Opportunistic Routing based on Users Daily Life Routine

Document Type Expired Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Waldir Moreira , Paulo Mendes  , Eduardo Cerqueira
Last updated 2014-11-10 (latest revision 2014-05-08)
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This Internet-Draft is no longer active. A copy of the expired Internet-Draft can be found at


This document is written in the context of the Delay Tolerant Networking Research Group and will be presented for reviewing by that group. This document defines dLife, an opportunistic routing protocol that takes advantage of time-evolving social structures. dLife belongs to the family of social-aware opportunistic routing protocols for intermittently connected networks. dLife operates based on a representation of the dynamics of social structures as a weighted contact graph, where the weights (i.e., social strengths) express how long a pair of nodes is in contact over different periods of time. It considers two complementary utility functions: Time-Evolving Contact Duration (TECD) that captures the evolution of social interaction among pairs of users in the same daily period of time, over consecutive days; and TECD Importance (TECDi) that captures the evolution of user's importance, based on its node degree and the social strength towards its neighbors, in different periods of time. It is intended for use in wireless networks where there is no guarantee that a fully connected path between any source - destination pair exists at any time, a scenario where traditional routing protocols are unable to deliver bundles. Such networks can be sparse mesh, in which case intermittent connectivity is due to lack of physical connections, or dense mesh, in which case intermittent connectivity may be due to high interference or shadowing. In any case, intermittent connectivity can also be due to the availability of devices (e.g., unavailable due to power saving rules). The document presents an architectural overview followed by the protocol specification.


Waldir Moreira (waldir.junior@ulusofona.pt)
Paulo Mendes (paulo.mendes@ulusofona.pt)
Eduardo Cerqueira (cerqueira@ufpa.br)

(Note: The e-mail addresses provided for the authors of this Internet-Draft may no longer be valid.)