Declaring Kerberos Realm Names in DNS (KREALM)
draft-vanrein-dnstxt-krb1-05

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Network Working Group                                        R. Van Rein
Internet-Draft                                                 ARPA2.net
Intended status: Standards Track                      September 15, 2015
Expires: March 18, 2016

             Declaring Kerberos Realm Names in DNS (KREALM)
                      draft-vanrein-dnstxt-krb1-05

Abstract

   This specification defines a method to determine Kerberos realm names
   for services that are known by their DNS name.  Currently, such
   information can only be found in static mappings or through educated
   guesswork.  DNS can make this process more flexible, provided that
   DNSSEC is used to ensure authenticity of resource records.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 18, 2016.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  The KREALM Resource Record Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Querying Kerberos Realm Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Publishing Kerberos Realm Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Efficiency Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

   When a Kerberos client contacts a service, it needs to obtain a
   service ticket, and for that it needs to contact the KDC for a realm
   under which the service is run.  To map a service name into a realm
   name and then into a KDC, clients tend to use static mappings or
   educated guessing; the client's KDC may or may not be involved in
   this process.  Through DNS, the static mappings could be made more
   dynamic, and be moved from local client configuration into the hands
   of the party administrating a server's presence in DNS.  This permits
   more flexibility than under the current practice.

   Two mappings are needed for the given scenario.  One is a mapping
   from the FQDN of a service to its realm name; the other is a mapping
   from the realm name to the Kerberos-specific services such as the
   KDC.  The latter mapping is published in SRV records [RFC4120] and
   such traffic is protected by the Kerberos protocol itself.  The first
   mapping however, has hitherto not been standardised and is ill-
   advised over unsecured DNS because the published information is then
   neither validated by DNS nor does it lead to a protocol that could
   provide end-to-end validation for it.

   With the recent uprise of DNSSEC, it is now possible to make a
   reliable judgement on the authenticity of data in DNS, which enables
   the standardisation of the first mapping in the form of resource
   records in secured DNS.

   This specification defines how to publish and process Kerberos realm
   names using a newly defined resource record type KREALM.  These
   records hold a case-sensitive string with the realm name.  Multiple
   KREALM records may be defined as alternatives and suggest iterating
   over them until a ticket can be procured.

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2.  The KREALM Resource Record Type

   This specification introduces a new DNS resource record type that
   contains a Kerberos realm name.  The name for this DNS resource
   record type is KREALM, and its numeric value is TBD1.  The
   corresponding RDATA format is as follows:

   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   /                   REALMNAME                   /
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

   The REALMNAME is represented as a <character-string> [RFC1035] which
   starts with a single-byte length, followed by as many bytes of realm
   name as the length byte's value.  The RDATA field therefore has a
   length of 1 up to 256 bytes, to hold a realm name of 0 up to 255
   bytes.  For instance, a realm EXAMPLE.ORG would be represented with
   the same RDATA as the following generic RDATA section that is also
   used for unkonwn resource record types [RFC3597]:

   \# 12 ( 0b 45 58 41 4d 50 4c 45 2e 4f 52 47 )

   The REALMNAME represents a Kerberos realm name, not a DNS name.  As a
   result, there cannot be a trailing dot unless it is actually part of
   the Kerberos realm name.  The realm name is never relative to the DNS
   name at which the KREALM record was found.  Finally, there is no
   required relationship (such as partial overlap) between the realm
   name and the DNS name at which the KREALM record was found.

   Realm names in Kerberos are often domain-styled [Section 6.1 of
   [RFC4120]], in which case they look like DNS names but are case
   sensitive; unlike the DNS names used as lookup keys in the DNS
   hierarchy, the REALMNAME format follows the <character-string> format
   in being case-sensitive.

