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Integrating YANG Configuration and Management into an Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN) System for Optical Networks

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Adrian Farrel , Daniel King , XingZhao , Chaode Yu
Last updated 2024-04-12
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CCAMP Working Group                                            A. Farrel
Internet-Draft                                                   D. King
Intended status: Standards Track                      Old Dog Consulting
Expires: 14 October 2024                                         X. Zhao
                                                                   C. Yu
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                           12 April 2024

 Integrating YANG Configuration and Management into an Abstraction and
       Control of TE Networks (ACTN) System for Optical Networks


   Many network technologies are operated as Traffic Engineered (TE)
   networks.  Optical networks are a particular case, and have complex
   technology-specific details.

   Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN) is a management
   architecture that abstracts TE network resources to provide a limited
   network view for customers to request and self-manage connectivity
   services.  It also provides functional components to orchestrate and
   operate the network.

   Management of legacy optical networks is often provided via Fault,
   Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security (known as FCAPS)
   using mechanisms such as the Multi-Technology Operations System
   Interface (MTOSI) and the Common Object Request Broker Architecture
   (CORBA).  FCAPS can form a critical part of configuration management
   and service assurance for network operations.  However, the ACTN
   architecture as described in RFC 8453 does not include consideration
   of FCAPS.

   This document enhances the ACTN architecture as applied to optical
   networks by introducing support for FCAPS.  It considers which
   elements of existing IETF YANG work can be used to solve existing
   scenarios and emerging technologies, and what new work may be needed.
   In doing so, this document adds fine-grained network management to
   the ACTN architecture.  This enhanced architecture may then be used
   to evolve networks from CORBA and MTOSI FCAPS interfaces to IETF-
   based YANG and RESTful API capabilities.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  FCAPS Transport Network Management Approaches . . . . . .   4
     1.2.  Configuration Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.3.  Service Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.4.  Motivation and Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   2.  Extending the ACTN Architecture to Include FCAPS  . . . . . .   6
   3.  Functionality at the MPI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.1.  Data Models at the MPI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.2.  Abstraction and Control at the MPI  . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Introduction to FCAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.1.  Functionalities Covered by FCAPS  . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  Abstract Control and Fine-Grain Network Management for
           ACTN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.1.  Abstract Control and Fine-Grain Network Management
           Functions for the MPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.2.  Fine-Grain Network Management Interfaces  . . . . . . . .  12
     5.3.  Fine-Grain Network Management Data Models . . . . . . . .  13
     5.4.  Fine-Grain Network Management Example . . . . . . . . . .  14
   6.  Manageability Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

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   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20

1.  Introduction

   Abstraction and Control of Traffic Engineering Networks (ACTN)
   [RFC8453] is an architecture that simplifies and optimises the
   management and control of network resources to deliver connectivity
   services in Traffic Engineering (TE) networks including optical
   networks.  ACTN abstracts and controls TE resources to enable end-to-
   end service provisioning and management across multiple network
   domains.  It provides a way to orchestrate and automate the
   management of network resources, including connectivity and
   bandwidth, to meet the requirements of specific services or

   ACTN in an optical network leverages SDN concepts to achieve its
   objectives.  By applying SDN principles, such as centralised control
   and programmability, to the transport layer, ACTN enables efficient
   orchestration and service provisioning in a multi-domain environment.
   ACTN adds a higher-level framework and management capabilities
   specifically tailored for TE transport networks, including the
   abstraction of network resources, service provisioning, and resource

   The term FCAPS [M-3060] is used in network management and stands for
   Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security.  FCAPS
   is a widely accepted framework that categorises different aspects of
   network management and provides a structured approach to managing and
   maintaining networks, addressing various operational and maintenance

   While ACTN primarily deals with the abstraction and control of TE
   networks for service provisioning, FCAPS covers broader aspects of
   network management.  In practice, while ACTN provides a suitable
   architecture for requesting and monitoring connectivity services in
   optical networks, operators would also like to leverage the FCAPS
   framework for specific operational tasks and management activities.

