Exploiting External Event Detectors to Anticipate Resource Requirements for the Elastic Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems
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NFVRG P. Martinez-Julia, Ed. Internet-Draft NICT Updates: draft-pedro-anticipated- March 4, 2018 adaptation-00 (if approved) Intended status: Informational Expires: September 5, 2018 Exploiting External Event Detectors to Anticipate Resource Requirements for the Elastic Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems draft-pedro-nmrg-anticipated-adaptation-00 Abstract The adoption of SDN/NFV technologies by current computer and network system infrastructures is constantly increasing, becoming essential for the the particular case of edge/branch network systems. The systems supported by these infrastructures require to be adapted to environment changes within a short period of time. Thus, the complexity of new systems and the speed at which management and control operations must be performed go beyond human limits. Thus, management systems must be automated. However, in several situations current automation techniques are not enough to respond to requirement changes. Here we propose to anticipate changes in the operation environments of SDN/NFV systems in response to external events and reflect it in the anticipation of the amount of resources required by those systems for their ulterior adaptaion. The final objective is to avoid service degradation or disruption while keeping close-to-optimum resource allocation to reduce monetary and operative cost as much as possible. Here we discuss how to achieve such capabilities by the integration of the Autonomic Resource Control Architecture (ARCA) to the management and operation (MANO) of NFV systems. We showcase it by building a multi-domain SDN/NFV infrastructure based on OpenStack and deploying ARCA to adapt a virtual system based on the edge/branch network concept to the operational conditions of an emergency support service, which is rarely used but that cannot leave any user unattended. Status of This Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 1] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." This Internet-Draft will expire on September 5, 2018. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Virtual Computer and Network Systems . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. SDN and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.3. Management and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.4. The Autonomic Resource Control Architecture (ARCA) . . . 6 4. External Event Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Anticipating Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6. ARCA Integration With ETSI-NFV-MANO . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6.1. Functional Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.2. Target Experiment and Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.3. OpenStack Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.4. Initial Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7. Relation to Other IETF/IRTF Initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 2] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 1. Introduction The incorporation of Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) to current infrastructures to build virtual computer and network systems is constantly increasing. The need to automate the management and control of such systems has motivated us to design the Autonomic Resource Control Architecture (ARCA), as presented in ICIN 2018 [ICIN-2018]. Automation requirements are enough justified by the increasing size and complexity of systems, which in turn are essential in the current digital world. Moreover, the particular requirements and market benefits of network virtualization have been crystallized in the uprising of SDN/NFV infrastructures. Nowadays they broad reception of the combined SDN/NFV technology supposes a huge leap towards the empowerment and homogenization of virtualization technologies. Therefore, we have modeled ARCA to fit within the reference architecture for management and orchestration of NFV elements, the Virtual Network Functions (VNFs). Behind the scenes, NFV is based on a highly distributed and network empowered version of the well-known Cloud infrastructures and platforms, also complemented by their centralized counterparts. This takes to virtual networks the high degree of flexibility already found for computer systems. It is highly desirable at the time NFV is being exploited by many organizations to build their private infrastructures, as well as by network service providers to build the services they later commercialize. However, to actually exploit the potential monetary and operative cost reduction that is associated to such infrastructures, the amount of resources used by production services must be kept close to the optimum, so the physical resources are exploited as much as possible. The fast detection of changes in the requirements of the virtual systems deployed on the aforementioned SDN/NFV infrastructures, and the consequent adaptation of allocated resources to the new situations, becomes essential to actually exploit their cost and operative benefits, while also avoiding service unresponsiveness due to underlying resource overloading. It is widely accepted that the size and complexity of systems and services makes it difficult for humans to accomplish such task within their objective time boundaries. Therefore, they must be automated. Luckily, the architecture and underlying platforms supporting the SDN/NFV technologies enable the required automation. In fact, some solutions already exist to perform several batched or scripted tasks without human intervention. However, those solutions still have high dependences on low-level human involvement. This remarks the challenge found in control and management automation, which is continuously revised and enlarged. Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 3] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 ARCA provides as a small step towards the resolution of the aforementioned problem. It advances the State of the Art in automation of resource control and management by providing a supervised but autonomous mechanism that reduces the time required to perform corrective and/or adaptive changes in virtual computer and network systems from hours/minutes to seconds/milliseconds. Moreover, it is able to take advantage of the event notifications provided by external detectors to anticipate the amount of resources that the controlled SDN/NFV system will require in response to such event. We propose to bring such benefit to the reference architecture promoted by ETSI for the management and orchestration of NFV services (see ETSI-NFV-MANO [ETSI-NFV-MANO]) by integrating ARCA as the Virtual Infrastructure Manager (VIM). We showcase this proposal by discussing the evaluation results obtained by ARCA when runnion on a real and physical experimentation infrastructure based on OpenStack [OPENSTACK]. We thus justify the need to adapt the interfaces supported by the NFV-MANO to include real-world event detectors, which are external to the virtualization platform and virtual resources. 2. Terminology The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. 3. Background 3.1. Virtual Computer and Network Systems The continuous search for efficiency and cost reduction to get the most optimum exploitation of available resources (e.g. CPU power and electricity) has conducted current physical infrastructures to move towards virtualization infrastructures. Also, this trend enables end systems to be centralized and/or distributed, so that they are deployed to best accomplish customer requirements in terms of resources and qualities. One of the key functional requirements imposed to computer and network virtualization is a high degree of flexibility and reliability. Both qualities are subject to the underlying technologies but, while the latter has been always enforced to computer and network systems, flexibility is a relatively new requirement, which whould not have been impossed without the backing of virtualization and cloud technologies. Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 4] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 3.2. SDN and NFV SDN and NFV are conceived to bring high degree of flexibility and conceptual centralization qualities to the network. On the one hand, with SDN, the network can be programmed to implement a dynamic behavior that changes its topology and overall qualities. Moreover, with NFV the functions that are typically provided by physical network equipment are now implemented as virtual appliances that can be deployed and linked together to provide customized network services. SDN and NFV complements to each other to actually implement the network aspect of the aforementioned virtual computer and network systems. Although centralization can lead us to think on the single-point-of- failure concept, it is not the case for these technologoes. Conceptual centralization highly differs from centralized deployment. It brings all benefits from having a single point of decision but retaining the benefits from distributed systems. For instance, control decisions in SDN can be centralized while the mechanisms that enforce such decisions into the network (SDN controllers) can be implemented as highly distributed systems. The same approach can be applied to NFV. Althoug network functions can be implemented in a central computing facility, they can take advantage of several replication and distribution techniques to achieve the properties of distributed systems. Nevertheless, NFV also allows the deployment of functions on top of distributed systems, so they benefit from both distribution alternatives at the same time. 3.3. Management and Control The introduction of virtualization into the computer and network system landscape has increased the complexity of both underlying and overlying systems. On the one hand, virtualyzing underlying systems adds extra functions that must be managed propoerly to ensure the correct operation of the whole system, which not just encompasses underlying elements but also the virtual elements running on top of them. Such functions are used to actually host the overlying virtual elements, so there is an indirect management operation that involves virtual systems. Moreover, such complexities are inherited by final systems that get virtualized and deployed on top of those virtualization infrastructures. In parallel, virtual systems are empowered with additional, and widely exploited, functionality that must be managed correctly. It is the case of the dynamic adaptation of virtual resources to the specific needs of their operation environments, or even the composition of distributed elements across heterogeneous underlying infrastructures, and probably providers. Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 5] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 Taking both complex functions into account, either separately or jointly, makes clear that management requirements have greatly supassed the limits of humans, so automation has become essential to accomplish most common tasks. 