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Open Ethics Transparency Protocol
draft-lukianets-open-ethics-transparency-protocol-02

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Author Nikita Lukianets
Last updated 2022-11-21
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draft-lukianets-open-ethics-transparency-protocol-02
dispatch                                                    N. Lukianets
Internet-Draft                                    Open Ethics Initiative
Intended status: Experimental                           22 November 2022
Expires: 26 May 2023

                   Open Ethics Transparency Protocol
          draft-lukianets-open-ethics-transparency-protocol-02

Abstract

   The Open Ethics Transparency Protocol (OETP) is an application-level
   protocol for publishing and accessing ethical Disclosures of IT
   Products and their Components.  The Protocol is based on HTTP
   exchange of information about the ethical "postures", provided in an
   open and standardized format.  The scope of the Protocol covers
   Disclosures for systems such as Software as a Service (SaaS)
   Applications, Software Applications, Software Components, Application
   Programming Interfaces (API), Automated Decision-Making (ADM)
   systems, and systems using Artificial Intelligence (AI).  OETP aims
   to bring more transparent, predictable, and safe environments for the
   end-users.  The OETP Disclosure Format is an extensible JSON-based
   format.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 26 May 2023.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Requirement Levels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Protocol Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  Creation of Disclosure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.1.1.  Cryptographic Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.1.2.  Immutable Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.1.3.  Visual Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Access to Disclosure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.1.  Initial Request to a Disclosure file  . . . . . . . .   7
       4.2.2.  Access to Visual Trust Labels . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.2.3.  Requirements for placement of Integrity Signature in
               Visual Label  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.2.4.  Conformity assessment marks . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.2.5.  Accessibility considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.3.  Verification and Validation of Disclosure . . . . . . . .   8
       4.3.1.  Automated Disclosure processing . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.3.2.  Validation of Vendor's Disclosures  . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.3.3.  Verification of Vendor's Disclosures  . . . . . . . .   8
       4.3.4.  Progressive Verification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.4.  End-to-end transparency and formation of the composite
           Disclosure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.4.1.  Open Supplier Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.4.2.  Request for Supplier's Disclosures  . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.4.3.  Disclosure Chaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.4.4.  Generation of the Composite Disclosure  . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Example OETP Disclosure File  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.1.  Response content  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.2.  Spoofing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.3.  Falsification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  Areas for Future Study  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Appendix A.  Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

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     A.1.  Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       A.1.1.  Creation of Disclosure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       A.1.2.  Basic Disclosure Submission . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       A.1.3.  Progressive Verification Scheme for Disclosures . . .  16
       A.1.4.  Disclosure Chaining: Request-Response . . . . . . . .  17
       A.1.5.  Disclosure Chaining: Level Order Traversal  . . . . .  18
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19

1.  Introduction

   The Open Ethics Transparency Protocol (OETP or Protocol) describes
   the creation and exchange of voluntary ethics Disclosures for IT
   products.  It is brought as a solution to increase the transparency
   of how IT products are built and deployed.  This document provides
   details on how disclosures for data collection and data processing
   practice are formed, stored, validated, and exchanged in a
   standardized and open format.

   OETP provides facilities for:

   *  *Informed consumer choices* : End-users able to make informed
      choices based on their own ethical preferences and product
      disclosure.

   *  *Industrial-scale monitoring* : Discovery of best and worst
      practices within market verticals, technology stacks, and product
      value offerings.

   *  *Legally-agnostic guidelines* : Suggestions for developers and
      product-owners, formulated in factual language, which are legally-
      agnostic and could be easily transformed into product requirements
      and safeguards.

   *  *Iterative improvement* : Digital products, specifically, the ones
      powered by artificial intelligence could receive nearly real-time
      feedback on how their performance and ethical posture could be
      improved to cover security, privacy, diversity, fairness, power
      balance, non-discrimination, and other requirements.

   *  *Labeling and certification* : Mapping to existing and future
      regulatory initiatives and standards.

   The Open Ethics Transparency Protocol (OETP) is an application-level
   protocol for publishing and accessing ethical Disclosures of IT
   products and their components.  The Protocol is based on HTTP
   exchange of information about the ethical "postures", provided in an
   open and standardized format.  The scope of the Protocol covers

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   Disclosures for systems such as Software as a Service (SaaS)
   Applications, Software Applications, Software Components, Application
   Programming Interfaces (API), Automated Decision-Making (ADM)
   systems, and systems using Artificial Intelligence (AI).  OETP aims
   to bring more transparent, predictable, and safe environments for the
   end-users.  The OETP Disclosure Format is an extensible JSON-based
   format.