   ACTN and FCAPS are not mutually exclusive, and this document explains
   how FCAPS can be integrated into the ACTN architecture as applied to
   optical networks.  It considers which elements of IETF work can be
   used, and what new work is needed.

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   This enhanced ACTN architecture is known as ACTN Fine-Grain Network
   Management (ACTN FGNM).  It provides an evolution path for FCAPS OSS
   functions from Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
   [CORBA] interfaces and the Multi-Technology Operations System
   Interface (MTOSI) architecture [MTOSI], to IETF YANG-based models and
   RESTful APIs.

   It should be noted that optical networks have a lot of details that
   are specific to the transmission medium.  Different networks contain
   different physical transmission components that need to be managed in
   very specific ways.  This can make generalisation of configuration
   and management hard, and means that the nature of ACTN FGNM is
   different in an optical network than it might be in a more general
   (and specifically, packet-based) TE network.

1.1.  FCAPS Transport Network Management Approaches

   ITU-T G.805 [G-805] specifies the architecture and framework for the
   management of transport (i.e., sub-IP) networks.  G.805 provides
   guidelines and principles for managing network resources and services
   in a coordinated and efficient manner.

   The TM Forum (TMF) has developed its own set of standards and
   frameworks for managing telecommunications networks and services.
   Specifically, the TMF developed the Telecommunications Management
   Network (TMN) model and informed ITU-T M.3060 [M-3060] to align with
   G.805.  TMN is a framework that defines a comprehensive set of
   management functions and interfaces for network operations and
   service management, that is, FCAPS.

   More recently, ITU-T M.3041 [M-3041] introduced a framework for smart
   operation, management, and maintenance (SOMM).  M.3041 provides the
   characteristics, scenarios, and the functional architecture of SOMM
   to support service operation, network management, and infrastructure
   maintenance for both traditional physical networks and for software-
   defined networking.  It is applicable to network function
   virtualisation (non-SDN/VFN) and to SDN/NFV aware networks.

   This document shows how the ACTN architecture can accommodate the
   principles of G.805 and M.3041 to include FCAPS capabilities.  It
   outlines existing IETF mechanisms, protocols and data models, and
   indicates requirements where gaps exist.

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1.2.  Configuration Management

   MTOSI [MTOSI] is a standard in the telecommunications industry that
   provides a common framework for operations support systems (OSSes) to
   interact with various network elements and technologies.  It defines
   a set of standardized interfaces and protocols to enable the
   integration of different OSS components.

   It contains several capabilities and key features:

   *  Service Management: It focuses on service management, allowing
      operators to efficiently provision, activate, and manage services
      on the network;

   *  Interoperability: MTOSI promotes interoperability between
      different vendors' OSS components, reducing the complexity of
      integrating heterogeneous network elements;

   *  Common Data Model: It defines a common data model for information
      exchanged between OSS components, ensuring consistency and
      accuracy in operations.

   These features must be introduced into ACTN as ACTN FGNM, to enable
   automation of operations, which is crucial for managing large, multi-
   technology, complex, telecommunications networks.

   Increasingly, network OSSes will require atomic-level views of
   network devices and interfaces, instead of only abstracted views and
   interactions.  This will allow ACTN-based systems to leverage
   inventory management, device-level and interface-level views, and
   network configuration operations, via RESTful APIs instead of legacy
   CORBA-based APIs.

1.3.  Service Assurance

   Service Assurance refers to the activities and processes that ensure
   the quality, availability, and performance of services delivered by a
   network.  Those processes monitor and manage the end-to-end service
   experience, and ensure that Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and
   customer expectations are met.

   By applying RESTful FCAPS functions through the ACTN framework,
   network operators and service providers can address different aspects
   of network management to support Service Assurance.  This helps them
   detect and resolve faults, manage configurations, track resource
   usage, optimise performance, and enhance security, all of which
   contribute to delivering reliable and high-quality services to

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   Not all Service Assurance requirements can be provided via existing
   ACTN YANG models.  Fine-grain detail may also be required,
   supplementing abstract resource models with inventory-based models
   such as [I-D.ietf-ivy-network-inventory-yang].  This would provide an
   atomic-level view of network devices and components, instead of only
   abstracted views.  Note that not all FCAPS functions require fine-
   grain views and control: a mix of abstracted and detailed views will
   sometimes be needed.