3.4. The Autonomic Resource Control Architecture (ARCA) As deeply discussed in ICIN 2018 [ICIN-2018], ARCA leverages the elastic adaptation of resources assigned to virtual computer and network systems by calculating or estimating their requirements from the analysis of load measurements and the detection of external events. These events can be notified by physical elements (things, sensors) that detect changes on the environment, as well as software elements that analyze digital information, such as connectors to sources or analyzers of Big Data. For instance, ARCA is able to consider the detection of an earthquake or a heavy rainfall to overcome the damages it can make to the controlled system. The policies that ARCA must enforce will be specified by administrators during the configuration of the control/management engine. Then, ARCA continues running autonomously, with no more human involvement unless some parameter must be changed. ARCA will adopt the required control and management operations to adapt the controlled system to the new situation or requirements. The main goal of ARCA is thus to reduce the time required for resource adaptation from hours/minutes to seconds/milliseconds. With the aforementioned statements, system administrators are able to specify the general operational boundaries in terms of lower and upper system load thresholds, as well as the minimum and maximum amount of resources that can be allocated to the controlled system to overcome any eventual situation, including the natural crossing of such thresholds. ARCA functional goal is to run autonomously while the performance goal is to keep the resources assigned to the controlled resources as close as possible to the optimum (e.g. 5 % from the optimum) while avoiding service disruption as much as possible, keeping client request discard rate as low as possible (e.g. below 1 %). To achieve both goals, ARCA relies on the Autonomic Computing (AC) paradigm, in the form of interconnected micro-services. Therefore, ARCA includes the four main elements and activities defined by AC, incarnated as: Collector Is responsible of gathering and formatting the heterogeneous observations that will be used in the control cycle. Analyzer Correlates the observations to each other in order to find the situation of the controlled system, especially the Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 6] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 current load of the resources allocated to the system and the occurrence of an incident that can affect to the normal operation of the system, such as an earthquake that increases the traffic in an emergency-support system, which is the main target scenario studied in this paper. Decider Determines the necessary actions to adjust the resources to the load of the controlled system. Enforcer Requests the underlying and overlying infrastructure, such as OpenStack, to make the necessary changes to reflect the effects of the decided actions into the system. Being a micro-service architecture means that the different components are executed in parallel. This allows such components to operate in two ways. First, their operation can be dispatched by receiving a message from the previous service or an external service. Second, the services can be self-dispatched, so they can activate some action or send some message without being previously stimulated by any message. The overall control process loops indefinitely and it is closed by checking that the expected effects of an action are actually taking place. The coherence among the distributed services involved in the ARCA control process is ensured by enforcing a common semantic representation and ontology to the messages they exchange. ARCA semantics are built with the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL), which are well known and widely used standards for the semantic representation and management of knowledge. They provide the ability to represent new concepts without requiring to change the software, just plugin extensions to the ontology. ARCA stores all its knowledge is stored in the Knowledge Base (KB), which is queried and kept up-to-date by the analyzer and decider micro-services. It is implemented by Apache Jena Fuseki, which is a high-performance RDF data store that supports SPARQL through an HTTP/REST interface. Being de-facto standards, both technologies enable ARCA to be easily integrated to virtualization platforms like OpenStack. 4. External Event Detectors As mentioned above, current mechanisms used to achieve automated management and control rely only on the continuous monitoring of the resources they control or the underlying infrastructure that host them. However, there are several other sources of information that can be exploited to make the systems more robust and efficient. It is the case of the notifications that can be provided by physical or virtual elements or devices that are watching for specific events, hence called external event detectors. Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 7] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 More specifically, although the notifications provided by these external event detectors are related to successes that occur outside the boundaries of the controlled system, such successes can affect the typical operation of controlled systems. For instance, a heavy rainfall or snowfall can be detected and correlated to a huge increase in the amount of requests experienced by some emergency support service. 5. Anticipating Requirements One of the main goals of the MANO mechanisms is to ensure the virtual computer and network system they manage meets the requirements established by their owners and administrators. It is currently achieved by observing and analyzing the performance measurements obtained either by directly asking the resources forming the managed system of by asking the controllers of the underlying infrastructure that hosts such resources. Thus, under changing or eventual situations, the managed system must be adapted to cope with the new requirements, incrasing the amount of resources assigned to it, or to make efficient use of available infrastructures, reducing the amount of resources assigned to it. However, the time required by the infrastructure to make effective the adaptations requested by the MANO mechanisms is longer than the time required by client requests to overload the system and make it discard further client requests. This situation is generally undesired but particularly dangerous for some systems, such as the emergency support system mentioned above. Therefore, in order to avoid the disruption of the service, the change in requirements must be anticipated to ensure that any adaptation has finished as soon as possible, preferably before the target system gets overloaded or underloaded. Here we propose to integrate ARCA with NFV-MANO to take advantage of the notifications provided by the aforementioned external event detectors, by correlating them to the target amount of resources required by the managed system and enforcing the necessary adaptations beforehand, particularly before the system performance metrics have actually changed. Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 8] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 The following abstract algorithm formalizes the workflow expected to be followed by the different implementations of the operation proposed here. while TRUE do event = GetExternalEventInformation() if event != NONE then anticipated_resource_amount = Anticipator.Get(event) if IsPolicyCompliant(anticipated_resource_amount) then current_resource_amount = anticipated_resource_amount anticipation_time = NOW end if end if anticipated_event = event if anticipated_event != NONE and (NOW - anticipation_time) > EXPIRATION_TIME then current_resource_amount = DEFAULT_RESOURCE_AMOUNT anticipated_event = NONE end if state = GetSystemState() if not IsAcceptable(state, current_resource_amount) then current_resource_amount = GetResourceAmountForState(state) if anticipated_event is not NONE then Anticipator.Set (anticipated_event, current_resource_amount) anticipated_event = NONE end if end if end while This algorithm considers both internal and external events to determine the necessary control and management actions to achieve the proper anticipation of resources assigned to the target system. We propose the different implementations to follow the same approach so they can guess what to expect when they interact. For instance, a consumer, such as an Application Service Provider (ASP), can expect some specific behavior of the Virtual Network Operator (VNO) from which it is consuming resources. This helps both the ASP and VNO to properly address resource fluctuations. 6. ARCA Integration With ETSI-NFV-MANO In this section we describe how to fit ARCA on a general SDN/NFV underlying infrastructure and introduce a showcase experiment that demonstrates its operation on an OpenStack-based experimentation platform. We first describe the integration of ARCA with the NFV- MANO reference architecture. We contextualize the significance of this integration by describing an emergency support scenario that Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 9] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 clearly benefits from it. Then we proceed to detail the elements forming the OpenStack platform and finally we discuss some initial results obtained from them. 6.1. Functional Integration The most important functional blocks of the NFV reference architecture promoted by ETSI (see ETSI-NFV-MANO [ETSI-NFV-MANO]) are the system support functions for operations and business (OSS/BSS), the element management (EM) and, obviously. the Virtual Network Functions (VNFs). But these functions cannot exist without being instantiated on a specific infrastructure, the NFV infrastructure (NFVI), and all of them must be coordinated, orchestrated, and managed by the general NFV-MANO functions. Both the NFVI and the NFV-MANO elements are subdivided into several sub-components. The NFVI has the underlying physical computing, storage, and network resources, which are sliced (seedraft-qiang- coms-netslicing-information-model-02 [draft-qiang-coms-netslicing-information-model-02] and draft-geng- coms-architecture-01 [draft-geng-coms-architecture-01]) and virtualized to conform the virtual computing, storage, and network resources that will host the VNFs. In addition, the NFV-MANO is subdivided in the NFV Orchestrator (NFVO), the VNF manager (VNFM) and the Virtual Infrastructure Manager (VIM). As their name indicates, all high-level elements and sub-components have their own and very specific objective in the NFV architecture. During the design of ARCA we enforced both operational and interfacing aspects to its main objectives. From the operational point of view, ARCA processes observations to manage virtual resources, so it plays the role of the VIM mentioned above. Therefore, ARCA has been designed with appropriate interfaces to fit in the place of the VIM. This way, ARCA provides the NFV reference architecture with the ability to react to external events to adapt virtual computer and network systems, even anticipating such adaptations as performed by ARCA itself. However, some interfaces must be extended to fully enable ARCA to perform its work within the NFV architecture. Once ARCA is placed in the position of the VIM, it enhances the general NFV architecture with its autonomic management capabilities. In particular, it discharges some responsibilities from the VNFM and NFVO, so they can focus on their own business while the virtual resources are behaving as they expect (and request). Moreover, ARCA improves the scalability and reliability of the managed system in case of disconnection from the orchestration layer due to some failure, network split, etc. It is also achieved by the autonomic Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 10] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 capabilities, which, as described above, are guided by the rules and policies specified by the administrators and, here, communicated to ARCA through the NFVO. However, ARCA will not be limited to such operation so, more generally, it will accomplish the requirements established by the Virtual Network Operators (VNOs), which are the owners of the