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X-Wing: general-purpose hybrid post-quantum KEM
draft-connolly-cfrg-xwing-kem-01

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Deirdre Connolly , Peter Schwabe , Bas Westerbaan
Last updated 2024-01-23
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draft-connolly-cfrg-xwing-kem-01
Crypto Forum                                                 D. Connolly
Internet-Draft                                                 SandboxAQ
Intended status: Informational                                P. Schwabe
Expires: 25 July 2024                        MPI-SP & Radboud University
                                                        B. E. Westerbaan
                                                              Cloudflare
                                                         22 January 2024

            X-Wing: general-purpose hybrid post-quantum KEM
                    draft-connolly-cfrg-xwing-kem-01

Abstract

   This memo defines X-Wing, a general-purpose post-quantum/traditional
   hybrid key encapsulation mechanism (PQ/T KEM) built on X25519 and ML-
   KEM-768.

About This Document

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   The latest revision of this draft can be found at
   https://dconnolly.github.io/draft-connolly-cfrg-xwing-kem/draft-
   connolly-cfrg-xwing-kem.html.  Status information for this document
   may be found at https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-connolly-cfrg-
   xwing-kem/.

   Discussion of this document takes place on the Crypto Forum Research
   Group mailing list (mailto:cfrg@ietf.org), which is archived at
   https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/search/?email_list=cfrg.  Subscribe
   at https://www.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/cfrg/.

   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
   https://github.com/dconnolly/draft-connolly-cfrg-xwing-kem.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on 25 July 2024.

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   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Warning: ML-KEM-768 has not been standardised . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Motivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.3.  Design goals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.4.  Not an interactive key-agreement  . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.5.  Not an authenticated KEM  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.6.  Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       1.6.1.  With HPKE X25519Kyber768Draft00 . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       1.6.2.  With generic combiner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Requirements Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Conventions and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Cryptographic Dependencies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  X-Wing Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.1.  Encoding and sizes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.2.  Key generation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       5.2.1.  Key derivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.3.  Combiner  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.4.  Encapsulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       5.4.1.  Derandomized  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.5.  Decapsulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.6.  Use in HPKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.7.  Use in TLS 1.3  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  TODO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11

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   Appendix A.  Test vectors # TODO: replace with test vectors that
           re-use ML-KEM, X25519 values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix B.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   Appendix C.  Change log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     C.1.  Since draft-connolly-cfrg-xwing-kem-00  . . . . . . . . .  22
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

1.  Introduction

1.1.  Warning: ML-KEM-768 has not been standardised

   X-Wing uses ML-KEM-768, which has not been standardised yet.  Thus
   X-Wing is not finished, yet, and should not be used, yet.

1.2.  Motivation

   There are many choices that can be made when specifying a hybrid KEM:
   the constituent KEMs; their security levels; the combiner; and the
   hash within, to name but a few.  Having too many similar options are
   a burden to the ecosystem.

   The aim of X-Wing is to provide a concrete, simple choice for post-
   quantum hybrid KEM, that should be suitable for the vast majority of
   use cases.

1.3.  Design goals

   By making concrete choices, we can simplify and improve many aspects
   of X-Wing.

   *  Simplicity of definition.  Because all shared secrets and cipher
      texts are fixed length, we do not need to encode the length.
      Using SHA3-256, we do not need HMAC-based construction.  For the
      concrete choice of ML-KEM-768, we do not need to mix in its
      ciphertext, see Section 6.

   *  Security analysis.  Because ML-KEM-768 already assumes QROM, we do
      not need to complicate the analysis of X-Wing by considering
      stronger models.

   *  Performance.  Not having to mix in the ML-KEM-768 ciphertext is a
      nice performance benefit.  Furthermore, by using SHA3-256 in the
      combiner, which matches the hashing in ML-KEM-768, this hash can
      be computed in one go on platforms where two-way Keccak is
      available.

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   We aim for "128 bits" security (NIST PQC level 1).  Although at the
   moment there is no peer-reviewed evidence that ML-KEM-512 does not
   reach this level, we would like to hedge against future cryptanalytic
   improvements, and feel ML-KEM-768 provides a comfortable margin.

   We aim for X-Wing to be usable for most applications, including
   specifically HPKE [RFC9180].

1.4.  Not an interactive key-agreement

   Traditionally most protocols use a Diffie-Hellman (DH) style non-
   interactive key-agreement.  In many cases, a DH key agreement can be
   replaced by the interactive key-agreement afforded by a KEM without
   change in the protocol flow.  One notable example is TLS [HYBRID]
   [XYBERTLS].  However, not all uses of DH can be replaced in a
   straight-forward manner by a plain KEM.

1.5.  Not an authenticated KEM

   In particular, X-Wing is not, borrowing the language of [RFC9180], an
   _authenticated_ KEM.

1.6.  Comparisons

1.6.1.  With HPKE X25519Kyber768Draft00

   X-Wing is most similar to HPKE's X25519Kyber768Draft00 [XYBERHPKE].
   The key differences are:

   *  X-Wing uses the final version of ML-KEM-768.

   *  X-Wing hashes the shared secrets, to be usable outside of HPKE.

   *  X-Wing has a simpler combiner by flattening DHKEM(X25519) into the
      final hash.

   *  X-Wing does not hash in the ML-KEM-768 ciphertext.

   There is also a different KEM called X25519Kyber768Draft00 [XYBERTLS]
   which is used in TLS.  This one should not be used outside of TLS, as
   it assumes the presence of the TLS transcript to ensure non
   malleability.

1.6.2.  With generic combiner

   The generic combiner of [I-D.ounsworth-cfrg-kem-combiners] can be
   instantiated with ML-KEM-768 and DHKEM(X25519).  That achieves
   similar security, but:

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   *  X-Wing is more performant, not hashing in the ML-KEM-768
      ciphertext, and flattening the DHKEM construction, with the same
      level of security.

   *  X-Wing has a fixed 32 byte shared secret, instead of a variable
      shared secret.

   *  X-Wing does not accept the optional counter and fixedInfo
      arguments.

2.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  Conventions and Definitions

   This document is consistent with all terminology defined in
   [I-D.driscoll-pqt-hybrid-terminology].

   The following terms are used throughout this document to describe the
   operations, roles, and behaviors of HPKE:

   *  concat(x0, ..., xN): returns the concatenation of byte strings.
      concat(0x01, 0x0203, 0x040506) = 0x010203040506.

   *  random(n): return a pseudorandom byte string of length n bytes
      produced by a cryptographically-secure random number generator.

4.  Cryptographic Dependencies

   X-Wing relies on the following primitives:

   *  ML-KEM-768 post-quantum key-encapsulation mechanism (KEM) [MLKEM]:

      -  ML-KEM-768.KeyGen(): Randomized algorithm to generate an ML-
         KEM-768 key pair (pk_M, sk_M) of an encapsulation key pk_M and
         decapsulation key sk_M.  Note that ML-KEM-768.KeyGen() returns
         the keys in reverse order of GenerateKeyPair() defined below.

      -  ML-KEM-768.Encaps(pk_M): Randomized algorithm to generate
         (ss_M, ct_M), an ephemeral 32 byte shared key ss_M, and a
         fixed-length encapsulation (ciphertext) of that key ct_M for
         encapsulation key pk_M.