1.4.  Motivation and Scope

   Operators who manage optical transport networks can leverage ACTN for
   resource abstraction and service provisioning.  At the same time,
   they can utilise the G.805 architecture and the TMN model to
   establish effective network management practices, which will
   facilitate service assurance.  Combining the two management
   approaches aligns with best-practice industry standards and allows
   adoption of emerging ACTN-based abstraction and control techniques.

   This document studies the FCAPS requirements in the context of ACTN
   functional components.  It analyses the ACTN interfaces from a
   management operations perspective.  It identifies suitable IETF data
   models that meet FCAPS requirements that can be utilised in the ACTN
   architecture to support optical transport networks.  Gaps and
   requirements are identified where necessary so additional models may
   be developed.

2.  Extending the ACTN Architecture to Include FCAPS

   Figure 1 shows the ACTN architecture from [RFC8453] enhanced to
   provide FCAPS support.  The Customer Network Controller (CNC), Multi-
   domain Service Coordinator (MDSC), and Provisioning Network
   Controller (PNC) are functional components of ACTN, as described in
   RFC 8453.  There are two ACTN interfaces between the components: the
   CNC-MDSC Interface (CMI) and the MDSC-PNC Interface (MPI).  In ACTN,
   the CMI and MPI are realised using a combination of IETF data models.

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                                   |   CNC   |
      Boundary                          |
      between   ========================|==========
      Customer &                        | CMI
      Network Operator                  |
                        Policy  +---------------+
                     -----------|     MDSC      |
                    /           +---------------+
          +-------------+               |
          |     OSS     |               | MPI+ FCAPS Extensions
          +-------------+               |
                   \       +---------------------+
                    -------|  Domain             |
                     FCAPS |  Controller         |
                           |                     |
                           | +-----------+       |
                           | | NMS/EMS   |       |
                           | |        .......... |
                           | |        :  |     : |
                           | |        :  | PNC : |
                           | |        :..|.....: |
                           | |           |       |
                           | +-----------+       |
                           |                     |
                                  /       |
                                 /        |
                              -----       |
                             (     )      |
                            ( Phys. )     |
                             ( Net )    -----
                              -----    (     )
                                      ( Phys. )
                                       ( Net )

             Figure 1: The ACTN Architecture Enhanced for FCAPS

   Figure 1 shows the ACTN functional components as described in
   [RFC8453], but also introduces some common management system
   components.  The Operational Support System (OSS) is the overarching
   management component that the operator uses to coordinate customers,
   services, and the network, and to apply policies across the network.
   The Network Management System (NMS) allows an operator to manage a

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   network or set of network elements as a single unit.  At the same
   time, the Element Management System (EMS) applies configuration and
   management to individual network elements.

   As described in [RFC8453], the function of the PNC may be provided by
   an NMS or an EMS.  Thus, Figure 1 shows the PNC overlapping with the
   NMS/EMS.  To avoid confusion between the three possible components
   (NMS, EMS, PNC) that might all be used to operate the devices in the
   network, this document groups all of their function together and uses
   the term Domain Controller (a term used in [RFC7426] and [RFC8309]).

   In a conventional management system, the OSS uses an interface with
   the Domain Controller to exchange FCAPS information.  This interface
   has previously been based on CORBA/XML.

   Furthermore, in an ACTN system, the OSS is likely the point of origin
   for policy instructions that guide the MDSC in orchestrating customer
   service requests and configuring the network.

   In [RFC8453] the MPI is used by the MDSC to instruct the PNCs about
   how the network must be configured to deliver the customers'
   services.  The MPI also reports to the MDSC on the status of
   provisioning commands and the availability of network resources.
   However, up to now, the MDSC has had no visibility into the majority
   of the FCAPS functions and has, therefore, had limited reactive and
   proactive abilities.