2.  Requirement Levels

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  Terminology

   Disclosure:  Disclosure (Ethics Disclosure, or self-disclosure) is
      application-specific information about the data collection, data
      processing, and decision-making practices of a Product, provided
      by the Product Vendor (an individual developer or an
      organization).

   Disclosure Feed:  A historical sequence of Disclosures, made for a
      specific Product.

   Disclosure Identity Provider:  The automated Disclosure processing is
      enabled by requests to both the Open Ethics Disclosure database
      powered by Disclosure Identity Providers (DIP) and the Product's
      OETP Disclosure file, stored in the product's website root
      following OETP specification.  DIP serves as a service point to
      generate and retrieve generated disclosures.

   Vendor:  A legal person (an individual developer or an organization)
      that owns one or several end-user Products, or acts as a Supplier
      and provides Components for other Vendors.

   Integrator:  A legal person (an individual developer or an
      organization) that deploys technology-powered services to the end-
      users based on Product(s) from third-party Vendors.

   Product:  An IT system in the form of software, software as a service
      system, application, software component, application programming
      interface, or a physically embodied automated decision-making
      agent.

   Component:  An IT system supplied by Vendor and integrated/embedded

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      into end-user Products.  Components themselves do not necessarily
      interface with end-users.

   Upstream Component:  A Component that sends its outputs to the
      Product Downstream in the data processing chain.  Disclosure for
      the Upstream Component is represented as a Child relative to the
      Disclosure node of the Downstream Product.

   Downstream Component:  A Component that receives inputs from the
      Components Upstream in the data processing chain.  Disclosure for
      the Downstream Component is represented as a Parent relative to
      the Disclosure node of the Upstream Component.

   Automated Decision-Making (ADM):  Automated decision-making is the
      process of making a decision by automated means without any human
      involvement.  These decisions can be based on factual data, as
      well as on digitally created profiles or inferred data.

   OETP Disclosure Format:  A machine-readable Disclosure with
      predefined structure, supplied in the JSON format.

   Validation:  A sequence of automated software-based checks to control
      validity and security elements in the OETP Disclosure.

   Auditor:  A third-party legal person trusted to perform Verification
      checks and to issue Verification Proofs.

   Auditing software:  An automated software-based tool authorized to
      perform Verification checks and to issue Verification Proofs.

   Verification:  A procedure to control the correspondence of the
      elements in the OETP Disclosure and the actual data processing and
      data collection practices of the Vendors.

   Verification Proof:  A result of the formal Disclosure Verification
      procedure presented to a requestor.

   Chaining:  A process of combining Disclosures of individual
      Components into a composite high-level Disclosure for a Product.

   Label:  User-facing graphical illustrations and textual descriptions
      of the Product that facilitate understanding of the values and
      risks the Product carries.

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4.  Protocol Model

   The Disclosure creation and delivery consist of the two parts,
   starting from (I) the submission of the Disclosure form, chaining of
   the Suppliers' Disclosures, Signature of the disclosed information,
   and the delivery part (II) that first checks that the Disclosure is
   Valid, and then that the information specified in it is Verified by
   the third-parties.  Figure 2 shows disclosure creation steps.

4.1.  Creation of Disclosure

   The initial Disclosure is created by filling out a standardized
   disclosure form (for example, see 1. https://openethics.ai/label/
   (https://openethics.ai/label/)).  A Vendor representative, a Product
   Owner, or a Developer, MUST submit data-processing and data-
   collection information about the Product.  The information about the
   end-point URL, as well as a contact email address, MUST be specified.
   Disclosure MAY also be created in a fully automated way as a part of
   the CI/CD DevOps pipeline.  Figure 3 shows basic disclosure
   submission process.

4.1.1.  Cryptographic Signature

   The Disclosure is organized into a predefined data schema and MUST be
   cryptographically signed by the Signature Generator (Open Ethics or
   federated providers) using standard SHA3-512 hash implementation.
   The integrity hash MUST be appended to a disclosure as the
   OETP.schema.integrity element.