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      -  ML-KEM-768.Decap(ct_M, sk_M): Deterministic algorithm using the
         decapsulation key sk_M to recover the shared key from ct_M.

      To generate deterministic test vectors, we also use

      -  ML-KEM-768.KeyGenDerand(seed): Same as ML-KEM-768.KeyGen(), but
         derandomized as follows. seed is 64 bytes. seed[0:32] is used
         for z (line 1 algorithm 15), and seed[32:64] is used for d
         (line 1 algorithm 12).

      -  ML-KEM-768.EncapsDerand(pk_M, seed): Same as ML-KEM-
         768.Encaps() but derandomized as follows. seed is 32 bytes and
         used for m (line 1 algorithm 16).

   *  X25519 elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman key-exchange defined in
      Section 5 of [RFC7748]:

      -  X25519(k,u): takes 32 byte strings k and u representing a
         Curve25519 scalar and curvepoint respectively, and returns the
         32 byte string representing their scalar multiplication.

      -  X25519_BASE: the 32 byte string representing the standard base
         point of Curve25519.  In hex it is given by
         09000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.

   Note that 9 is the standard basepoint for X25519, cf Section 6.1 of
   [RFC7748].

   *  Symmetric cryptography.

      -  SHAKE128(message, outlen): The extendable-output function (XOF)
         defined in Section 6.2 of [FIPS202].

      -  SHA3-256(message): The hash defined in defined in Section 6.1
         of [FIPS202].

5.  X-Wing Construction

5.1.  Encoding and sizes

   X-Wing encapsulation key, decapsulation key, ciphertexts and shared
   secrets are all fixed length byte strings.

   Decapsulation key (private):  2464 bytes

   Encapsulation key (public):  1216 bytes

   Ciphertext:  1120 bytes

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   Shared secret:  32 bytes

5.2.  Key generation

   An X-Wing keypair (decapsulation key, encapsulation key) is generated
   as follows.

   def GenerateKeyPair():
     (pk_M, sk_M) = ML-KEM-768.KeyGen()
     sk_X = random(32)
     pk_X = X25519(sk_X, X25519_BASE)
     return concat(sk_M, sk_X, pk_X), concat(pk_M, pk_X)

   GenerateKeyPair() returns the 2464 byte secret encapsulation key sk
   and the 1216 byte decapsulation key pk.

5.2.1.  Key derivation

   For testing, it is convenient to have a deterministic version of key
   generation.  An X-Wing implementation MAY provide the following
   derandomized variant of key generation.

   def GenerateKeyPairDerand(seed):
     (pk_M, sk_M) = ML-KEM-768.KeyGenDerand(seed[0:64])
     sk_X = seed[64:96]
     pk_X = X25519(sk_X, X25519_BASE)
     return concat(sk_M, sk_X, pk_X), concat(pk_M, pk_X)

   seed must be 96 bytes.

   GenerateKeyPairDerand() returns the 2464 byte secret encapsulation
   key sk and the 1216 byte decapsulation key pk.

5.3.  Combiner

   Given 32 byte strings ss_M, ss_X, ct_X, pk_X, representing the ML-
   KEM-768 shared secret, X25519 shared secret, X25519 ciphertext
   (ephemeral public key) and X25519 public key respectively, the 32
   byte combined shared secret is given by:

   def Combiner(ss_M, ss_X, ct_X, pk_X):
     return SHA3-256(concat(
       XWingLabel,
       ss_M,
       ss_X,
       ct_X,
       pk_X
     ))

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   where XWingLabel is the following 6 byte ASCII string

   XWingLabel = concat(
       "\./",
       "/^\",
   )

5.4.  Encapsulation

   Given an X-Wing encapsulation key pk, encapsulation proceeds as
   follows.

   def Encapsulate(pk):
     pk_M = pk[0:1184]
     pk_X = pk[1184:1216]
     ek_X = random(32)
     ct_X = X25519(ek_X, X25519_BASE)
     ss_X = X25519(ek_X, pk_X)
     (ss_M, ct_M) = ML-KEM-768.Encaps(pk_M)
     ss = Combiner(ss_M, ss_X, ct_X, pk_X)
     ct = concat(ct_M, ct_X)
     return (ss, ct)

   pk is a 1216 byte X-Wing encapsulation key resulting from
   GeneratePublicKey()

   Encapsulate() returns the 32 byte shared secret ss and the 1120 byte
   ciphertext ct.

5.4.1.  Derandomized

   For testing, it is convenient to have a deterministic version of
   encapsulation.  An X-Wing implementation MAY provide the following
   derandomized function.

   def EncapsulateDerand(pk, seed):
     pk_M = pk[0:1184]
     pk_X = pk[1184:1216]
     ek_X = seed[32:64]
     ct_X = X25519(ek_X, X25519_BASE)
     ss_X = X25519(ek_X, pk_X)
     (ss_M, ct_M) = ML-KEM-768.EncapsDerand(pk_M, seed[0:32])
     ss = Combiner(ss_M, ss_X, ct_X, pk_X)
     ct = concat(ct_M, ct_X)
     return (ss, ct)

   pk is a 1216 byte X-Wing encapsulation key resulting from
   GeneratePublicKey() seed MUST be 64 bytes.

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   EncapsulateDerand() returns the 32 byte shared secret ss and the 1120
   byte ciphertext ct.

5.5.  Decapsulation

   def Decapsulate(ct, sk):
     ct_M = ct[0:1088]
     ct_X = ct[1088:1120]
     sk_M = sk[0:2400]
     sk_X = sk[2400:2432]
     pk_X = sk[2432:2464]
     ss_M = ML-KEM-768.Decapsulate(ct_M, sk_M)
     ss_X = X25519(sk_X, ct_X)
     return Combiner(ss_M, ss_X, ct_X, pk_X)

   ct is the 1120 byte ciphertext resulting from Encapsulate() sk is a
   2464 byte X-Wing decapsulation key resulting from GenerateKeyPair()

   Decapsulate() returns the 32 byte shared secret.

5.6.  Use in HPKE

   X-Wing satisfies the HPKE KEM interface as follows.

   The SerializePublicKey, DeserializePublicKey, SerializePrivateKey and
   DeserializePrivateKey are the identity functions, as X-Wing keys are
   fixed-length byte strings, see Section 5.1.

   DeriveKeyPair() is given by

   def DeriveKeyPair(ikm):
     return GenerateKeyPairDerand(SHAKE128(ikm, 96))

   where the HPKE private key and public key are the X-Wing
   decapsulation key and encapsulation key respectively.

   The argument ikm to DeriveKeyPair() SHOULD be at least 32 octets in
   length.  (This is contrary to [RFC9180] which stipulates it should be
   at least Nsk=2432 octets in length.)

   Encap() is Encapsulate() from Section 5.4.

   Decap() is Decapsulate() from Section 5.5.

   X-Wing is not an authenticated KEM: it does not support AuthEncap()
   and AuthDecap(), see Section 1.5.

   Nsecret, Nenc, Npk, and Nsk are defined in Section 7.

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5.7.  Use in TLS 1.3

   For the client's share, the key_exchange value contains the X-Wing
   encapsulation key.

   For the server's share, the key_exchange value contains the X-Wing
   ciphertext.

6.  Security Considerations

   Informally, X-Wing is secure if SHA3 is secure, and either X25519 is
   secure, or ML-KEM-768 is secure.