   Instead of only using abstracted Tunnel and Topology YANG models, the
   capability to support network inventory and device models is
   required, facilitating more detailed modeling and configuration
   management of network resource information.

   This document examines how the MPI may be enhanced with extensions
   that utilise current YANG models, such as inventory, as well as with
   future YANG-based data models to deliver extensions that provide
   RESTful FCAPS support.

3.  Functionality at the MPI

   This section describes the MPI as specified before the addition of
   FCAPS capabilities.

3.1.  Data Models at the MPI

   Figure 2 lists the data models that can be used at the MPI for
   abstraction and control of underlying optical networks.

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  Category | Data Model                | Document
  Topology | ietf-network              | RFC 8345
           | ietf-network-topology     | RFC 8345
           | ietf-te-topology          | RFC 8795
           | ietf-wson-topology        | RFC 9094
           | ietf-otn-topology         | draft-ietf-ccamp-otn-topo-yang
           | ietf-flex-grid-topology   | draft-ietf-ccamp-flexigrid-yang
           | ietf-optical-impairement- | draft-ietf-ccamp-optical-
           |                  topology |        impairment-topology-yang
  Tunnel   | ietf-te                   | draft-ietf-teas-yang-te
           | ietf-wson-tunnel          | draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-tunnel-
           |                           |                           model
           | ietf-otn-tunnel           | draft-ietf-ccamp-otn-tunnel-
           |                           |                           model
           | ietf-flexi-grid-media-    | draft-ietf-ccamp-flexigrid-
           |                   channel |              media-channel-yang
  Inventory| TBA                       | TBA
           |                           |

                      Figure 2: ACTN MPI YANG Models

3.2.  Abstraction and Control at the MPI

   The abstraction of TE modeling is described in Section 3 of
   [RFC8795].  The major objects that are modeled include TE topology,
   TE node, TE link, TE Link Termination Point (LTP), TE Tunnel
   Termination Point (TTP).  Also included in the modeling are
   transitional TE link, TE node connectivity matrix, and TTP Local Link
   Connectivity List to describe the multiplexing relationship of links.
   These TE concepts are generic, but they are also applicable within an
   optical network.  The MPI deals in abstracted TE network concepts and
   so can be realised using the YANG models listed in Section 3.1 to
   expose the TE modeled objects that can be enhanced using YANG model
   augmentations to make them specific to optical technologies.

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   Specific extensions to the abstract TE model for optical networks are
   provided in a series of documents ([RFC9094],
   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-otn-topo-yang], [I-D.ietf-ccamp-flexigrid-yang],
   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-optical-impairment-topology-yang]).  This list of
   documents arises because the different optical network technologies
   demand different models for the varying characteristics of the

4.  Introduction to FCAPS

4.1.  Functionalities Covered by FCAPS

   Although the building blocks of FCAPS are Fault, Configuration,
   Accounting, Performance, and Security, the important functions for
   integration within an ACTN system are Configuration, Alarm
   Management, and Performance Management.  All three of these functions
   are underpinned by Inventory Management.

   *  Inventory Management describes all objects involved in the
      network, including hardware resources (such as network elements,
      chassis, slots, boards, ports, optical modules, and cables, etc.)
      and logical resource objects used for service provisioning.

   *  The basic Configuration requirement in ACTN is to configure end-
      to- end paths across the transport network based on the
      requirements of users.

   *  Alarm Management refers to how the system enables and disables
      alarm reporting, collects alarm information, and processes that
      information to relate it to the connections that are managed by
      ACTN.  When a network is running, the Domain Manager collects
      alarm information from devices or processes connection-related
      alarms and reports the alarms to the OSS of operator.  So that
      Operations and Management engineers can detect and rectify network
      faults in time.  The main functionalities include alarm retrieval,
      alarm handling, and alarm control.