4.1.2.  Immutable Storage

   Both the signature integrity hash and the Disclosure SHOULD be stored
   in the log-centric root database and MAY be mirrored by other
   distributed databases for redundancy and safety.

4.1.3.  Visual Labeling

   Open Ethics Label SHOULD be automatically generated by mirroring the
   submitted Disclosure into a set of graphical icons and simple human-
   readable descriptions.  Additional Labels MAY be generated following
   successful third-party Verification and by mapping the regulatory
   requirements to Verified Disclosures.

4.2.  Access to Disclosure

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4.2.1.  Initial Request to a Disclosure file

   The most recent OETP file SHOULD be stored in the root of the
   Product's specified end-point URL, allowing requests to the OETP file
   from third-party domains.  When establishing a Vendor relationship,
   the Integrator or a downstream Vendor MAY examine the Disclosure for
   their Components using the following HTTP request: GET
   https://testexample.com/oetp.json, where _testexample.com_ is the URL
   of the Supplier's end-point.

4.2.2.  Access to Visual Trust Labels

   A Vendor SHOULD place a visual Label generated as a result of the
   Disclosure process in the Product informational materials (for
   example Marketing Materials, User Guides, Safety Instructions,
   Privacy Policy, Terms of Service, etc).  The Label reflects the
   content of the Disclosure and SHOULD be displayed in any digital
   media by embedding a software widget.  Visual labels in the print
   media SHOULD carry a visually distinguishable Integrity signature to
   enable manual Validation by the User.

4.2.3.  Requirements for placement of Integrity Signature in Visual
        Label

   *  *Labels in the online digital media* MUST be generated
      automatically based on the content of the Disclosure and MUST
      contain a URL allowing to check the complete Integrity hash and
      explore more detailed information about the Disclosure.

   *  *Labels in the offline media* MUST be generated automatically
      based on the content of the Disclosure and should carry the first
      10 digits of the corresponding Integrity hash.

4.2.4.  Conformity assessment marks

   Based on the Verification performed for the OETP Disclosure file, the
   labels MAY include Conformity assessment marks, Certification marks,
   as well as marks showing adherence to certain standards.  These marks
   MAY be generated and displayed automatically based on the
   Verification Proofs.

4.2.5.  Accessibility considerations

   Accessibility of the Labels for the visually impaired Users SHOULD be
   considered.  The OETP Processing system MUST provide alternative
   forms of the Label so that text-to-speech tools could be used to
   narrate the Label.

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4.3.  Verification and Validation of Disclosure

4.3.1.  Automated Disclosure processing

   The automated Disclosure processing is enabled by requests to both
   the Open Ethics Disclosure database powered by Disclosure Identity
   Providers and the Product's OETP Disclosure file.

   To allow efficient decentralization and access to the disclosures of
   autonomous systems, such as AI systems powered by trained machine
   learning models, the vendor (or a developer) MUST send requests to a
   Disclosure Identity Provider.  Disclosures MAY be resolved using
   URIs.  To satisfy the mentioned requirements for disclosure RI, it is
   proposed in [OETP-RI] to use the following formats:

   *  oetp://<hash> - Here integrity <hash> is the SHA3-512 generated
      during the disclosure process.

   *  oetp://<component>@<alias>[:<disclosure>] - Here <component> is
      the ID assigned via Disclosure Identity Provider under its <alias>
      during the first disclosure.

   *  oetp://<domain>[:<disclosure>] - For verified domains (Domain
      Validation), disclosure could be accessed using product's <domain>
      instead of <component>@<alias>.)

4.3.2.  Validation of Vendor's Disclosures

   The OETP Processing system MUST compare integrity hashes in the Open
   Ethics Disclosure database and entries that arrive as a result of the
   Disclosure Request response.

4.3.3.  Verification of Vendor's Disclosures

   Every disclosure SHOULD be checked for the existence of the external
   Verification from Auditors for the entire Disclosures or one of the
   Disclosure elements.

4.3.4.  Progressive Verification

   To raise a level of trust in a Disclosure, a Vendor MAY decide to
   opt-in for a third-party Disclosure Verification.  OETP suggests a
   Progressive Verification scheme where multiple independent external
   Verification Proofs COULD be issued by third parties to confirm the
   information specified in the Disclosure.