   More precisely, if SHA3-256, SHA3-512, SHAKE-128, and SHAKE-256 may
   be modelled as a random oracle, then the IND-CCA security of X-Wing
   is bounded by the IND-CCA security of ML-KEM-768, and the gap-CDH
   security of Curve25519, see [PROOF].

   The security of X-Wing relies crucially on the specifics of the
   Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation used in ML-KEM-768.  In particular,
   the X-Wing combiner cannot be assumed to be secure, when used with
   different KEMs.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests/registers a new entry to the "HPKE KEM
   Identifiers" registry.

   Value:  TBD (please)

   KEM:  X-Wing

   Nsecret:  32

   Nenc:  1120

   Npk:  1216

   Nsk:  2464

   Auth:  no

   Reference:  This document

   Furthermore, this document requests/registers a new entry to the TLS
   Named Group (or Supported Group) registry, according to the
   procedures in Section 6 of [TLSIANA].

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   Value:  TBD (please)

   Description:  X-Wing

   DTLS-OK:  Y

   Recommended:  Y

   Reference:  This document

   Comment:  PQ/T hybrid of X25519 and ML-KEM-768

8.  TODO

   *  Which validation do we want to require?

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8174>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [FIPS202]  National Institute of Standards and Technology, "FIPS 202:
              SHA-3 Standard: Permutation-Based Hash and Extendable-
              Output Functions", n.d.,
              <https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/
              NIST.FIPS.202.pdf>.

   [HYBRID]   Stebila, D., Fluhrer, S., and S. Gueron, "Hybrid key
              exchange in TLS 1.3", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-stebila-tls-hybrid-design-03, 12 February 2020,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-stebila-tls-
              hybrid-design-03>.

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   [I-D.driscoll-pqt-hybrid-terminology]
              D, F., "Terminology for Post-Quantum Traditional Hybrid
              Schemes", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              driscoll-pqt-hybrid-terminology-02, 7 March 2023,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-driscoll-pqt-
              hybrid-terminology-02>.

   [I-D.ounsworth-cfrg-kem-combiners]
              Ounsworth, M., Wussler, A., and S. Kousidis, "Combiner
              function for hybrid key encapsulation mechanisms (Hybrid
              KEMs)", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ounsworth-
              cfrg-kem-combiners-04, 8 July 2023,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ounsworth-
              cfrg-kem-combiners-04>.

   [MLKEM]    National Institute of Standards and Technology, "FIPS 203
              (Initial Draft): Module-Lattice-Based Key-Encapsulation
              Mechanism Standard", n.d.,
              <https://csrc.nist.gov/pubs/fips/203/ipd>.

   [PROOF]    Barbosa, M., Connolly, D., Duarte, J., Kaiser, A.,
              Schwabe, P., Varner, K., and B. E. Westerbraan, "X-Wing:
              The Hybrid KEM You’ve Been Looking For", n.d.,
              <https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/039>.

   [RFC7748]  Langley, A., Hamburg, M., and S. Turner, "Elliptic Curves
              for Security", RFC 7748, DOI 10.17487/RFC7748, January
              2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7748>.

   [RFC9180]  Barnes, R., Bhargavan, K., Lipp, B., and C. Wood, "Hybrid
              Public Key Encryption", RFC 9180, DOI 10.17487/RFC9180,
              February 2022, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc9180>.

   [TLSIANA]  Salowey, J. A. and S. Turner, "IANA Registry Updates for
              TLS and DTLS", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              ietf-tls-rfc8447bis-08, 23 January 2024,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-tls-
              rfc8447bis-08>.

   [XYBERHPKE]
              Westerbaan, B. and C. A. Wood, "X25519Kyber768Draft00
              hybrid post-quantum KEM for HPKE", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-westerbaan-cfrg-hpke-xyber768d00-02,
              4 May 2023, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-
              westerbaan-cfrg-hpke-xyber768d00-02>.

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   [XYBERTLS] Westerbaan, B. and D. Stebila, "X25519Kyber768Draft00
              hybrid post-quantum key agreement", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-tls-westerbaan-xyber768d00-03, 24
              September 2023, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/
              draft-tls-westerbaan-xyber768d00-03>.

Appendix A.  Test vectors # TODO: replace with test vectors that re-use
             ML-KEM, X25519 values

seed
  7f9c2ba4e88f827d616045507605853ed73b8093f6efbc88eb1a6eacfa66ef263cb1eea9
  88004b93103cfb0aeefd2a686e01fa4a58e8a3639ca8a1e3f9ae57e235b8cc873c23dc62
  b8d260169afa2f75ab916a58d974918835d25e6a435085b2
sk
  24c59d1c7603e7b74bc7aa1bc2cb3a214b3cfaebb63bd85b65408427c498ba394371bb27
  1f92a3b506b81d54a95a7c0ddfbaa1519553d6f3cd5a601b7db6b0e91a5149468f1f68ad
  26478bf3c6670e093ac4c49e7a90ba46595de94c50e04129a811a841b39534a87f0ae7b1
  116553e20c9a566b9b8ff7c7e728b8b201893403a4f252a55230874c256b897834cda349
  807b25cbd75a30867bfb80328200017f1cb70b56cc546b65d3dc9cdb45107cf10dba3496
  19043ac35c0b9546309a239039813ed5c40f353a5e8e42193564496112bda56cb38c081d
  f252ae9c2c7e441a062e92a7c8da7a240c9952d86b5f1bb6a53b38a5ac0a54a84b43f12d
  a1d0525655684a12090b60b28b0c628db092015547d1070af5d6192e639636615d03c654
  bb90008ca15b784119f6178a00d7bef4a54a274ac922e55c61a3a8840aa258639484a3bc
  e2e43b6c969b11275631daa129a61ea0e2939f0877e1a110c8a44b24c54fbb07a958db9f
  eeca1eb52b086c87bf43a9b02a5b2c4762117c3a99ae4c4e2eaa7a33b9a714737215c103
  17514f6c4299ef92acd64c4858e85ce737a801890022d7381f3540230c0c8ef50a848a28
  b09ba0bf8b50619c905751601d7629767449c9c0b2bae321f438a77f412a55e45ecab4b3
  9053c6561801c639be6495be8fa144ef6029af663407ca9181946de5f3aec7236343ab3b
  c5a38a09c01b412baf0afb23f9e9b8f2b40810f2ce4ffbcdbfd87972323e98065160bcba
  34b3afd6c25b664745fca99a9ea75cef019d768485ec23336d9b39e4d05d8d587b30633d
  4f69ade5753a39680235e44f27995da96798f3a85e184a9fad19320829629f4140417bb7
  dbf5851ab79258134146d088452774991a087a1c2beaea89f218087ba774ae253b494c27
  750b1de04b44d953c5e47ab10f65205ee212f9c30391e5299553954916873a0b41164543
  e801c0b099cb44f48995675823c10b40f4bbac9177a558ca0c30765c2aabfd6a4da54c84
  13e33902d63f064330f0464982429de2604cd03b4de84a9f821a5470423a40a964dcc418
  63363d77b02c3127304f942ee71c98c643a427533ef300104948b825277953aaabfd8555
  88f75a77d199a213ad348116e9e539f6d37068a551c710548b7a2c7ee95f9cd9b3483332
  673cc44bcb18a778a49455c768e0b340f81102ac6b76b064057151ef101ae143787f5485
  53558df8035a3ce00c9c43cda43142cca39034b09a7e6089867b4c64980a69ecab2e6818
  724c35cb909d5d45bc6a349c71b306567664adc0cc8ef698049b4b4b432dd0f69fac0758
  0f77c4f79b22bb90cb97b341880716853431694c9120f6724ad58d57127fced999ff6229
  a5d4c3c240129cc812acc73698f949d8e73661f2528262bfccfa5cdf5a2104649806e295
  ea161217083365aa26cee6ae2f1356e8e1c5cefcc85703447ef1160a1b4a0e8c017b1738
  02c66c88ab70d39a6c96c1569d5a86245a7eeb087d682219080768745b44bf244f65b567
  b2658dbae6962ba52b322118e214cfadd7cf3502582dc9cafba952a9637ad36007102597
  78d99d23f8235da90791604b4f0a4f7640680f59b633d93dfb84282ba54c674b115684a4
  1bc331b659a61a04883d0c5ebbc0772754a4c33b6a90e52e0678ce06a0453ba8a188b15a
  496bae6a24177b636d12fbb088f2cd9504ac200231473031a31a5c62e46288fb3edb858b