   *  Performance Monitoring enables engineers to collect and monitor
      performance data from certain physical devices or logical objects
      to identify the status of the network.  The interfaces of
      Performance Management include performance monitoring control,
      performance information retrieval, and threshold crossing alert

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5.  Abstract Control and Fine-Grain Network Management for ACTN

   Abstract Control represents the high-level strategic view and
   objectives, while Fine-Grain Network Management represents the
   detailed operational tasks and activities that support the strategic
   objectives.  Both levels are important for effective management and
   control within the operator network.

   Abstract Control is often mapped to G.805 [G-805] objects.  An
   Abstract Control object can also be mapped to multiple Fine-Grain
   Network Management objects that enable the Abstract Control object.
   Therefore, we should not see these concepts as mutually exclusive,
   but instead as necessary approaches to be combined for holistic
   control and operational management of ACTN-based network

   In the context of ACTN, the MPI is both a concept and a set of
   mechanisms within ACTN that enable the interconnection of services
   across multiple domains or administrative boundaries.  The MPI
   addresses the challenge of interconnecting services across multiple
   administrative domains.  It provides a mechanism to coordinate and
   manage the service delivery between domains while ensuring end-to-end
   service continuity and quality.

   Section 2 of this document emphasises the importance of finely
   configuring FCAPS capabilities for the efficient operation and
   troubleshooting of ACTN-based services.  It is anticipated that these
   capabilities will necessitate detailed and precise network management

5.1.  Abstract Control and Fine-Grain Network Management Functions for
      the MPI

   The Fine-Grain Network Management Functions can be categorised as
   follows.  Several aspects of their functions already exist in the
   MDSC in the ACTN architecture, and are accessed via the MPI.  Other
   functions may be added to the MPI in the future by enhancing or
   augmenting existing optical network YANG models or by creating new

   *  Service Provisioning: This involves the detailed provisioning and
      activation of services.  This includes path computation,
      configuring service parameters, policy management, allocating
      resources, and ensuring proper service activation and

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   *  Network Performance Monitoring: This encompasses monitoring and
      analysing network performance.  It involves collecting and
      analysing performance metrics such as latency, jitter, packet
      loss, and throughput to identify and resolve performance issues

   *  Fault Detection and Alarm Management: This includes advanced fault
      detection mechanisms to identify and troubleshoot network issues
      quickly.  It involves monitoring network elements, analysing
      alarms and events, and performing fault localisation and isolation
      to expedite problem resolution.

   *  Security Management: This covers the management of security
      measures within the TE network.  It involves activities such as
      access control, authentication, encryption, intrusion detection,
      and vulnerability management to ensure network security and
      protect against threats.

   *  Service Level Agreement (SLA) Management: This involves tracking
      service performance against SLA targets, generating SLA reports,
      and taking corrective actions to meet or exceed customer

   *  Capacity Planning: This encompasses detailed planning activities
      to ensure optimal resource utilisation and to meet future demands.
      It involves analysing traffic patterns, forecasting capacity
      requirements, and implementing capacity expansion strategies.

5.2.  Fine-Grain Network Management Interfaces

   Several legacy Fine-Grain Network Management interfaces, such as
   CORBA, exist to facilitate the precise control and management of
   network elements and services.  These interfaces enable communication
   and interaction between different systems, devices, and management

   *  Command Line Interface (CLI)

   *  Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)


   New interfaces and data models have been developed that support Fine-
   Grain Network Management functions.  These models are written in
   YANG, and the interfaces use NETCONF and RESTCONF, the latter also
   providing RESTful API functions.

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5.3.  Fine-Grain Network Management Data Models

   As noted in Section 5.1, new or enhanced data models may be required
   for Fine-Grain Network Management in ACTN-based optical networks.
   Figure 3 shows a functional architecture for YANG control in an ACTN
   system enhanced with FGNM.  The existing ACTN YANG models provide
   access to network devices through topology models that map to
   inventory and thus to configuration of network devices.  The old
   MTOSI approach provides access to inventory and device configuration.