   The Progressive Verification applies to a whole Disclosure, or to
   specific elements of the Disclosure.

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   Figure 4 displays a general scheme for Disclosure requests and
   responses.

   The following elements MAY serve as sources for various kinds of
   Verification proofs: * Qualified Auditor reports * Qualified Vendor
   of Auditing software tests * Certification Authority assessments *
   Conformity assessments * User Feedback * Market Brokers * Real-time
   Loggers

4.4.  End-to-end transparency and formation of the composite Disclosure

   The IT industry is getting more mature with Vendors becoming more
   specialized.  Surface-level transparency is not sufficient as supply
   chains are becoming more complex and distributed across various
   Components.  The following steps MUST be satisfied for the end-to-end
   transparency:

4.4.1.  Open Supplier Policy

   Every Integrator or a Vendor SHOULD disclose the information about
   their Suppliers (sub-processing Vendors), indicating the scope of the
   data processing in the Components they provide.

   If the Supplier information is not provided, Disclosure SHOULD
   contain information that a Vendor (Integrator) has not provided
   Supplier information.

4.4.1.1.  First-party Components

   For greater transparency, Vendors may decide to reveal Components
   even if they originate from themselves (first-party Components).  For
   the first-party Component, the Supplier identity information SHOULD
   NOT be provided because it was already disclosed earlier.

   Required: (Section 4.4.1.3.2) only

4.4.1.2.  Third-party Components

   When disclosing Components originating from the third-party Vendors
   SHOULD provide both the Supplier identity information and Component
   information

   Required: (Section 4.4.1.3.1, Section 4.4.1.3.2)

4.4.1.3.  Elements of Supplier disclosure

4.4.1.3.1.  Supplier identity

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   *  Vendor Name

   *  Vendor URL

   *  Vendor ID

   *  Vendor DPO Contact Email

4.4.1.3.2.  Component information

   *  Component Scope of use

   *  Personal Data Being Processed by Component

   *  Is a Safety Component (YES)/(NO)

   *  Component URL (if different from the Vendor URL)

   *  Component Disclosure URL (if different from the default Component
      URL/oetp.json)

   *  Component DPO Contact (if different from Vendor DPO Contact Email)

4.4.2.  Request for Supplier's Disclosures

   The OETP Processing system MUST send GET requests to the URLs of each
   Component to obtain their Disclosures.  Based on the response to each
   Disclosure request, the OETP Processing system MUST specify which
   Components have Disclosures and which don't have Disclosures.

   Figure 5 shows the process of how Disclosure Chaining requests and
   responses happen.

4.4.3.  Disclosure Chaining

   The same Request-response operation applies recursively for
   Components of the Components, for the Components of the Components of
   the Components, etc.  It is proposed to view the supply chain as a
   tree-like hierarchical data structure, where the information about
   Components is assembled using Level Order Tree Traversal algorithm.

   In this tree: * Node is a structure that contains the Component's
   Disclosure; * Root is the top Node representing a Product's
   Disclosure information; * Edge is the connection between one Node and
   another, representing the scope of the Data Processing by the
   Component.

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   Figure 6 displays the order of the Disclosure Chaining with Level
   Order Tree Traversal algorithm.

4.4.4.  Generation of the Composite Disclosure

   The current consensus from the user & developer community suggests
   that Composite Disclosure should follow The "Weakest Link" model.
   According to this model, the risk that the Product is carrying should
   not be considered any less than the risk for each of the Components.
   A similar approach in dealing with software licenses has been
   successful by allowing to generate Software Bills of Materials
   (SBOMs) by providing package information in the [SPDX] files.

   Formally this approach could be illustrated with the use of a
   conjunction table for risk modeling (see Table 1).  The Truth
   Table for Logical AND operator below takes one risk factor and
   evaluates risk outcomes as High (H) or Low (L) for hypothetical
   Disclosure options of the Product(P) and its Component(C).

      +=====================+=====================+=================+
      | Disclosed risk of P | Disclosed risk of C | Composite P & C |
      +=====================+=====================+=================+
      |          L          |          L          |       *L*       |
      +---------------------+---------------------+-----------------+
      |          L          |          H          |       *H*       |
      +---------------------+---------------------+-----------------+
      |          H          |          L          |       *H*       |
      +---------------------+---------------------+-----------------+
      |          H          |          H          |       *H*       |
      +---------------------+---------------------+-----------------+

                Table 1: Conjunction Table for Risk Modeling

   Further evaluation of this approach is required.