Connolly, et al.          Expires 25 July 2024                 [Page 13]
Internet-Draft                    xwing                     January 2024

  21bc0ea59a212fd1c6dba09e920712d068a2be7abcf4f2a3533443ee1780dd419681a960
  cd90af5fcaab8c1552ef25572f157a2bbb934a18a5c57a761b54a45d774ac6bc593583a1
  bcfc4dcd0cca87ab9cff463dc5e80ebbb501d18c8b39e324dbd07ca06cbf75ba33297abc
  c7aabdd5b308401ba387f533f3927b51e91380f5a59b119e354835ab182db62c76d6d85f
  a63241743a52012aac281222bc0037e2c493b4777a99cb5929aba155a006bc9b461c365f
  a3583fac5414b403af9135079b33a10df8819cb462f067253f92b3c45a7fb1c1478d4091
  e39010ba44071019010daa15c0f43d14641a8fa3a94cfaa2a877ae8113bbf8221ee13223
  376494fb128b825952d5105ae4157dd6d70f71d5bd48f34d469976629bce6c12931c88ca
  0882965e27538f272b19796b251226075b131b38564f90159583cd9c4c3c098c8f06a267
  b262b8731b9e962976c41152a76c30b502d0425635357b43cd3a3ecef5bc9910bb89ca9e
  91ba75e8121d53c2329b5222df12560d242724523ff60b6ead310d99954d483b91383a72
  6a937f1b60b474b22ea5b81954580339d81c9f47bab44a3fe0c833a7dba1f5b33a5a2a45
  9812645c6537c2317163d71b7bd7a4a5459a28a1c28659aad9a1ca9a99a363062d453355
  108445a673438e77624e73757c1a84d031cf0fb24b1187aafbe6738e9abaf5b42b004b1f
  a0d96426d3c5324235dd871e7a89364d335ebb6718ad098154208b143b2b43eb9e5fd881
  6c5225d494b40809b2459903c6486a1db9ac3414945e1867b5869c2f88cf9edc0a216681
  804578d34923e5a353babba923db907725b384e74e66987292e007e05c6766f267f839b7
  617c55e28b0fa2121da2d037d6830af9d869e1fb52b0cb645fe221a79b2a46e41980d346
  71ccc58d8756054b2cca7b13715a05f3925355cca838ab8d2425255f61135727167ad6bc
  b0632ebf86384b950ad21088c292b4a4fcc0e59c42d3f77fac85cd9f5cb049b3a29505a9
  84c4c6ac98ca3d0a8f30d2b1bd9815b94b27051b40ffc3455a668b9e141428611b280c1b
  8f2b55f6eb04e10c68f1340ef1582115f10ee2b785b7ebb0ec3a0c61670cf48107b594cd
  6e238e0d68961b47983b87879771519d2b7c21681cd494b420f03d004bb06eeb54f9c080
  c2f2aff6759074d5b3a3b11c73f1af6dc874eeec254d5409fceaa90ff66d90b6930a540f
  d1d9be1844af1d861ff96a611a414a6c61a78fb2a78e74383ab05ebc73855a818a627242
  d523a3e2a35ab4285b4a2564f76772aaf8cdc9f87c65f1b4b5819905fb4f9ea59166fbbd
  b201c5eefc0df7418ca211b5b079a511b8b94429847b537fbed82d57632d63e815d8212d
  8a280d43328604a6c4d2c1887e7ab061f120a0168db2f4735369b193780f0aeb381ff265
  3f3b46e206afe77a7e814c7716a1b166727dd2a0b9a7d8aeace425da63977f8103457c9f
  438a2676c10e3a9c630b855873288ee560ca05c37cc7329e9e502cfac918b9420544445d
  4cfa93f56ee922c7d660937b5937c3074d62968f006d1211c60296685953e5def3804c2d
  ad5c36180137c1df12f31385b670fde5cfe76447f6c4b5b50083553c3cb1eea988004b93
  103cfb0aeefd2a686e01fa4a58e8a3639ca8a1e3f9ae57e235b8cc873c23dc62b8d26016
  9afa2f75ab916a58d974918835d25e6a435085b2e56f17576740ce2a32fc5145030145cf
  b97e63e0e41d354274a079d3e6fb2e15
pk
  1bc331b659a61a04883d0c5ebbc0772754a4c33b6a90e52e0678ce06a0453ba8a188b15a
  496bae6a24177b636d12fbb088f2cd9504ac200231473031a31a5c62e46288fb3edb858b
  21bc0ea59a212fd1c6dba09e920712d068a2be7abcf4f2a3533443ee1780dd419681a960
  cd90af5fcaab8c1552ef25572f157a2bbb934a18a5c57a761b54a45d774ac6bc593583a1
  bcfc4dcd0cca87ab9cff463dc5e80ebbb501d18c8b39e324dbd07ca06cbf75ba33297abc
  c7aabdd5b308401ba387f533f3927b51e91380f5a59b119e354835ab182db62c76d6d85f
  a63241743a52012aac281222bc0037e2c493b4777a99cb5929aba155a006bc9b461c365f
  a3583fac5414b403af9135079b33a10df8819cb462f067253f92b3c45a7fb1c1478d4091
  e39010ba44071019010daa15c0f43d14641a8fa3a94cfaa2a877ae8113bbf8221ee13223
  376494fb128b825952d5105ae4157dd6d70f71d5bd48f34d469976629bce6c12931c88ca
  0882965e27538f272b19796b251226075b131b38564f90159583cd9c4c3c098c8f06a267
  b262b8731b9e962976c41152a76c30b502d0425635357b43cd3a3ecef5bc9910bb89ca9e

Connolly, et al.          Expires 25 July 2024                 [Page 14]
Internet-Draft                    xwing                     January 2024