   The FGNM additions to ACTN retrieve information from the inventory
   including performance information viewed through the lens of
   topology.  It also allows direct manipulation of devices through
   configuration of inventory items in a mirror of the MTOSI function.
   Lastly, fault and alarm information that is generated in respect of
   the inventory may be delivered direct to the FGNM system or may be
   correlated before being reported as incidents.

                             ------   ----------------------
                            | ACTN | |          FGNM        |
                             ------   ----------------------
                                 :    ^   :            ^
                                 :    :   :            :
                                 :    :   :            :
                       ----------:----:-  :            :
                      |          :    : | :            :
              MTOSI   | Topology :    : | :            :
                  \   |          :    : | :            :
                   \   ----------:----:-  :            :
                    \            :    :   :            :
                     \           v    :   v            :
     -------------    \---------------------     -------------
    |             |   |                     |   |             |
    | Performance |---|      Inventory      |---| Fault/Alarm |
    |             |   |                     |   |             |
     -------------     ---------------------\    -------------
                                |            \
                                |             \----------
                        ---------------       |          |
                       | Configuration |      | Security |
                        ---------------       |          |
                                |              ----------

                Figure 3: Functional Model of ACTN with FGNM

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   [I-D.yu-ccamp-te-fgnm-yang] proposes a generic FGNM extension model,
   which augments the TE topology model for FGNM-specific purposes.  It
   is expected that layer-specific FGNM extensions will also be required
   in the future.

   Additional work in the IETF exists to provide optical resource
   monitoring, telemetry data, alarm and incident monitoring, inventory,
   life cycle management, service assurance, and asset management.  This
   existing IETF work includes:

   *  A YANG Data Model for Network Incident Management

   *  A YANG Data Model for Network Inventory

   *  Service Assurance for Intent-based Networking Architecture

   *  YANG Modules for Service Assurance [RFC9418]

   *  A Data Manifest for Contextualized Telemetry Data

   *  Asset Lifecycle Management and Operations Problem Statement

   *  A YANG Data Model for Optical Resource Performance Monitoring

   *  A YANG model to manage the optical interface parameters for an
      external transponder in a WDM network

   *  A YANG Data Model for Client Signal Performance Monitoring

   Further work on this document will add to this list of IETF YANG data
   models that could provide Fine-Grain Network Management
   functionality, in the context of ACTN, specifically for optical
   networks and with particular attention to the MPI.

5.4.  Fine-Grain Network Management Example

   Editors note: An example of Fine-Grain Network Management of an
   optical network using the ACTN architecture will be provided in a
   future version of this document.

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6.  Manageability Considerations

   A conventional approach to management of optical networks using MTOSI
   typically employs inventory and device configuration models.
   However, the current ACTN YANG models offer an innovative pathway to
   interact with network devices.  They achieve this by employing
   topology models that correlate directly with both inventory and
   device configurations.  To fully leverage the management
   infrastructure through FGNM interfaces, it is essential to develop
   additional resource data models.  These enhancements to ACTN,
   specifically for optical FGNM, are anticipated to be crucial for
   extracting comprehensive information from the inventory, including
   performance metrics.  Such integration would enable a comprehensive
   perspective on network performance and facilitate direct device
   manipulations by aligning inventory configurations with the
   foundational principles of MTOSI.

   In addressing network fault issues, the system will leverage alarm
   data produced by the network inventory assets.  This information
   might be directly fed into the FGNM system or undergo correlation
   before being flagged as incidents.  This process ensures efficient
   troubleshooting by pinpointing the exact nature and location of
   network anomalies.

   Moreover, security remains a paramount concern in any network setup.
   As such, this document dedicates the next section to security
   considerations, outlining several critical security requirements.
   These guidelines are designed to safeguard the network environment,
   ensuring robust protection against potential threats and

7.  Security Considerations

   Security measures and protocol security must be applied to ensure the
   confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information and
   resources within the context of an ACTN FGNM-based system.