   In fact, the <character-string> format is a binary format, and DNS
   notation \DDD [Section 5.1 of [RFC1035]] exists to put arbitatrary
   bytes in the string notation, including even interior NUL bytes.
   This binary format leaves the door ajar for future
   internationalisation of Kerberos realm names.  Realm names are
   defined with the KerberosString type [Section 5.2.1 of [RFC4120]]
   which is an ASN.1 GeneralString, but its specification currently
   advises to constrain the use of this string type to an IA5String
   (basically using only the first 128 codes of the ASCII table) to
   avoid interoperability problems.  After the <character-string>'s
   length byte, the REALMNAME holds the value of the GeneralString, but
   not the corresponding ASN.1 tag and length.

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   It is worth noting that the ESC "%" "G" prefix [TODO:xref
   target="ISO2022"/] can be used to introduce an UTF8String in a
   GeneralString, and that implementations exist that insert UTF8String
   values in KerberosString fields without even that escape.  All this
   precedes formal standardisation of internationalisation, but it
   suggests that the RDATA definition for KREALM can be supportive of
   future internationalisation of realm names, even if its current
   advised use is limited to the value of an IA5String.

   The format for the resource data in master zone files is the same as
   for TXT records, which also have the same RDATA representation.  The
   vital difference of KREALM lies its different record type, which
   declares that its RDATA has a well-defined meaning as a realm name,
   and can therefore be automatically processed without risking
   arbitrary coincidences that could lead to security problems.  An
   example declaration of realm name EXAMPLE.ORG for a server named
   imap.example.org would be:

   imap.example.org.  IN KREALM  "EXAMPLE.ORG"

   The RDATA for this KREALM record has already been shown above, in the
   generic RDATA section notation.

   Multiple KREALM records may be supplied for the same DNS name; these
   represent alternatives that can be tried by the DNS client.  Since
   DNS delivers the resource records as a set without any particular
   order, the DNS client can choose freely in what order to process
   these records.

   It is possible to create a KREALM record for any DNS name, but this
   specification only provides query procedures for host names and
   domain names.  The use with a domain name had the additional use of
   denoting the precise spelling for a realm name under its DNS-mapped
   name.  DNS-mapped names currently would not modify more than the case
   of a DNS name, and even that is only done as the result of DNS
   compression [RFC4343]; but in a future with internationalised realm
   names there might be more to guess, in which case this facility is
   likely to be helpful.  Since KREALM records in general pose no
   constraints on the relation between the contained realm name and the
   DNS name at which it is found, it is advised for this one application
   to map the realm name back to a DNS name and compare the result.

3.  Querying Kerberos Realm Names

   This sections defines a procedure for finding Kerberos realm names
   for the servers, as well as for a DNS-mapped realm name.

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   When applications directly know their server host name, perhaps
   because it is mentioned in a ticket as a service principal name, they
   will lookup the KREALM record at the same name as the server host
   name.

   When applications locate their servers through a domain name, for
   example via MX [RFC1035] or SRV records [RFC2782], a choice between
   the use of the domain name or the appointed server host names is to
   be made.  In these situations, the KREALM query MUST use only the
   domain name, without adding prefixes such as _Service._Proto for SRV
   records.  The appointed servers for a domain service MUST NOT be
   queried for KREALM records, since these may reside under operational
   control foreign to the service domain.  In addition, their possible
   shared use by many domains would mean that they may have to specify a
   long list of realms, most of which would be unusable to the client.
   The domain name is closer to the client's context and can provide a
   better-targeted list of KREALM records.

   Since DNS in general cannot be considered secure, the client MUST
   dismiss any DNS responses that are Insecure, Bogus or Indeterminate
   [Section 5 of [RFC4033]].  Only the remaining Secure responses are to
   be taken into account.  This specification does not require that the
   client validates the responses by itself, but a client deployment
   SHOULD NOT accept DNS responses from a trusted validating DNS
   resolver over untrusted communication channels.