  91ba75e8121d53c2329b5222df12560d242724523ff60b6ead310d99954d483b91383a72
  6a937f1b60b474b22ea5b81954580339d81c9f47bab44a3fe0c833a7dba1f5b33a5a2a45
  9812645c6537c2317163d71b7bd7a4a5459a28a1c28659aad9a1ca9a99a363062d453355
  108445a673438e77624e73757c1a84d031cf0fb24b1187aafbe6738e9abaf5b42b004b1f
  a0d96426d3c5324235dd871e7a89364d335ebb6718ad098154208b143b2b43eb9e5fd881
  6c5225d494b40809b2459903c6486a1db9ac3414945e1867b5869c2f88cf9edc0a216681
  804578d34923e5a353babba923db907725b384e74e66987292e007e05c6766f267f839b7
  617c55e28b0fa2121da2d037d6830af9d869e1fb52b0cb645fe221a79b2a46e41980d346
  71ccc58d8756054b2cca7b13715a05f3925355cca838ab8d2425255f61135727167ad6bc
  b0632ebf86384b950ad21088c292b4a4fcc0e59c42d3f77fac85cd9f5cb049b3a29505a9
  84c4c6ac98ca3d0a8f30d2b1bd9815b94b27051b40ffc3455a668b9e141428611b280c1b
  8f2b55f6eb04e10c68f1340ef1582115f10ee2b785b7ebb0ec3a0c61670cf48107b594cd
  6e238e0d68961b47983b87879771519d2b7c21681cd494b420f03d004bb06eeb54f9c080
  c2f2aff6759074d5b3a3b11c73f1af6dc874eeec254d5409fceaa90ff66d90b6930a540f
  d1d9be1844af1d861ff96a611a414a6c61a78fb2a78e74383ab05ebc73855a818a627242
  d523a3e2a35ab4285b4a2564f76772aaf8cdc9f87c65f1b4b5819905fb4f9ea59166fbbd
  b201c5eefc0df7418ca211b5b079a511b8b94429847b537fbed82d57632d63e815d8212d
  8a280d43328604a6c4d2c1887e7ab061f120a0168db2f4735369b193780f0aeb381ff265
  3f3b46e206afe77a7e814c7716a1b166727dd2a0b9a7d8aeace425da63977f8103457c9f
  438a2676c10e3a9c630b855873288ee560ca05c37cc7329e9e502cfac918b9420544445d
  4cfa93f56ee922c7d660937b5937c3074d62968f006d1211c60296685953e5dee56f1757
  6740ce2a32fc5145030145cfb97e63e0e41d354274a079d3e6fb2e15
eseed
  badfd6dfaac359a5efbb7bcc4b59d538df9a04302e10c8bc1cbf1a0b3a5120ea17cda7cf
  ad765f5623474d368ccca8af0007cd9f5e4c849f167a580b14aabdef
ct
  718ad10318b367fc4390f63147fa5250ef61b65384a563f2c7951b2d45881fcf9f446ddd
  4443417eed0c001e635a994cda366f118bdd1cf0be0417abd1b615cc669e1b949280e28f
  52d3d5035c6420ff6c943421ee7589e681828c95942d4f9968f32b9ad30cccff0d98fa84
  b187164530dc83f9cde75ab1958c22dbff8af921c9ebc678a658b69663f72e7c1632b6ac
  8ddcbc6c8a06c3316b1aefdd07989ef944fc51406e12db6865344e03f447520d50c93fab
  1513d80cbc836950e2b52f424bb46155ba4c2e21ec5dff762bf7e92e54e0fb7618e73072
  607ba03b1de16f109e22dd5832a7eadfeb2ef00244bbaf930106cbcd2ab008f468de6d98
  632e9e225091a010e361ce751d633e6c37ba2530bca6fbe9d2e5348e4e168e154922992a
  ef45a265ec649ce21480504b609ad5f1b0b094b74d55aaea60b8f71398cd9340802e9141
  5937ffaa482c6678f8421c63583e8acd8d00bf285b52a26fa577aed109acd94ef7559554
  aa378f87283a7ee94af98e21a6fbac8802336ff980e15e498042a8148b69e1d8aab0b712
  6d0b885f9a57c1ea83efcce8dccfee076dbc2f9c074525ed4e7472c3e09a9f1c50ff5111
  50159c1be7730686c04e46368e37f2e8c82b8436463445b0edaefab876731497abcc563b
  1978eac34cf73b5b213549d1f74271d48f6a085155acd8d7db739ce6e70ad25ee636231e
  4151725d55ea781d483e54850e1ebda401276616e7a62b22efa2e3098a006dfacaa1fca5
  4ade6a119f3a215b523210164a7f299d2c7b8ad8a637bc1fba56de28ffa800b522246dbe
  c7148ced56ed292c7d92004065598bc573dd30259d84b6d923d2769ce260cdab0ad17673
  ef7388c020b8e8bcd055232a7240fe2fa4fcbeadbc46366aa47729f5502dbfee8a623ab8
  ec6f6020013aeff975f255b597a11eed1335457b9903da42a27a39fdb0edbb11742e4e52
  1c833b7952d3fd28f428eecb6f78b99ff0a5eb097793f78f1a70612811766fcbe0f9aa3c
  a4afd8a364f5584333d8a4cdc096a3762ea6cce70dfa42967f5a7c2dbef688b37885fa26
  220dc800bcb1ae83d35ffca54a6dabba730764d60b1a4a506206efa380d7d1d89069778b

Connolly, et al.          Expires 25 July 2024                 [Page 15]
Internet-Draft                    xwing                     January 2024

  082bb92396af4547024797797e01c927c78c9f70750ef2002dfe1516baa4f165a3176942
  d35d9527f4b33505484130cd573f9d4a1f1e6656aff881aab482fb3d6151ab02f7626703
  3f3feb9718fbfed05a9b69a8d817a7e4a41efbe3ffeb355d1013778f14d4c30c92a38619
  0fa23b388feddc635b22d8fa4998b65d483cd3b595553092123e144c49d91ddc2f7a88f3
  ef1ad2b0b19636bc3f50f61ea5157c73a1a5b956349b6cdf3ff50ec9ef7cbc1137b27d78
  39276a3ed4e778c505206669686ef038b5808117fedf60ef3598e8ed1db1e5ad64f04af3
  8e60e82fe04bc75594fd9fcd8bb79237adb9c9ffd3dc2c907345f874aec7055576a32263
  486120ff62ad690a988919e941d33ed93706f6984032e205084cc46585b5aef035c22ddb
  b3b0ba04e83f80c1b06b4975f00207b357550d24405189412ea6a83ad56c4873f499fdbd
  c761aa72
ss     2fae7214767890c4703fad953f5e3f91303111498caa135d77cde634151e71b5