   Key aspects of ACTN FGNM security will require:

   *  Authentication: The process of verifying the identity of an ACTN
      user, system, or device.  Includes mechanisms to authenticate
      users and systems before allowing them to access sensitive
      resources or perform certain operations.

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   *  Authorization: Once a user or system is authenticated,
      authorization determines what actions or resources they are
      allowed to access.  MTOSI security mechanisms define roles,
      permissions, and access controls to ensure that only authorized
      entities can perform specific tasks.

   *  Data Encryption: Encryption techniques may be used to protect
      sensitive data as it is transmitted over the management network.
      This prevents unauthorized access to or interception of

   *  Secure Communication Protocols: The use of secure communication
      protocols, such as HTTPS (HTTP over SSL/TLS) or other
      cryptographic protocols, ensures that data exchanged between ACTN
      components remains confidential and unmodified.

   *  Secure Data Storage: Security measures are put in place to protect
      data stored within the ACTN environment.  This includes encryption
      of stored inventory, device, and service data, access controls,
      and regular security audits.

   *  Auditing and Logging: This includes the capability to record and
      monitor ACTN-based activities within the management system.  Audit
      logs provide a record of who accessed what resources and when,
      which is crucial for investigating security incidents or
      compliance with regulations.

   *  Intrusion Detection and Prevention: Software systems and hardware
      devices may have mechanisms in place to detect and respond to
      unauthorized access attempts or suspicious activities.  Intrusion
      detection systems (IDS) and intrusion prevention systems (IPS) can
      play a role in ACTN-based security.

   *  Vulnerability Management: Regular security assessments and
      vulnerability scans help identify and address potential weaknesses
      in the ACTN environment.

   *  Security Policies and Procedures: Clear security policies and
      procedures should be established and communicated to all
      stakeholders.  This ensures that everyone understands their
      responsibilities in maintaining the security of the ACTN system.

   *  Incident Response: Security should include plans and procedures
      for responding to security incidents, including steps for
      containment, investigation, mitigation, and recovery.

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   Overall, security is crucial for maintaining the integrity and
   reliability of ACTN FGNM operations and support systems, especially
   in an environment where sensitive customer data and critical network
   resources are involved.  It is expected that all IETF YANG documents
   include clear analysis of the security vulnerabilities associated
   with the YANG models they describe.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no requests for IANA action.

9.  Acknowledgements

   Thank you to Daniele Ceccarelli and Victor Lopez for their
   observations and suggestions regarding this document.


   To be added as necessary.

Informative References

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              Architecture (CORBA) Component Model.", Standard OMG,
              March 2006, <>.

   [G-805]    International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
              Standardization Sector, "ITU-T G.805, Generic functional
              architecture of transport networks.", Recommendation ITU-T
              Recommendation G.805, 10 March 2001,

              Hu, T., Contreras, L. M., Graf, T., Li, Z., Wu, Q., Yu,
              C., Davis, N., and C. Feng, "A YANG Data Model for Network
              Incident Management", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-feng-nmop-network-incident-yang-01, 2 March 2024,

              Galimberti, G., Hiremagalur, D., Grammel, G., Manzotti,
              R., and D. Breuer, "A YANG model to manage the optical
              interface parameters for an external transponder in a WDM
              network", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              ccamp-dwdm-if-param-yang-10, 23 October 2023,

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              de Madrid, U. A., Burrero, D. P., King, D., Lee, Y., and
              H. Zheng, "A YANG Data Model for Flexi-Grid Optical
              Networks", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              ccamp-flexigrid-yang-16, 29 January 2024,

              Beller, D., Le Rouzic, E., Belotti, S., Galimberti, G.,
              and I. Busi, "A YANG Data Model for Optical Impairment-
              aware Topology", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              ietf-ccamp-optical-impairment-topology-yang-15, 4 March
              2024, <

              Zheng, H., Busi, I., Liu, X., Belotti, S., and O. G. de
              Dios, "A YANG Data Model for Optical Transport Network
              Topology", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              ccamp-otn-topo-yang-17, 10 July 2023,

