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Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the Internet
RFC 1164

Document type: RFC - Historic (June 1990)
Obsoleted by RFC 1268
Document stream: IETF
Last updated: 2013-03-02
Other versions: plain text, pdf, html

IETF State: (None)
Consensus: Unknown
Document shepherd: No shepherd assigned

IESG State: RFC 1164 (Historic)
Responsible AD: (None)
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Network Working Group              J. Honig, Cornell Univ. Theory Center
Request for Comments: 1164                         D. Katz, Merit/NSFNET
                             M. Mathis, Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center
                       Y. Rekhter, T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp
                                                     J. Yu, Merit/NSFNET
                                                               June 1990

       Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the Internet

Status of this Memo

   This RFC, together with its companion RFC-1163, "A Border Gateway
   Protocol (BGP)", define a Proposed Standard for an inter-autonomous
   system routing protocol for the Internet.

   This protocol, like any other at this initial stage, may undergo
   modifications before reaching full Internet Standard status as a
   result of deployment experience.  Implementers are encouraged to
   track the progress of this or any protocol as it moves through the
   standardization process, and to report their own experience with the
   protocol.

   This protocol is being considered by the Interconnectivity Working
   Group (IWG) of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
   Information about the progress of BGP can be monitored and/or
   reported on the IWG mailing list (IWG@nri.reston.va.us).

   Please refer to the latest edition of the "IAB Official Protocol
   Standards" RFC for current information on the state and status of
   standard Internet protocols.

   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Table of Contents

   1. Acknowledgements.......................................    2
   2. Introduction...........................................    2
   3. BGP Theory and Application.............................    3
   3.1 Topological Model.....................................    3
   3.2 BGP in the Internet...................................    4
   3.2.1 Topology Considerations.............................    4
   3.2.2 Global Nature of BGP................................    5
   3.2.3 BGP Neighbor Relationships..........................    5
   3.3 Policy Making with BGP................................    6
   4. Operational Issues.....................................    7
   4.1 Path Selection........................................    7
   4.2 Syntax and Semantics for BGP Configuration Files......    9
   5. The Interaction of BGP and an IGP......................   17

Interconnectivity Working Group                                 [Page 1]
RFC 1164                   BGP - Application                   June 1990

   5.1 Overview..............................................   17
   5.2 Methods for Achieving Stable Interactions.............   17
   5.2.1 Propagation of BGP Information via the IGP..........   18
   5.2.2 Tagged Interior Gateway Protocol....................   18
   5.2.3 Encapsulation.......................................   19
   5.2.4 Other Cases.........................................   19
   6. Implementation Recommendations.........................   20
   6.1 Multiple Networks Per Message.........................   20
   6.2 Preventing Excessive Resource Utilization.............   20
   6.3 Processing Messages on a Stream Protocol..............   21
   6.4 Processing Update Messages............................   21
   7. Conclusion.............................................   22
   References................................................   22
   Security Considerations...................................   22
   Authors' Addresses........................................   22

1. Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Guy Almes (Rice University), Kirk
   Lougheed (cisco Systems), Hans-Werner Braun (Merit/NSFNET), Sue Hares
   (Merit/NSFNET), and the Interconnectivity Working Group of the
   Internet Engineering Task Force (chaired by Guy Almes) for their
   contributions to this paper.

2. Introduction

   The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), described in RFC 1163, is an
   interdomain routing protocol.  The network reachability information
   exchanged via BGP provides sufficient information to detect routing
   loops and enforce routing decisions based on performance preference
   and policy constraints as outlined in RFC 1104 [2].

   This memo uses the term "Autonomous System" throughout.  The classic
   definition of an Autonomous System is a set of routers under a single
   technical administration, using an interior gateway protocol and
   common metrics to route packets within the AS, and using an exterior
   gateway protocol to route packets to other ASs.  Since this classic
   definition was developed, it has become common for a single AS to use
   several interior gateway protocols and sometimes several sets of
   metrics within an AS.  The use of the term Autonomous System here

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