seed
  aee7eef47cb0fca9767be1fda69419dfb927e9df07348b196691abaeb580b32def58538b
  8d23f87732ea63b02b4fa0f4873360e2841928cd60dd4cee8cc0d4c922a96188d032675c
  8ac850933c7aff1533b94c834adbb69c6115bad4692d8619
sk
  89722dd1c8829af93f6e5405ecd93a5aaabcb9264aafc363d731bb4f276021b0c0682636
  3022ae1e85acc6679ccb583a37ba4d30e0564ae6421ab1b5c2374a058cb6bca4050ce15e
  d5c51bcc90be82454b332aa21069623d8a8b393a2c2b6cb5bffc55ae369614a77d9bc982
  d47496ab21239bb7691ac65494225889b7b45ba10b0aac10c3c41fa7a4a51fa14d3e92bb
  d364be59ba7d9d4592944968e97a2d947868a0624a97a9c8ad226d81a12a17777eafaa6d
  e30436a5c743003078d830734ec97e6a625f6d9c10f9da3f956b5583578478e6311f2778
  9d6188ede84510442c9f556696378faa622b1e935be62c733da96b023c31b2ba6abfbc5c
  748088251042d46559bf132d2a43b7690cb4666722ebc53849843125f9a900aa476af424
  b7b410f18300f048ce26dc7f35b50f7eb5bccf23c95b7c0064e92662eb22927359df1b9a
  ce43ce014384ae68822f4c3f64583643355c6746290d224a70c818158884e2aa8f15e187
  09100848255c277144f051ab8b40775c297cafb238cdb70e8ce687c9e195d0823b390341
  e245852ca99c079211161a79409247ae721a59b358ef097ed8dc386f982d36a9220c3511
  eacb3674f671f171afb0d14f0890c0c7f77d06f7c61ca83a15974083e72678f180f35c1a
  aa633166d429432599f9d9432fe791318ab14a3988496a14c2417e03990136e91aa3a817
  085abbc4aa0c38a45e7e009f3577739172396f7b7e61734eaacc5b484971e9a9384b58aa
  dff9307a98222a3813f9269fe793b7ef582ab8c36feaf447d3136285f76d5f4631413567
  73650441e092dc73bcf483cb1f2944016936db2a34b743830cb890e85660acd077ea51c0
  7e664df7ab803c9b0c96e143b4f5788311a841b76be728aea60270104564575bb723f51d
  acaab5e379c3cdd97bdac84ad6738587bcbbdf1c66a0da65f87a673f840e1d7c5a722a26
  5568429ae36cdde9cd54ac3d4a94c4c6508361984e1c211771998641816fa392a4ffb976
  64381a84900eb52502f04816a3d70090b55ee2d3b7f3d459af4008ec8c1b19c08d1284b6
  fdc81508647ecb9b45e65c084d456f9fa87a68f26bc05b4e8415887b602ff28b28e41263
  7ff9019a90ac21c7c4ae9670a538a2bd2604616689b034c33cb1cc9d634eb37c8d4d46bc
  40e335582b539d3215bf70960cc1c0b11011449c2a09265101f55366dc0213a641128851
  76c3a223b19cf6951b5968452aa7b839370646db5eee1893346a58c116133dbc8fc1c5ac
  34e04cda171b041c0133563a682855a9cb18896c6179ac2eac83c70547942e54b2e133a6
  f68450f4f4b14bda3af5f129b3e292c6a676aa0b7a045c7251e315ca3707ff23bec349a9
  50d49718560b2ff66cbd49c848b4036c2186a0315c4e6a32f3035207a48651891f50ec6c
  0eb19d13e90457611e0c7ccdf012a3e19412d8c1563f1ab22b39859b27a7bcac72cbf2c8
  3c666deb401e4239603645872b997673b6205d97cdd68b0a782742e62c24ad746261085d
  e3c95f49dbb8172c05f3f2414e63652c3b358d603e867173e03203af06a26bb0bfc0b521

Connolly, et al.          Expires 25 July 2024                 [Page 16]
Internet-Draft                    xwing                     January 2024

  118b6fd99613a160829b04475374b8214859bcc316f4e06a84f264ec3cb513f66b71ac3a
  3d135aa589198cb02113cc17e13a0f15fc1d3d734966c3751a74ac27c781323043e36389
  dca9a2af6508bdba0260662691426d1d8899cd77736c21b17eb3a31fc118154264e2b10e
  22c506b7803b1f4b25d178b688b641d0943185107eed18b228e8b68753a8d75a77f29b5b
  5e97abd028354ce4cd6961797a757c4ff44aeea2c0a16cbfdcb07314fb3e64d7c26a4c9e
  5782a2ee198d73e7bf05eb85bd420cee20ac24c36613d6bd0c53133443527c32bd0f8b3b
  3be9918c7caea71748de6bacfa27710845ad0b528c087349e9faa3c83869e1d0ac926797
  4dba1dc3434976f60b59d443bad51e87d974c9f747b76017bd17021c24246a9987db1b31
  8562bf665b41fb153c0ba675cac593b990ce595a7851fa18ea345bf20c3524862532544e
  05e5c69daa0dc4f2b24704338e29144d653657d47a20f39ed2b1174cb3120ed1590e4ac9
  32579dc2da9f12f6c07ec7a31963208faa5c758615713965b9d5661860cfe5652d74231d
  2ce9b696ea9e45305a28d84c082709d2238bbc849b6b3cac64b78b532995af6b4ce9880f
  9149a5ae083320624e3b54851d48a6f24266258a0a14d342e4ca3133c33c5e16ad91b22d
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  f282503d5cbf3f0cbe3e68873407b7e5e960ca214709919b65301da2b3a7e488205a3a9c
  5f24cd61d18c757040b14a4e80e8c09e74a9a71265ed213a91da6d7a8655de3b4a83125e
  e2e66cb673733e3717d99023a6683712767ab2da9b54a26dd3b695a80b54226a1a967b08
  c3f76e679914470803bc6805a6b4b1b78261259acd8f703dd10ba6e8e1a00dd94e774113
  d13103253cb70edab948c38072629b949261b7c439445bc498444e86b6a9a7da8b153038
  0bf2939532a8e7ea84ea0b5c6db5335e826aa0325b536ccc21d943890b2c2a5c44f33768
  2355867be87965175f2dbbb0aba89f9311b0873a15db6a4128682a8bca019a04a351a0ce
  646868f9bbb6f8d0bea3db0865f1239b16c93ca09d19857d747abfc846b27dd77ee5d405
  fab5ce949635e7d34ec1b9546aea75df571cfed74b7112218e4153e7f6a7a3a910ec4c11
  1576b3bb27c29852746e645fa501b0642678aefa2209c745939a2ab000033862b88e7011
  e7e25ec1e3cd379b54bc457a85d9af0680160c57b3a4e90308bc28b8da13ac0c563c55b3
  9a88bd90b51f691525e50a260a0507a2174447ea93f5d5acec6c16a5d7909e275f612c9f
  283310e8124d28f18000f811fb929e03f30d1472644851bcb73c4af6b095acd7328a072b
  e9187a836a15307c6076210c9b410493505bc4814e3c327386796c5932c8cab7a695b97c
  ac24561b2a9657c3157531ba3cba699b6424fda24cc6c72edac1a6bf091b87c3c594c917
  d24a1126f998aee120ae372a27a268a0c76ab8f84957f461e7c04dd2d59f0f217d9e0700
  8990533b16bbc125b2737a1a7e1cc1ed7c47e8f8464ba78c5d3298f2dc7d0be944ad2990
  7ec774ad1b1f1485b114a9a9b93c488c89c0c7609f2bf9533c2929f667bca8b68999e340
  54597cf83ba7450b237188c3364172c1351bd349a699672d31b9598bab79a18b3d8cb25f
  5f53c0b22bfa065690a16184db4f9731cea1a08f5876ec187e7b1ae79c593415d068838e
  5ce0bf2c28b1e389ae4a768f871b2761a29178a51845eb0b939f0ee9ef58538b8d23f877
  32ea63b02b4fa0f4873360e2841928cd60dd4cee8cc0d4c922a96188d032675c8ac85093
  3c7aff1533b94c834adbb69c6115bad4692d8619c7dd2bf4e3b5b93f77f4576d55d30073
  9e75e14084b0bc85620499bf468ae161
pk
  3d135aa589198cb02113cc17e13a0f15fc1d3d734966c3751a74ac27c781323043e36389
  dca9a2af6508bdba0260662691426d1d8899cd77736c21b17eb3a31fc118154264e2b10e
  22c506b7803b1f4b25d178b688b641d0943185107eed18b228e8b68753a8d75a77f29b5b
  5e97abd028354ce4cd6961797a757c4ff44aeea2c0a16cbfdcb07314fb3e64d7c26a4c9e
  5782a2ee198d73e7bf05eb85bd420cee20ac24c36613d6bd0c53133443527c32bd0f8b3b
  3be9918c7caea71748de6bacfa27710845ad0b528c087349e9faa3c83869e1d0ac926797
  4dba1dc3434976f60b59d443bad51e87d974c9f747b76017bd17021c24246a9987db1b31
  8562bf665b41fb153c0ba675cac593b990ce595a7851fa18ea345bf20c3524862532544e
  05e5c69daa0dc4f2b24704338e29144d653657d47a20f39ed2b1174cb3120ed1590e4ac9