              Yu, C., Belotti, S., Bouquier, J., Peruzzini, F., and P.
              Bedard, "A YANG Data Model for Network Inventory", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ivy-network-
              inventory-yang-01, 4 March 2024,

              Claise, B., Quilbeuf, J., Lopez, D., Martinez-Casanueva,
              I. D., and T. Graf, "A Data Manifest for Contextualized
              Telemetry Data", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              ietf-opsawg-collected-data-manifest-03, 4 March 2024,

              Palmero, M., Brockners, F., Kumar, S., Cardona, C., and D.
              Lopez, "Asset Lifecycle Management and Operations, Problem
              Statement", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              palmero-opsawg-ps-almo-00, 29 June 2023,

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              Yu, C., Peruzzini, F., Yanlei, Z., Busi, I., Guo, A.,
              Lopez, V., and XingZhao, "A YANG Data Model for Optical
              Resource Performance Monitoring", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-yu-ccamp-optical-resource-pm-yang-
              03, 4 March 2024, <

              Yu, C. and XingZhao, "YANG Data Models for Transport TE
              FGNM Extension Model", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-yu-ccamp-te-fgnm-yang-00, 3 March 2024,

              Yu, C., Zheng, H., Busi, I., Yanlei, Z., Lopez, V., and O.
              G. de Dios, "A YANG Data Model for Client Signal
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              draft-zheng-ccamp-client-pm-yang-10, 3 March 2024,

   [M-3041]   International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
              Standardization Sector, "ITU-T M.3041, Framework of smart
              operation, management and maintenance.",
              Recommendation ITU-T Recommendation M.3041, 13 February
              2020, <>.

   [M-3060]   International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
              Standardization Sector, "ITU-T M.3060, Principles for the
              Management of Next Generation Networks.",
              Recommendation ITU-T Recommendation M.3060/Y.2401, 22
              March 2006,

   [MTOSI]    TeleManagment Forum (TM Forum), "The Multi-Technology
              Operations System Interface.", Web page TM Forum,

   [RFC7426]  Haleplidis, E., Ed., Pentikousis, K., Ed., Denazis, S.,
              Hadi Salim, J., Meyer, D., and O. Koufopavlou, "Software-
              Defined Networking (SDN): Layers and Architecture
              Terminology", RFC 7426, DOI 10.17487/RFC7426, January
              2015, <>.

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   [RFC8309]  Wu, Q., Liu, W., and A. Farrel, "Service Models
              Explained", RFC 8309, DOI 10.17487/RFC8309, January 2018,

   [RFC8453]  Ceccarelli, D., Ed. and Y. Lee, Ed., "Framework for
              Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN)", RFC 8453,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8453, August 2018,

   [RFC8795]  Liu, X., Bryskin, I., Beeram, V., Saad, T., Shah, H., and
              O. Gonzalez de Dios, "YANG Data Model for Traffic
              Engineering (TE) Topologies", RFC 8795,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8795, August 2020,

   [RFC9094]  Zheng, H., Lee, Y., Guo, A., Lopez, V., and D. King, "A
              YANG Data Model for Wavelength Switched Optical Networks
              (WSONs)", RFC 9094, DOI 10.17487/RFC9094, August 2021,

   [RFC9417]  Claise, B., Quilbeuf, J., Lopez, D., Voyer, D., and T.
              Arumugam, "Service Assurance for Intent-Based Networking
              Architecture", RFC 9417, DOI 10.17487/RFC9417, July 2023,

   [RFC9418]  Claise, B., Quilbeuf, J., Lucente, P., Fasano, P., and T.
              Arumugam, "A YANG Data Model for Service Assurance",
              RFC 9418, DOI 10.17487/RFC9418, July 2023,

Authors' Addresses

   Adrian Farrel
   Old Dog Consulting

   Daniel King
   Old Dog Consulting

   Xing Zhao

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   Chaode Yu
   Huawei Technologies

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