slice of virtual resources that is managed by a particular instance of NFV-MANO, and therefore ARCA. In addition to the operational functions, ARCA incorporates the necessary mechanisms to engage the interfaces that enable it to interact with other elements of the NFV-MANO reference architecture. More specifically, ARCA is bound to the Or-Vi (see ETSI-NFV-IFA-005 [ETSI-NFV-IFA-005]) and the Nf-Vi (see ETSI-NFV-IFA-004 [ETSI-NFV-IFA-004] and ETSI-NFV-IFA-019 [ETSI-NFV-IFA-019]). The former is the point of attachment between the NFVO and the VIM while the latter is the point of attachment between the NFVI and the VIM. In our current design we decided to avoid the support for the point of attachment between the VNFM and the VIM, called Vi-Vnfm (see ETSI- NFV-IFA-006 [ETSI-NFV-IFA-006]). We leave it for future evolutions of the proposed integration, that will be enabled by a possible solution that provides the functions of the VNFM required by ARCA. Through the Or-Vi, ARCA receives the instructions it will enforce to the virtual computer and network system it is controlling. As mentioned above, these are specified in the form of rules and policies, which are in turn formatted as several statements and embedded into the Or-Vi messages. In general, these will be high- level objectives, so ARCA will use its reasoning capabilities to translate them into more specific, low-level objectives. For instance, the Or-Vi can specify some high-level statement to avoid CPU overloading and ARCA will use its innate and acquired knowledge to translate it to specific statements that specify which parameters it has to measure (CPU load from assigned servers) and which are their desired boundaries, in the form of high threshold and low threshold. Moreover, the Or-Vi will be used by the NFVO to specify which actions can be used by ARCA to overcome the violation of the mentioned policies. All information flowing the Or-Vi interface is encoded and formatted by following a simple but highly extensible ontology and exploiting the aforementioned semantic formats. This ensures that the interconnected system is able to evolve, including the replacement of components, updating (addition or removal) the supported concepts to understand new scenarios, and connecting external tools to further enhance the management process. The only requirement to ensure this feature is to ensure that all elements support the mentioned ontology and semantic formats. Although it is not a finished task, the development of semantic technologies allows the easy adaptation and Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 11] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 translation of existing information formats, so it is expected that more and more software pieces become easily integrable with the ETSI- NFV-MANO [ETSI-NFV-MANO] architecture. In contrast to the Or-Vi interface, the Nf-Vi interface exposes more precise and low-level operations. Although this makes it easier to be integrated to ARCA, it also makes it to be tied to specific implementations. In other words, building a proxy that enforces the aforementioned ontology to different interface instances to homogenize them adds undesirable complexity. Therefore, new components have been specifically developed for ARCA to be able to interact with different NFVIs. Nevertheless, this specialization is limited to the collector and enforcer. Moreover, it allows ARCA to have optimized low-level operations, with high improvement of the overall performance. This is the case of the specific implementations of the collector and enforcer used with Mininet and Docker, which are used as underlying infrastructures in previous experiments described in ICIN 2017 [ICIN-2017]. Moreover, as discussed in the following section, this is also the case of the implementations of the collector and enforcer tied to OpenStack telemetry and compute interfaces, respectively. Although OpenStack still lacks some functionality regarding the construction of specific virtual networks, we use it as the NFVI functional block in the integrated approach. Therefore, OpenStack is the provider of the underlying SDN/NFV infrastructure and we exploited its APIs and SDK to achieve the integration. More specifically, in our showcase we use the APIs provided by Ceilometer, Gnocchi, and Compute services as well as the SDK provided for Python. All of them are gathered within the Nf-Vi interface. Moreover, we have extended the Or-Vi interface to connect external elements, such as the physical or environmental event detectors and Big Data connectors, which is becoming a mandatory requirement of the current virtualization ecosystem and it conforms our main extension to the NFV architecture. 6.2. Target Experiment and Scenario From the beginning of our work on the design of ARCA we are targeting real-world scenarios, so we get better suited requirements. In particular we work with a scenario that represents an emergency support service that is hosted on a virtual computer and network system, which is in turn hosted on the distributed virtualization infrastructure of a medium-sized organization. The objective is to clearly represent an application that requires high dynamicity and high degree of reliability. The emergency support service accomplishes this by being barely used when there is no incident but also being heavily loaded when there is an incident. Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 12] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 Both the underlying infrastructure and virtual network share the same topology. They have four independent but interconnected network domains that form part of the same administrative domain (organization). The first domain hosts the systems of the headquarters (HQ) of the owner organization, so the VNFs it hosts (servants) implement the emergency support service. We defined them as ``servants'' because they are Virtual Machine (VM) instances that work together to provide a single service by means of backing the Load Balancer (LB) instances deployed in the separate domains. The amount of resources (servants) assigned to the service will be adjusted by ARCA, attaching or detaching servants to meet the load boundaries specified by administrators. The other domains represent different buildings of the organization and will host the clients that access to the service when an incident occurs. They also host the necessary LB instances, which are also VNFs that are controlled by ARCA to regulate the access of clients to servants. All domains will have physical detectors to provide external information that can (and will) be correlated to the load of the controlled virtual computer and network system and thus will affect to the amount of servants assigned to it. Although the underlying infrastructure, the servants, and the ARCA instance are the same as those those used in the real world, both clients and detectors will be emulated. Anyway, this does not reduce the transferability of the results obtained from our experiments as it allows to expand the amount of clients beyond the limits of most physical infrastructures. Each underlying OpenStack domain will be able to host a maximum of 100 clients, as they will be deployed on a low profile virtual machine (flavor in OpenStack). In general, clients will be performing requests at a rate of one request every ten seconds, so there would be a maximum of 30 requests per second. However, under the simulated incident, the clients will raise their load to reach a common maximum of 1200 requests per second. This mimics the shape and size of a real medium-size organization of about 300 users that perform a maximum of four requests per second when they need some support. The topology of the underlying network is simplified by connecting the four domains to the same, high-performance switch. However, the topology of the virtual network is built by using direct links between the HQ domain and the other three domains. These are complemented by links between domains 2 and 3, and between domains 3 and 4. This way, the three domains have three paths to reach the HQ domain: a direct path with just one hop, and two indirect paths with two and three hops, respectively. Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 13] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 During the execution of the experiment, the detectors notify the incident to the controller as soon as it happens. However, although the clients are stimulated at the same time, there is some delay between the occurrence of the incident and the moment the network service receives the increase in the load. One of the main targets of our experiment is to study such delay and take advantage of it to anticipate the amount of servants required by the system. We discuss it below. In summary, this scenario highlights the main benefits of ARCA to play the role of VIM and interacting with the underlying OpenStack platform. This means the advancement towards an efficient use of resources and thus reducing the CAPEX of the system. Moreover, as the operation of the system is autonomic, the involvement of human administrators is reduced and, therefore, the OPEX is also reduced. 6.3. OpenStack Platform The implementation of the scenario described above reflects the requirements of any edge/branch networking infrastructure, which are composed of several distributed micro-data-centers deployed on the wiring centers of the buildings and/or storeys. We chose to use OpenStack to meet such requirements because it is being widely used in production infrastructures and the resulting infrastructure will have the necessary robustness to accomplish our objectives, at the time it reflects the typical underlying platform found in any SDN/NFV environment. We have deployed four separate network domains, each one with its own OpenStack instantiation. All domains are totally capable of running regular OpenStack workload, i.e. executing VMs and networks, but, as mentioned above, we designate the domain 1 to be the headquarters of the organization. The different underlying networks required by this (quite complex) deployment are provided by several VLANs within a high-end L2 switch. This switch represents the distributed network of the organization. Four separated VLANs are used to isolate the traffic within each domain, by connecting an interface of OpenStack's controller and compute nodes. These VLANs therefore form the distributed data plane. Moreover, other VLAN is used to carry the control plane as well as the management plane, which are used by the NFV-MANO, and thus ARCA. It is instantiated in the physical machine called ARCA Node, to exchange control and management operations in relation to the collector and enforcer defined in ARCA. This VLAN is shared among all OpenStack domains to implement the global control of the virtualization environment pertaining to the organization. Finally, other VLAN is used by the infrastructure to interconnect the data planes of the separated domains and also to allow all elements Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 14] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 of the infrastructure to access the Internet to perform software installation and updates. Installation of OpenStack is provided by the Red Hat OpenStack Platform, which is tightly dependent on the Linux operating system and closely related to the software developed by the OpenStack Open Source project. It provides a comprehensive way to install the whole platform while being easily customized to meet our specific requirements, while it is also backed by operational quality support. The ARCA node is also based on Linux but, since it is not directly related to the OpenStack deployment, it is not based on the same distribution. It is just configured to be able to access the control and management interfaces offered by OpenStack, and therefore it is connected to the VLAN that hosts the control and management planes. On this node we deploy the NFV-MANO components, including the micro- services that form an ARCA instance. In summary, we dedicate nine physical computers to the OpenStack deployment, all are Dell PowerEdge R610 with 2 x Xeon 5670 2.96 GHz (6 core / 12 thread) CPU, 48 GiB RAM, 6 x 146 GiB HD at 10 kRPM, and 4 x 1 GE NIC. Moreover, we dedicate an additional computer with the same specification to the ARCA Node. We dedicate a less powerful computer to implement the physical router because it will not be involved in the general execution of OpenStack nor in the specific experiments carried out with it. Finally, as detailed above, we dedicate a high-end physical switch, an HP ProCurve 1810G-24, to build the interconnection networks. 