes the notification
   capabilities of a hypothetical "acme-router".  The router implements
   the running and operational datastores.  Every change can be reported
   "on-change" from the running datastore, but only "config false" nodes
   and some "config false" data can be reported on-change from the
   operational datastore.  Interface statistics are not reported "on-
   change"; only two important counters are.  Datastore subscription
   capabilities are not reported "on-change", as they never change on
   the acme-router during runtime.

   ========== NOTE: '\' line wrapping per RFC 8792) ===========

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <instance-data-set xmlns=\
       "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-instance-data">
     <name>acme-router-notification-capabilities</name>
     <content-schema>
       <module>ietf-system-capabilities@2022-02-17</module>
       <module>ietf-notification-capabilities@2022-02-17</module>
     </content-schema>
     <description>Defines the notification capabilities of an
       acme-router. The router only has running and operational
       datastores. Every change can be reported on-change from the
       running datastore, but only "config false" nodes and some
       "config false" data can be reported on-change from the
       operational datastore. Statistics
       are not reported on-change except for two important counters,
       where a small dampening period is mandated.
     </description>
     <content-data>
       <system-capabilities \
        xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-system-capabilities" \
        xmlns:notc=\
          "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-notification-capabilities" \
        xmlns:ds="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-datastores">
        <notc:subscription-capabilities>
         <notc:minimum-update-period>500</notc:minimum-update-period>
         <notc:max-nodes-per-update>2000</notc:max-nodes-per-update>
         <notc:minimum-dampening-period>\
            100\
         </notc:minimum-dampening-period>
         <notc:periodic-notifications-supported>\
            config-changes state-changes\
         </notc:periodic-notifications-supported>
         <notc:on-change-supported>\
            config-changes state-changes\
         </notc:on-change-supported>
         <notc:supported-excluded-change-type>\
            all\
         </notc:supported-excluded-change-type>
        </notc:subscription-capabilities>
         <datastore-capabilities>
           <datastore>ds:operational</datastore>
           <per-node-capabilities>
             <node-selector>\
                 /if:interfaces/if:interface[if:name='lo']\
             </node-selector>
             <notc:subscription-capabilities>
               <notc:on-change-supported/>
               <notc:periodic-notifications-supported/>
             </notc:subscription-capabilities>
           </per-node-capabilities>
           <per-node-capabilities>
             <node-selector>\
                 /if:interfaces/if:interface/if:statistics/if:in-octets\
             </node-selector>
             <notc:subscription-capabilities>
               <notc:minimum-dampening-period>10
                 </notc:minimum-dampening-period>
               <notc:on-change-supported>\
                 state-changes\
               </notc:on-change-supported>
             </notc:subscription-capabilities>
           </per-node-capabilities>
           <per-node-capabilities>
             <node-selector>\
             /if:interfaces/if:interface/if:statistics/if:out-octets\
             </node-selector>
             <notc:subscription-capabilities>
               <notc:minimum-dampening-period>10
                 </notc:minimum-dampening-period>
               <notc:on-change-supported>\
                 state-changes\
               </notc:on-change-supported>
             </notc:subscription-capabilities>
           </per-node-capabilities>
           <per-node-capabilities>
             <node-selector>\
                 /if:interfaces/if:interface/if:statistics\
             </node-selector>
             <notc:subscription-capabilities>
               <notc:on-change-supported/>
             </notc:subscription-capabilities>
           </per-node-capabilities>
         </datastore-capabilities>
       </system-capabilities>
     </content-data>
   </instance-data-set>

     Figure 1: Notification Capabilities with Settings Specific to the
                                 Data Node

Appendix B.  Instance Data Example #2

   The following examples use artwork folding [RFC8792] for better
   formatting.

   The following instance data example describes the notification
   capabilities of a hypothetical "acme-switch".  The switch implements
   the running, candidate, and operational datastores.  Every change can
   be reported "on-change" from the running datastore, nothing can be
   reported on-change from the candidate datastore, and all "config
   false" data can be reported on-change from the operational datastore.
   "Periodic" subscriptions are supported for running and operational
   but not for candidate datastores.

   ========== NOTE: '\' line wrapping per RFC 8792) ===========

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <instance-data-set xmlns=\
       "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-instance-data">
     <name>acme-switch-notification-capabilities</name>
     <content-schema>
       <module>ietf-system-capabilities@2022-02-17</module>
       <module>ietf-notification-capabilities@2022-02-17</module>
     </content-schema>
     <description>Notification capabilities of acme-switch.
       Acme-switch implements the running, candidate, and operational
       datastores. Every change can be reported on-change from the
       running datastore, nothing from the candidate datastore and
       all "config false" data from the operational datastore. Periodic
       subscriptions are supported for running and operational, but not
       for candidate datastore.
     </description>
     <content-data>
       <system-capabilities \
        xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-system-capabilities" \
        xmlns:notc=\
          "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-notification-capabilities" \
        xmlns:ds="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-datastores">
        <notc:subscription-capabilities>
         <notc:minimum-update-period>500</notc:minimum-update-period>
         <notc:max-nodes-per-update>2000</notc:max-nodes-per-update>
         <notc:minimum-dampening-period>\
           100\
         </notc:minimum-dampening-period>
         <notc:periodic-notifications-supported>\
           config-changes state-changes\
         </notc:periodic-notifications-supported>
        </notc:subscription-capabilities>
        <datastore-capabilities>
          <datastore>ds:operational</datastore>
          <per-node-capabilities>
            <node-selector>/</node-selector>
            <notc:subscription-capabilities>
              <notc:on-change-supported>\
                state-changes\
              </notc:on-change-supported>
            </notc:subscription-capabilities>
          </per-node-capabilities>
        </datastore-capabilities>
        <datastore-capabilities>
          <datastore>ds:candidate</datastore>
          <per-node-capabilities>
            <node-selector>/</node-selector>
            <notc:subscription-capabilities>
              <notc:on-change-supported/>
              <notc:periodic-notifications-supported/>
            </notc:subscription-capabilities>
          </per-node-capabilities>
        </datastore-capabilities>
        <datastore-capabilities>
         <datastore>ds:running</datastore>
          <per-node-capabilities>
            <node-selector>/</node-selector>
            <notc:subscription-capabilities>
              <notc:on-change-supported>\
                config-changes\
              </notc:on-change-supported>
            </notc:subscription-capabilities>
          </per-node-capabilities>
        </datastore-capabilities>
       </system-capabilities>
     </content-data>
   </instance-data-set>

     Figure 2: Notification Capabilities with Datastore-Level Settings

Acknowledgments

   For their valuable comments, discussions, and feedback, we wish to
   acknowledge Andy Bierman, Juergen Schoenwaelder, Rob Wilton, Kent
   Watsen, Eric Voit, Joe Clarke, Martin Bjorklund, Ladislav Lhotka, Qin
   Wu, Mahesh Jethanandani, Ran Tao, Reshad Rahman, and other members of
   the Netmod Working Group.

Authors' Addresses

   Balazs Lengyel
   Ericsson
   Budapest
   Magyar Tudosok korutja 11
   1117
   Hungary
   Email: balazs.lengyel@ericsson.com

   Alexander Clemm
   Futurewei
   2330 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara, CA 95050
   United States of America
   Email: ludwig@clemm.org

   Benoit Claise
   Huawei
   George's Court Townsend Street
   Dublin 2
   Ireland
   Email: benoit.claise@huawei.com