Connolly, et al.          Expires 25 July 2024                 [Page 17]
Internet-Draft                    xwing                     January 2024

  32579dc2da9f12f6c07ec7a31963208faa5c758615713965b9d5661860cfe5652d74231d
  2ce9b696ea9e45305a28d84c082709d2238bbc849b6b3cac64b78b532995af6b4ce9880f
  9149a5ae083320624e3b54851d48a6f24266258a0a14d342e4ca3133c33c5e16ad91b22d
  521100076527cefc5f0417b332463c5c5c52dc4b00a2d29959109244d2810839a310cb1d
  f282503d5cbf3f0cbe3e68873407b7e5e960ca214709919b65301da2b3a7e488205a3a9c
  5f24cd61d18c757040b14a4e80e8c09e74a9a71265ed213a91da6d7a8655de3b4a83125e
  e2e66cb673733e3717d99023a6683712767ab2da9b54a26dd3b695a80b54226a1a967b08
  c3f76e679914470803bc6805a6b4b1b78261259acd8f703dd10ba6e8e1a00dd94e774113
  d13103253cb70edab948c38072629b949261b7c439445bc498444e86b6a9a7da8b153038
  0bf2939532a8e7ea84ea0b5c6db5335e826aa0325b536ccc21d943890b2c2a5c44f33768
  2355867be87965175f2dbbb0aba89f9311b0873a15db6a4128682a8bca019a04a351a0ce
  646868f9bbb6f8d0bea3db0865f1239b16c93ca09d19857d747abfc846b27dd77ee5d405
  fab5ce949635e7d34ec1b9546aea75df571cfed74b7112218e4153e7f6a7a3a910ec4c11
  1576b3bb27c29852746e645fa501b0642678aefa2209c745939a2ab000033862b88e7011
  e7e25ec1e3cd379b54bc457a85d9af0680160c57b3a4e90308bc28b8da13ac0c563c55b3
  9a88bd90b51f691525e50a260a0507a2174447ea93f5d5acec6c16a5d7909e275f612c9f
  283310e8124d28f18000f811fb929e03f30d1472644851bcb73c4af6b095acd7328a072b
  e9187a836a15307c6076210c9b410493505bc4814e3c327386796c5932c8cab7a695b97c
  ac24561b2a9657c3157531ba3cba699b6424fda24cc6c72edac1a6bf091b87c3c594c917
  d24a1126f998aee120ae372a27a268a0c76ab8f84957f461e7c04dd2d59f0f217d9e0700
  8990533b16bbc125b2737a1a7e1cc1ed7c47e8f8464ba78c5d3298f2dc7d0be944ad2990
  7ec774ad1b1f1485b114a9a9b93c488c89c0c7609f2bf9533c2929f667bca8b68999e340
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  e3b5b93f77f4576d55d300739e75e14084b0bc85620499bf468ae161
eseed
  f90b0cdf8a7b9c264029ac185b70b83f2801f2f4b3f70c593ea3aeeb613a7f1b1de33fd7
  5081f592305f2e4526edc09631b10958f464d889f31ba010250fda7f
ct
  f98f274dc74db1798915be81f089fbf792116ec03539b6c02cfbe649267f100df0ef51ec
  6e51fd4a9b75cc2f1806d470b56984df3d368e4d09be4b4ffd59907e11b2d4497b7dd2b6
  1afb3cc52a6ea661f2c6495a7f5fbef3dfac143f65bc9f6eb48d548df01d6a0bb52dab84
  fda5e92f7a223289ec4e45cf76d47ab3a79086481f4bb4e95cd69bfdf388762e775bf63b
  9694f72ca5a90883be5b8ac08c1737d5eced830466e9426fe5bec61bc63f1962358b66cb
  3d8fdd5dfa887b0da5f15c8868bafce3d998b85ab34ced43ac9b9869c84c59fb2f094ddc
  a1dee97db9a941c3cc319401d9db08569d8eb248ec2ff51e7e18c22d810bf512c28d5d71
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  034b8e4c539506c7827a82e37f5b2405236c914783c35a8aaeaacdea194d699dcfd6d040
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  f8788575799e6be241717e9634456be9eb04989cdf312dddd8a24939ebb90de0f5b006d5
  9b2b19350dce76a415230f49374fa45ced3eed165cc92ed1d6e17c233f36030a61cb610b
  93a55d939c9c7e964f9086ccdb41b8638f14f9202cdb9f1e3ffac235ccda32a92a71e851
  88297cdba4a309e085c56826bb6121462ac6ee36beb9ee72c824294b6026c60d478f17dd
  082cca6d6d7a3e86dbe5f7fc9bbc2a07873c686e53f9040aa60dce89b179643741457f5d
  e371c8aaf41eceee8e1a1b324666572322499731242ee48134eb6dfb8961b06b5a04c586
  c6a9113a9c161f36806a284e03b01940286b2de59689607b2b64b46d6fc2ba044c9a42c5
  cb600cfd6ca0bdf4915a47fe02d71b8fcc27f0f17c78a300c6345ccc2f77a438772f4297
  f7b2160aec93e4c8c72c0dbe67868753c18491861a1c1b96eaae07023436602fbb6f2bfb

Connolly, et al.          Expires 25 July 2024                 [Page 18]
Internet-Draft                    xwing                     January 2024