6.4. Initial Results Using the platform described above we execute an initial but long- lasting experiment based on the target scenario introduced at the beginning of this section. The objective of this experiment is twofold. First, we aim to demonstrate how ARCA behaves in a real environment. Second, we aim to stress the coupling points between ARCA and OpenStack, which will raise the limitations of the existing interfaces. With such objectives in mind, we define a timeline that will be followed by both clients and external event detectors. It forces the virtualized system to experience different situations, including incidents of many severities. When an incident is found in the timeline, the detectors notify it to the ARCA-based VIM and the clients change their request rates, which will depend on the severity of the incident. This behavior is widely discussed in ICIN 2018 [ICIN-2018], remarking how users behave after occurring a disaster or another similar incident. Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 15] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 The ARCA-based VIM will know the occurrence of the incident from two sources. First, it will receive the notification from the event detectors. Second, it will notice the change of the CPU load of the servants assigned to the target service. In this situation, ARCA has different opportunities to overcome the possible overload (or underload) of the system. We explore the anticipation approach deeply discussed in ICIN 2018 [ICIN-2018]. Its operation is enclosed in the analyzer and decider and it is based on an algorithm that is divided in two sub-algorithms. The first sub-algorithm reacts to the detection of the incident and ulterior correlation of its severity to the amount of servants required by the system. This sub-algorithm hosts the regression of the learner, which is based on the SVM/SVR technique, and predicts the necessary resources from two features: the severity of the incident and the time elapsed from the moment it happened. The resulting amount of servants is established as the minimum amount that the VIM can use. The second sub-algorithm is fed with the CPU load measurements of the servants assigned to the service, as reported by the OpenStack platform. With this information it checks whether the system is within the operating parameters established by the NFVO. If not, it adjusts the resources assigned to the system. It also uses the minimum amount established by the other sub-algorithm as the basis for the assignation. After every correction, this algorithm learns the behavior by adding new correlation vectors to the SVM/SVR structure. When the experiment is running, the collector component of the ARCA- based VIM is attached to the Telemetry interface of OpenStack by using the SDK to access the measurement data generated by Ceilometer and stored by Gnocchi. In addition, it is attached to the external event detectors in order to receive their notifications. On the other hand, the enforcer component is attached to the Compute interface of OpenStack by also using its SDK to request the infrastructure to create, destroy, query, or change the status of a VM that hosts a servant of the controlled system. Finally, the enforcer also updates the lists of servers used by the load balancers to distribute the clients among the available resources. During the execution of the experiment we make the ARCA-based VIM to report the severity of the last incident, if any, the time elapsed since it occurred, the amount of servants assigned to the controlled system, the minimum amount of servants to be assigned, as determined by the anticipation algorithm, and the average load of all servants. In this instance, the severities are spread between 0 (no incident) and 4 (strongest incident), the elapsed times are less than 35 Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 16] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 seconds, and the minimum server assignation (MSA) is below 10, although the hard maximum is 15. With such measurements we illustrate how the learned correlation of the three features (dimensions) mentioned above is achieved. Thus, when there is no incident (severity = 0), the MSA is kept to the minimum. In parallel, regardless of the severity level, the algorithm learned that there is no need to increase the MSA for the first 5 or 10 seconds. This shows the behavior discussed in this paper, that there is a delay between the occurrence of an event and the actual need for updated amount of resources, and it forms one fundamental aspect of our research. By inspecting the results, we know that there is a burst of client demands that is centered (peak) around 15 seconds after the occurrence of an incident or any other change in the accounted severity. We also know that the burst lasts longer for higher severities, and it fluctuates a bit for the highest severities. Finally, we can also notice that for the majority of severities, the increased MSA is no longer required after 25 