   To give one possible implementation, a Kerberos client or its KDC may
   send DNS queries with the Authentic Data (AD) bit set to enable
   DNSSEC [Section 5.7 of [RFC6840]], and require that the Authenticated
   Data bit is set in the response to indicate [RFC3655] the Secure
   state for answer and authority sections of the response.  When the
   DNS traffic to and from the validating resolver is protected, for
   instance because the validating resolver is reached over a loopback
   interface, then the Kerberos client or its KDC has implemented the
   requirements for Secure use of the answer and authority sections in
   DNS responses.

   When no Secure DNS responses are received when DNS timesout, then the
   KREALM query MUST be terminated without extracting realm names from
   DNS.  This termination MAY be done immediately upon receiving Secure
   denial for the requested KREALM record.  KREALM query termination
   need not be fatal; non-DNS procedures may exist to find a realm name,
   including the current practice of static mappings and educated
   guessing.

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4.  Publishing Kerberos Realm Names

   KREALM records should generally be published at the domain names and
   server host names that a Kerberos application may want to approach.

   As an exception to this general rule, server host names may be
   exempted if they are always looked up through a domain name.  Note
   however, that most query mechanisms that lookup domain names through
   special resource record types have fallbacks to plain server host
   name lookups.  When such direct server host names are supported in a
   deployment of those applications, usually meaning that these server
   host names may occur in Kerberos service principal names, and when
   the realm name cannot be detected through a preferred mechanism for
   such server host names, then an additional KREALM record located at
   the server name is also going to be helpful.

   There may be situations where a domain represents a Kerberos realm,
   but uses domain-style references such as MX and SRV records to point
   to foreign server host names.  Such foreign server host names are
   often unsuitable to accompany with a KREALM record, so it is
   advisable to either not refer to the server host names directly in
   service tickets, or to see to it that a realm name is always attached
   by the KDC.

   These instructions are somewhat flexible, as a result of the pre-
   existing mechanisms for finding a realm name for a given service
   principal name.  Assuming that the more flexible approach of KREALM
   records is preferred, a suitable test would be to run the targeted
   applications from an unconfigured Kerberos client.

   Zones that intend to provide applications with Kerberos realm names
   through KREALM records MUST be protected by DNSSEC to make them
   usable to those applications.

   Note that KREALM records with wildcard names will not work.  All host
   names and most domain names define at least one resource record (of
   any type) with the name that the wildcard should cover.  These
   defined names cause the wildcards to be suppressed [RFC4592] from DNS
   responses, even when querying a non-existent KREALM record.

5.  Efficiency Considerations

   KREALM records are useful to define realm names for servers whose DNS
   information is not statically mapped in a Kerberos setup.  This may
   simplify operative control of such static mappings.  It may also
   introduce more dynamicity, which may be useful for such things as
   realm crossover.

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   The lookup of KREALM records can be done by a KDC, which can send
   back Cross-Realm Routing suggestions [Section 9 of [RFC6806]] to
   Kerberos clients that enable canonicalization.  The cached DNS
   records, their validation and possibly realm-crossover caching at the
   KDC can all benefit fast responses for future lookups by all Kerberos
   clients.

   Since realm names cannot be derived directly from DNS names, clients
   tend to construct various principal names by appending all the realm
   names that they are aware of, and attempting to obtain a service
   ticket for each in turn, until one is found.  The KDC may also
   perform such actions, and return a reference [RFC6806] to a realm for
   consideration.  In general, the list of service principal names that
   may be considered can be relatively long.

   The use of KREALM records helps both the Kerberos client and its KDC
   to focus on those realms for which a service ought to have a name
   defined.  This limits the list of potential realm names to those
   realm names that the service suggests.  The client does not need to
   guess as heavily.  Similarly, the combined use of "service" tags
   helps to select only those KREALM records that further constrain the
   scope to search.