5.  Example OETP Disclosure File

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   {
       "schema": {
           "name": "Open Ethics Transparency Protocol",
           "version": "0.9.3 RFC",
           "integrity": "156d624b8f2dbea87128a2147f255842652475c5dc595c79f64c90c7ff486d59007c3e18c993e3163395812e26b70ea70dfc413f7ca128869d115f12e5699bf2"
       },
       "snapshot": {
           "product": {
               "url": "testexample.com",
               "description": ""
           },
           "timestamp": 1608273946,
           "generator": {
               "name": "Open Ethics",
               "alias": "oe",
               "type": "root",
               "website": "https://openethics.ai"
           },
           "label": {
               "data": {
                   "type": "open",
                   "practice": ""
               },
               "source": {
                   "type": "open",
                   "practice": ""
               },
               "decision": {
                   "type": "restricted",
                   "practice": ""
               }
           }
       }
   }

                   Figure 1: Example OETP Disclosure File

6.  Security Considerations

6.1.  Response content

   OETP exchanges data using JSON [RFC8259] which is a lightweight data-
   interchange format.  A JSON-based application can be attacked in
   multiple ways such as sending data in an improper format or embedding
   attack vectors in the data.  It is important for any application
   using JSON format to validate the inputs before being processed.  To
   mitigate this attack type, the JSON Key Profile is provided for OETP
   responses.

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6.2.  Spoofing

   OETP Processors should be aware of the potential for spoofing attacks
   where the attacker publishes an OETP disclosure with the
   OETP.snapshot value from another product, or, perhaps with an
   outdated OETP.snapshot.label element.  For example, an OETP Processor
   could suppress the display of falsified entries by comparing the
   snapshot integrity from the submission database and a calculated hash
   for the OETP.snapshot object.  In that situation, the OETP Processor
   might also take steps to determine whether the disclosures originated
   from the same publisher require further investigation of the
   Disclosure Feed and alert the downstream OETP Processors.

6.3.  Falsification

   Dishonest or falsified Disclosures is a problem that is hard to
   address generally.  The approach to it is public control and
   systematic checks.  Vendors or user-facing applications and services
   could further raise the level of trust in their Disclosures by
   implementing programmatic control scoring mechanisms, as well as the
   external verification by trusted Auditors.

7.  IANA Considerations

   Disclosures MAY be resolved using their URIs.  To allow this
   requirement, the oetp:// URI scheme should be registered with IANA.

8.  Areas for Future Study

   The following topics not addressed in this version of the document
   are possible areas for the future study:

   *  Extensibility of the OETP Disclosure Format.

   *  Evaluate other methods of Generation of the Composite Disclosure
      based on the Disclosure Tree

   *  Disclosure Chaining mechanisms and various use-cases.

   *  Typical scenarios and templates for Disclosure submissions.

   *  Mapping of the regulatory requirements and future Disclosure
      elements.

   *  Standardizing Privacy Disclosure and PII data-collection
      practices.

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   *  Enhancing Label accessibility with ARIA W3C Recommendation and
      other approaches

   *  Use of the OETP Disclosure in the ADM explainability (XAI).

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8174>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [OETP-RI]  Open Ethics Initiative, "Resource Identifier Scheme for
              OETP", 2022,
              <https://github.com/OpenEthicsAI/OETP-RI-scheme>.

   [RFC8259]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8259>.

   [SPDX]     The Linux Foundation, "SPDX Specification – Version 2.2",
              2020, <https://spdx.dev/>.

Appendix A.  Appendix

A.1.  Figures

   Diagrams could be built from code using the below *.puml files
   automatically using PlantUML (https://plantuml.com/).