seconds from the time the severity change was notified. All that information becomes part of the knowledge of ARCA and it is stored both by the internal structures of the SVM/SVR and, once represented semantically, in the semantic database that manages the knowledge base of ARCA. Thus, it is used to predict any future behavior. For instance, is an incident of severity 3 has occurred 10 seconds ago, ARCA knows that it will need to set the MSA to 6 servants. In fact, this information has been used during the experiment, so we can also know the accuracy of the algorithm by comparing the anticipated MSA value with the required value (or even the best value). However, the analysis of such information is left for the future. While preparing and executing the experiment we found several limitation intrinsic to the current OpenStack platform. First, regardless of the CPU and memory resources assigned to the underlying controller nodes, the platform is unable to record and deliver performance measurements at a lower interval than every 10 seconds, so it is currently not suitable for real time operations, which is important for our long-term research objectives. Moreover, we found that the time required by the infrastructure to create a server that hosts a somewhat heavy servant is around 10 seconds, which is too far from our targets. Although these limitations can be improved in the future, they clearly justify that our anticipation approach is essential for the proper working of a virtual system and, thus, the integration of external information becomes mandatory for future Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 17] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 system management technologies, especially considering the virtualization environments. Finally, we found it difficult for the required measurements to be pushed to external components, so we had to poll for them. Otherwise, some component of ARCA must be instantiated along the main OpenStack components and services so it has first-hand and prompt access to such features. This way, ARCA could receive push notifications with the measurements, as it is for the external detectors. This is a key aspect that affects the placement of the NFV-VIM, or some subpart of it, on the general architecture. Therefore, for future iterations of the NFV reference architecture, an integrated view between the VIM and the NFVI could be required to reflect the future reality. 7. Relation to Other IETF/IRTF Initiatives TBD 8. IANA Considerations This memo includes no request to IANA. 9. Security Considerations The major security concerns of the integration of external event detectors and ARCA to manage SDN/NFV systems is that the boundaries of the control and management planes are crossed to introduce information from outside. Such communications must be highly and heavily secured since some malfunction or explicit attacks might compromise the integrity and execution of the controlled system. However, it is up to implementers to deploy the necessary countermeasures to avoid such situations. From the design point of view, since all oprations are performed within the control and/or management planes, the security level of the current solution is inherited and thus determined by the security masures established by the systems conforming such planes. 10. Acknowledgements TBD 11. References Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 18] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 11.1. Normative References [draft-geng-coms-architecture-01] "Technology Independent Information Model for Network Slicing", 2018, <https://www.ietf.org/id/ draft-qiang-coms-netslicing-information-model-02.txt>. [draft-qiang-coms-netslicing-information-model-02] "Technology Independent Information Model for Network Slicing", 2018, <https://www.ietf.org/id/ draft-qiang-coms-netslicing-information-model-02.txt>. [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. 11.2. Informative References [ETSI-NFV-IFA-004] ETSI NFV GS NFV-IFA 004, "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Acceleration Technologies; Management Aspects Specification", 2016. [ETSI-NFV-IFA-005] ETSI NFV GS NFV-IFA 005, "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Management and Orchestration; Or-Vi reference point - Interface and Information Model Specification", 2016. [ETSI-NFV-IFA-006] ETSI NFV GS NFV-IFA 006, "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Management and Orchestration; Vi-Vnfm reference point - Interface and Information Model Specification", 2016. [ETSI-NFV-IFA-019] ETSI NFV GS NFV-IFA 019, "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Acceleration Technologies; Management Aspects Specification; Release 3", 2017. [ETSI-NFV-MANO] ETSI NFV GS NFV-MAN 001, "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Management and Orchestration", 2014. Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 19] Internet-Draft Anticipated Adaptation of SDN/NFV Systems March 2018 [ICIN-2017] P. Martinez-Julia, V. P. Kafle, and H. Harai, "Achieving the autonomic adaptation of resources in virtualized network environments, in Proceedings of the 20th ICIN Conference (Innovations in Clouds, Internet and Networks, ICIN 2017). Washington, DC, USA: IEEE, 2018, pp. 1--8", 2017. [ICIN-2018] P. Martinez-Julia, V. P. Kafle, and H. Harai, "Anticipating minimum resources needed to avoid service disruption of emergency support systems, in Proceedings of the 21th ICIN Conference (Innovations in Clouds, Internet and Networks, ICIN 2018). Washington, DC, USA: IEEE, 2018, pp. 1--8", 2018. [OPENSTACK] The OpenStack Project, "http://www.openstack.org/", 2018. Author's Address Pedro Martinez-Julia (editor) NICT 4-2-1, Nukui-Kitamachi Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 Japan Phone: +81 42 327 7293 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Martinez-Julia Expires September 5, 2018 [Page 20]