   The definition of KREALM records under a domain rather than under a
   server host name (for cases where a choice exists, such as for
   applications that use SRV or MX records) should give less potential
   realm names, because the domain is closer to the client's domain/
   realm than the server might be.

   Limiting the length of the list of possible ticket requests to try is
   especially useful for situations with realm crossover when this
   involves public-key cryptography, because such algorithms are much
   slower than the symmetric algorithms that are normally used for
   Kerberos.

6.  Privacy Considerations

   The information contained in a KREALM record for a domain is barely
   more than the domain's DNS name already holds; the KREALM record
   spells out the case-sensitive realm name, and implies the use of
   Kerberos.  The use of Kerberos is usually also implied by the
   presence of certain SRV records.

   The KREALM records also mark the names of Kerberised servers.
   Internal use may prohibit such disclosure, but in those use cases it
   is often possible to rely on existing mechanisms for guessing a realm
   name, including simply using the realm name under which a client
   logged on with Kerberos.

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7.  Security Considerations

   There is no restriction for KREALM records to mention realm names
   that map back to DNS names in a disjoint part of the DNS hierarcy.
   The records could therefore specify realm names for a service even if
   the service is not recognised by the realm.  The KDC for the
   appointed realm would be very clear about that when trying to procure
   a service ticket, so there is no security issue with such misguided
   use of KREALM records.

   The general point is that the use of DNSSEC makes us rely on the
   party that publishes the KREALM record, and that party could specify
   improper realm names or drop realm names that are vital to the
   client.  This is not expected to be a security risk either; the party
   publishing the KREALM record is the same party that publishes the
   service's records, namely the DNS operator.  By publishing the
   service's record in DNS, this operator already has potential control
   over service denial and other MITM-type attacks, so the KREALM record
   does not add any new abusive powers.

   When an external attacker would be permitted to spoof a KREALM record
   in a victim's DNS, then it could be possible for that attacker to
   convince the client that the attacker is the authentic provider for
   the service.  Additional spoofing of host name references could then
   complete the attack.  This has been mitigated by strictly requiring
   DNSSEC for all KREALM records.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This specification defines a new "Resource Record (RR) Type", to be
   registered in the IANA registry of "Domain Name System (DNS)
   Parameters".  The name of the RRType is KREALM, its value is TBD1 and
   its meaning is "Kerberos realm name".

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
              November 1987, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.

   [RFC2782]  Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
              specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2782, February 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2782>.

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   [RFC3597]  Gustafsson, A., "Handling of Unknown DNS Resource Record
              (RR) Types", RFC 3597, DOI 10.17487/RFC3597, September
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3597>.

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC
              4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4033>.

   [RFC4120]  Neuman, C., Yu, T., Hartman, S., and K. Raeburn, "The
              Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5)", RFC 4120,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4120, July 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4120>.

   [RFC4343]  Eastlake 3rd, D., "Domain Name System (DNS) Case
              Insensitivity Clarification", RFC 4343, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC4343, January 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4343>.

   [RFC6806]  Hartman, S., Ed., Raeburn, K., and L. Zhu, "Kerberos
              Principal Name Canonicalization and Cross-Realm
              Referrals", RFC 6806, DOI 10.17487/RFC6806, November 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6806>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3655]  Wellington, B. and O. Gudmundsson, "Redefinition of DNS
              Authenticated Data (AD) bit", RFC 3655, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC3655, November 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3655>.

   [RFC4592]  Lewis, E., "The Role of Wildcards in the Domain Name
              System", RFC 4592, DOI 10.17487/RFC4592, July 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4592>.

   [RFC6840]  Weiler, S., Ed. and D. Blacka, Ed., "Clarifications and
              Implementation Notes for DNS Security (DNSSEC)", RFC 6840,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6840, February 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6840>.

Author's Address

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   Rick van Rein
   ARPA2.net
   Haarlebrink 5
   Enschede, Overijssel  7544 WP
   The Netherlands

   Email: rick@openfortress.nl

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