A.1.1.  Creation of Disclosure

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   @startuml

   title Disclosure Creation Process

   skinparam roundCorner 15

   actor "Supplier A" as SA
   actor "Supplier B" as SB
   actor Vendor as V

   component "Component A" as CA
   component "Component B" as CB
   file "Disclosure A" as DA
   file "Disclosure B" as DB
   file "Composite Disclosure" as D

   V-right->(Creation):disclose
   SA-up->CA
   SB-up->CB
   CA-up->DA
   CB-up->DB
   DA-up->(Chaining)
   DB-up->(Chaining)
   (Creation)->(Chaining)
   (Chaining)->(Validation)
   (Validation)->(Verification)
   (Verification)->D
   @enduml

                    Figure 2: Creation of the Disclosure

A.1.2.  Basic Disclosure Submission

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   @startuml
   title Basic Disclosure Submission

   skinparam roundCorner 15
   autonumber

   actor Vendor
   database "Disclosure Identity Provider" as ID
   control "Signature Generator" as SIG
   database "Federated Identity Provider" as DIS

   Vendor -> ID: Request with Disclosure payload
   ID -> ID: Validate input
   ID -> SIG: Structured Data, Initialized

   ID <-- SIG: SHA3-512 integrity hash
       group Distributed Identity Storage
   DIS <-- SIG: SHA3-512 integrity hash
   end
   ID -> ID: Log OETP file and a corresponding intgrity hash
   Vendor <-- ID: OETP Disclosure File
   @enduml

                   Figure 3: Basic Disclosure Submission

A.1.3.  Progressive Verification Scheme for Disclosures

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   @startuml

   title Progressive Verification with multiple Auditors

   skinparam roundCorner 15
   autonumber
   actor User
   User -> Vendor: Disclosure Request
   User <-- Vendor: OETP Disclosure File

   database "Disclosure Identity Provider" as ID

   User -> ID: Disclosure Validation and Verification Request

   group Progressive Disclosure Verification
       ID -> ID: Retrieve and Compare Disclosure Integrity
       ID -> "Auditor 1": Disclosure Verification Request
       ID <-- "Auditor 1": Verification Proof 1
       ID -> "Auditor N": Disclosure Verification Request
       ID <-- "Auditor N": Verification Proof N
   end

   User <-- ID: Verification response

   User -> Vendor: Service Request
   User <-- Vendor: Service Response
   @enduml

         Figure 4: Progressive Verification Scheme for Disclosures

A.1.4.  Disclosure Chaining: Request-Response

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   @startuml
   title Disclosure Chaining: Request-Response

   start
   repeat
     :Request Component's Disclosure;
       if (Disclosure Obtained?) then (yes)
         :Validate Disclosure;
         :Verify Disclosure;
         :Chain Disclosure;
         :Obtain list of Child Components;
         if (Supplier information exists?) then (yes)
           :Update Tree with (yet)
           Unchained Disclosures;
         else (no)
           #Gold:**Alert** "Vendor has not provided
           Supplier information";
         endif
       else (no)
         #pink:**Alert** "Vendor has not provided
         any Disclosure";
         stop
       endif
   repeat while (Unchained Disclosures in the Disclosure Tree?) is (yes) not (no)
   :**Generate**
   Composite Disclosure;
   #palegreen:**Display** Label for "Composite Disclosure";
   stop

   @enduml

              Figure 5: Disclosure Chaining: Request-Response

A.1.5.  Disclosure Chaining: Level Order Traversal

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   @startmindmap
   title Disclosure Chaining: Level Order Traversal

   skinparam roundCorner 15
   * Root (Product)
           * 1 (Component)
                   * 3 (Component)
                           * 7 (Component)
                   * 4 (Component)
           * 2 (Component)
                   * 5 (Component)
                           * 8 (Component)
                           * 9 (Component)
                   * 6 (Component)
   @endmindmap

            Figure 6: Disclosure Chaining: Level Order Traversal

Acknowledgments

   Part of this work related to Verification and Validation of
   Disclosure and Disclosure Chaining was supported by the H2020
   Programme of the European Commission under Article 15 of Grant
   Agreement No. 951972 StandICT.eu 2023

   The Open Ethics community and expert volunteers contributed with
   their valuable feedback, discussions, and comments.  Thank you Ashley
   Duque Kienzle, Angela Kim, Ioannis Zempekakis, Karl Muedespacher, Ida
   Varosanec, Claudia Del Pozo, Joerg Buss, Mariia Kriuchok, Minhaaj
   Rehman, Oleksii Molchanovskyi, Roberta Barone, Phil Volkofsky and
   others.

Author's Address

   Nikita Lukainets
   Open Ethics Initiative
   Email: n.lukianets@openethics.ai

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