  161a5f778bb3086c2255423a8c51052833f6b63ed2cc732a7e2c4d36123471b451b64083
  0421fd4edc83a9527d91203aa7e41867e3a7dfd5610aa20646738754883935af2b09cb24
  d93a332c9671e6a00cc29a6346de406f5fb28fe84f0b0d3a43c98213bfc2eb2802f1ca07
  1c560a705edceb262c44c2fd2e9e5caf0bf9eafc6be84c8a00d4bfd57e2468254e4560aa
  6e8d62ff72c55c403ce5a8e8c87cb4d7f693344918138a8f1621107492d8c0a8c74ae773
  23f7e1fa84220da14a9ae978b207aa692e2ba13ee5ed924c75e472e1b77cc496519704ab
  87bde2ac15fdde0184d799288b60873b7f85a113b5b8d76a5237f26586ef2cb5cb940c9c
  5a4789267575ed223fdb9d7ed57a390076857d3c0207360a3d039e4f7961dfe25d8e7c03
  4df6ec0503b5589a89911e54d4831b5cc9ed0abc66143b5482d35dec97ed94e65ba7d013
  126348960804ec2f19463b8daaa9927c05eecae3bb58b2575fcec762c14cd7d27f51e05a
  ec3ddf00e90dafcf91d31ac09eaad73d675504798170b703667d2175a37b40e4b7809056
  b1c1ca3062cdb98b0ba79b61c1c3f692b6e75940077ab7aea8649f38e34406282704f108
  0208a15c
ss     d482dd1a592f072109a0d8a86991ca6bd5bab25f13e788377fc34506f508ffdd

seed
  1368ec2967fc84ef2ae9aff268e0b1700affc6820b523a3d917135f2dff2ee06bfe72b31
  24721d4a26c04e53a75e30e73a7a9c4a95d91c55d495e9f51dd0b5e9d83c6d5e8ce803aa
  62b8d654db53d09b8dcff273cdfeb573fad8bcd45578bec2
sk
  f58497af7a5854c214be50bd9694011740619f4042d1a9b5e3d813bf419c9e70b6b6e339
  17644378d7a097047c1be007b9973f3ec7c2c1c7af23726160db834503bc5381625ab08e
  c831b60a04c54a360d2222ab0918358e84a038c41775456f7c6c1de0f27d5b538a9e8091
  1484cb96d17b52825410661cc43a576669a92cb7b97b97aa0e7b55a0589bc1295000a09b
  dfa5236a737a95a7029d2a5f4429494ee4b1299613fb76a573092915f6c37d472beea0b9
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  4eb57eeaf4b0615097a1e970de6aa9ba609fe8ac11fdfa4e7c4cb90a30c03cb8baeb5033
  cb6ba6c755bdaca4c9448bcc24188991a659adfbc219b3ca16258f3c0b8791846cd9e8b1
  7ed33f97b1bfebeaa93628421a348596a72ed8a248219779cedb38f9fb0f064a4bf89a0c
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  85c031e989601972b2ca61c97218c6470498679523c5957ccd0b4f30836429287d47204d
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  6702b2805cba6f945209a22613ec254937bc65fb40371b26f808cac5fa66437603fe175f
  4f039ebef88e2e3757692718229a7167780f032666e9f35a1f316c278270891057390a1b
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  7ffb36349405442bcb7914be2bd482f4686cebf96c38fa67db608953039eb5446a26968a
  a0f023499261bc29356547612a472d9dd135e8744649656995178ad2b38d80850b180b6e
  6c255a0aba7e8c656fe782a63f48bde8cc5899351e308a3d48e5322a7b8b48ec1c99395d
  9cc39d381146846567ed0143c6c1682cd06faa64467a00919c53a374281b86e6744569c0
  eb1b099bea5b5c8a9e8024498ad70fc2cab20bd67a72073901a3bae643619342aa01071c
  3992428dea1755d870cbb86315b2bea4a6753359216e939f7d1aaaf0903b82fba7228a4a
  15f0779de2a19056c4e0b066e98b2a99865df3825caca00a1313c2e8a66cb8165fbebbc7
  fefb9e2e0916f4d753bb354b1cdb0ec61840ae14a0b0a6b89419cbcd4c2cc9fa8df8da7b
  ef4a829e17b996461b499ca051b5989b17738b158057342454745051e7b01aa5a8971181

Connolly, et al.          Expires 25 July 2024                 [Page 19]
Internet-Draft                    xwing                     January 2024

  c4d44e20f3950873aa1a436cf7255328dc73f312119395213ec852dcbc9d0634c722b259
  3e154746402a3d289b3abb14a8d70494b761c3f66242f06cc534a761c19cee82a41ea7a3
  08fb580a19762ea34f2f931cc3fca3a7484b0c0023ea2285dc1b04a46489ea5a673a5a4d
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  8c8b6a200a0ef6b66eec364c0015ceb802081800ab5bd1150ba20e5d2c6012d70fe700a5
  6c101752242397627c89156f667a28ffc32c56d20abe3834d2a05a0390c7f2a893d64127
  fb772ae12468a1f6260af39066ab7ecf694db179436c54a707092a87aa22a274691ee008
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  3aca71aaa2cbb85011c6687472e20419680441cb0c7bc70aaf1361797b1c2f5a5c60c100
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  e7833abc11348305943b049a9d6b7df1f98af6c5bf9a6214f073ab28f1492748574881cd
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  f688ace32a869411ca57cc3bb0455d981a16b655984ad90bf7c3add506b6821248cc5221
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  c464a28758c1822b2c1e5a8ba0779833c6937c9c02ca61285c67557dd958e00840fd1c59
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  485b47df44202d931e2c99316a23a4e396b7c704b832a0b855106f29c20c3c447ad39176
  b77186cfb94b3e973d415636a0950284f50efa9248bb1643e793cc7a6c343395a8a245b6
  69b32821f2b80214481ca4416d9009dd3174c4cbb29da7386a7404b21a72ce5a295deb62
  712a3fb01c927b9b2e73d95aa65c3e92169c72662d7ccab10c8a369d50b90a74c41d590d
  bc4ac104a147855131b1da730116bc17e430599a8d64999d9450b237002fa1021237dbbf
  a096a95ea0542ca7937b7c1971b53ce82087d7e114e446b81265cfd540176cd069deb988
  6fa45bd2f3464e7cc908cac220e642fd3610f18aac2b594192bb7a72a64ffe156e77ac8f
  576a0511b9768798c79590d8d37f58628ef69837335bfa984cde027d87d45cf83e597b70
  5d3130d6210e9d974bab5643cdf4d1cc7c8282ffe68f827e0cac9926bfe72b3124721d4a
  26c04e53a75e30e73a7a9c4a95d91c55d495e9f51dd0b5e9d83c6d5e8ce803aa62b8d654
  db53d09b8dcff273cdfeb573fad8bcd45578bec241c2f9459a0447d7f7ae5f1e8dc1cf4e
  76cdd9add2eba7768b4ac7abb269b07e
pk
  8c8b6a200a0ef6b66eec364c0015ceb802081800ab5bd1150ba20e5d2c6012d70fe700a5
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Connolly, et al.          Expires 25 July 2024                 [Page 20]
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eseed
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ct
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  d2db8108a36117d10664cb2a3e3af672a10b0de5c2a284e6b9de37533bd181bc14fa0490
  35d5050b5526ba59f893a1778103b6e2d946090c0eba049e5c1ad843a3121d539564866a
  f5647437
ss     1e037823ddbf1875756d86a3374b2d2347d5b7f3c84d229ecc5960523cdaa8b4

Appendix B.  Acknowledgments

   TODO acknowledge.

Appendix C.  Change log

      *RFC Editor's Note:* Please remove this section prior to
      publication of a final version of this document.

C.1.  Since draft-connolly-cfrg-xwing-kem-00

   *  A copy of the X25519 public key is now included in the X-Wing
      decapsulation (private) key, so that decapsulation does not
      require separate access to the X-Wing public key.  See #2.

Authors' Addresses

   Deirdre Connolly
   SandboxAQ
   Email: durumcrustulum@gmail.com

   Peter Schwabe
   MPI-SP & Radboud University
   Email: peter@cryptojedi.org

   Bas Westerbaan
   Cloudflare
   Email: bas@cloudflare.com

Connolly, et al.          Expires 25 July 2024                 [Page 22]