The Link Layer service in a Quantum Internet
draft-dahlberg-ll-quantum-00

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Quantum Internet Research Group                             AD. Dahlberg
Internet-Draft                                            MS. Skrzypczyk
Intended status: Experimental                                 SW. Wehner
Expires: September 12, 2019       QuTech, Delft University of Technology
                                                          March 11, 2019

              The Link Layer service in a Quantum Internet
                      draft-dahlberg-ll-quantum-00

Abstract

   In a classical network the link layer is responsible for transferring
   a datagram between two nodes that are connected by a single link,
   possibly including switches.  In a quantum network however, the link
   layer will need to provide a robust entanglement generation service
   between two quantum nodes which are connected by a quantum link,
   possibly including quantum repeaters.  This service can be used by
   higher layers to produce entanglement between distant nodes or to
   perform other operations such as qubit transmission, without full
   knowledge of the underlying hardware and its parameters.  This draft
   defines what can be expected from the service provided by a link
   layer for a Quantum Network and defines an interface between higher
   layers and the link layer.

Status of This Memo

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

Dahlberg, et al.       Expires September 12, 2019               [Page 1]
Internet-Draft      Link Layer in a Quantum Internet          March 2019

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Desired service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     4.1.  Higher layers to link layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       4.1.1.  Header specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.2.  Link layer to higher layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       4.2.1.  Header specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11

1.  Introduction

   The most important fundamental operation in a quantum network is the
   generation of entanglement between nodes.  Short-distance
   entanglement can be used to generate long-distance entanglement with
   the use of an operation called entanglement swap [1] (also formalised
   in [2]).  If nodes A and B share an entangled pair and similarly for
   B and C, B can perform a so called Bell measurement [3] and send the
   measurement outcome (2 bits) over a classical channel to A or C such
   that in the end A and C share an entangled pair.  Furthermore, long-
   distance entanglement in turn enable long-distance qubit transmission
   by the use of quantum teleportation [3] (also formalised in [2]).
   Node A can teleport an unknown qubit state to B by consuming an
   entangled pair between A and B and sending two classical bits to B.

   Entanglement between distant nodes of up to 1.3 km have been
   demonstrated [4], in a proof-of-principle experiment.  The next step
   towards a quantum network is to turn such an experiment to a reliable
   service.  This is the role of the link layer, which turns an ad-hoc
   physical setup to a reliable entanglement generation service.  Since
   entanglement generation is typically a probabilistic process, one of
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