Report from the IAB Workshop on Design Expectations vs. Deployment Reality in Protocol Development
RFC 8980

Document Type RFC - Informational (February 2021; No errata)
Authors Jari Arkko  , Ted Hardie 
Last updated 2021-02-19
Replaces draft-arkko-arch-dedr-report
Stream Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
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RFC Editor Note (None)


Internet Architecture Board (IAB)                               J. Arkko
Request for Comments: 8980                                     T. Hardie
Category: Informational                                    February 2021
ISSN: 2070-1721

   Report from the IAB Workshop on Design Expectations vs. Deployment
                    Reality in Protocol Development

Abstract

   The Design Expectations vs. Deployment Reality in Protocol
   Development Workshop was convened by the Internet Architecture Board
   (IAB) in June 2019.  This report summarizes the workshop's
   significant points of discussion and identifies topics that may
   warrant further consideration.

   Note that this document is a report on the proceedings of the
   workshop.  The views and positions documented in this report are
   those of the workshop participants and do not necessarily reflect IAB
   views and positions.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
   and represents information that the IAB has deemed valuable to
   provide for permanent record.  It represents the consensus of the
   Internet Architecture Board (IAB).  Documents approved for
   publication by the IAB are not candidates for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8980.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
   2.  Workshop Agenda
   3.  Position Papers
   4.  Discussions
     4.1.  Past Experiences
     4.2.  Principles
     4.3.  Centralized Deployment Models
     4.4.  Security
     4.5.  Future
   5.  Conclusions
     5.1.  Summary of Discussions
     5.2.  Actions
       5.2.1.  Potential Architecture Actions and Outputs
       5.2.2.  Other Potential Actions
     5.3.  Other Publications
     5.4.  Feedback
   6.  Security Considerations
   7.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  Participant List
   IAB Members at the Time of Approval
   Acknowledgements
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) holds occasional workshops
   designed to consider long-term issues and strategies for the
   Internet, and to suggest future directions for the Internet
   architecture.  This long-term planning function of the IAB is
   complementary to the ongoing engineering efforts performed by working
   groups of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

   The Design Expectations vs. Deployment Reality in Protocol
   Development Workshop was convened by the IAB in June 2019.  This
   report summarizes the workshop's significant points of discussion and
   identifies topics that may warrant further consideration.

   The background for the workshop was that during the development and
   early elaboration phase for a number of protocols, there was a
   presumption of specific deployment models.  Actual deployments have,
   however, often run contrary to these early expectations when
   economies of scale, Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack
   resilience, market consolidation, or other factors have come into
   play.  These factors can result in the deployed reality being highly
   concentrated.

   This is a serious issue for the Internet, as concentrated,
   centralized deployment models present risks to user choice, privacy,
   and future protocol evolution.

   On occasion, the differences from the original expectations were
   almost immediate, but they also occur after significant time has
   passed since the protocol's initial development.

   Some examples are given below.

   *  Email standards, which presumed many providers running in a
      largely uncoordinated fashion but have seen both significant
      market consolidation and a need for coordination to defend against
      spam and other attacks.  The coordination and centralized defense
      mechanisms scale better for large entities; these have fueled
      additional consolidation.

   *  The Domain Name System (DNS), which presumed deep hierarchies but
      has often been deployed in large, flat zones, leading to the
      nameservers for those zones becoming critical infrastructure.
      Future developments in DNS may see concentration through the use
      of globally available common resolver services, which evolve
      rapidly and can offer better security.  Paradoxically,
      concentration of these queries into a few services creates new
      security and privacy concerns.

   *  The Web, which is built on a fundamentally decentralized design
      but is now often delivered with the aid of Content Delivery
      Networks (CDNs).  Their services provide scaling, distribution,
      and prevention of denial of service in ways that new entrants and
      smaller systems operators would find difficult to replicate.
      While truly small services and truly large services may each
      operate using only their own infrastructure, many others are left
      with the only practical choice being the use of a globally
      available commercial service.

   Similar developments may happen with future technologies and
   services.  For instance, the growing use of Machine Learning
   technology presents challenges for distributing effective
   implementation of a service throughout a pool of many different
   providers.

   In [RFC5218], the IAB tackled what made for a successful protocol.
   In [RFC8170], the IAB described how to handle protocol transitions.
   The purpose of this workshop was to explore cases where the initial
   system design assumptions turned out to be wrong, looking for
   patterns in what caused those assumptions to fail (e.g.,
   concentration due to DDoS resilience) and in how those failures
   impact the security, privacy, and manageability of the resulting
   deployments.

   While the eventual goals might include proposing common remediations
   for specific cases of confounded protocol expectations, this workshop
   and thus this report focused on identifying patterns.

   The workshop call for papers invited the submission of position
   papers that would:

   *  Describe specific cases where systems assumptions during protocol
      development were confounded by later deployment conditions.

   *  Survey a set of cases to identify common factors in these
      confounded expectations.

   *  Explore remediations that foster user privacy, security, and
      provider diversity in the face of these changes.

   A total of 21 position papers were received and are listed in
   Section 3.  On site or remote were 30 participants; they are listed
   in Appendix A.

2.  Workshop Agenda

   After opening and discussion of goals for the workshop, the
   discussion focused on five main topics:

   *  Past experiences.  What have we learned?

   *  Principles.  What forces apply to deployment?  What principles to
      take into account in design?

   *  Centralized deployment models.  The good and the bad of
      centralization.  Can centralization be avoided?  How?

   *  Security.  Are we addressing the right threats?  What should we
      prepare ourselves for?

   *  Future.  What can we do?  Should we get better at predicting, or
      should we do different things?

3.  Position Papers

   The following position papers were submitted to the workshop by the
   following people (listed in alphabetical order):

   *  Jari Arkko.  "Changes in the Internet Threat Model" [Arkko2019]

   *  Vittorio Bertola.  "How the Internet Was Won and Where It Got Us"
      [Bertola2019]

   *  Carsten Bormann and Jan-Frederik Rieckers.  "WiFi authentication:
      Some deployment observations from eduroam" [Bormann2019]

   *  Stéphane Bortzmeyer.  "Encouraging better deployments"
      [Bortzmeyer2019]

   *  Brian Carpenter and Bing Liu.  "Limited Domains and Internet
      Protocols" [Carpenter2019]

   *  Alissa Cooper.  "Don't Forget the Access Network" [Cooper2019]

   *  Stephen Farrell.  "We're gonna need a bigger threat model"
      [Farrell2019]

   *  Phillip Hallam-Baker.  "The Devil is in the Deployment"
      [HallamBaker2019]

   *  Ted Hardie.  "Instant Messaging and Presence: A Cautionary Tale"
      [Hardie2019]

   *  Paul Hoffman.  "Realities in DNSSEC Deployment" [Hoffman2019]

   *  Christian Huitema.  "Concentration is a business model"
      [Huitema2019]

   *  Geoff Huston.  "The Border Gateway Protocol, 25 years on"
      [Huston2019]

   *  Dirk Kutscher.  "Great Expectations: Protocol Design and
      Socioeconomic Realities" [Kutscher2019]

   *  Julien Maisonneuve.  "DNS, side effects and concentration"
      [Maisonneuve2019]

   *  John Mattsson.  "Consolidation, Privacy, Jurisdiction, and the
      Health of the Internet" [Mattsson2019]

   *  Moritz Müller.  "Rolling Forward: An Outlook on Future Root
      Rollovers" [Muller2019]

   *  Jörg Ott.  "Protocol Design Assumptions and PEPs" [Ott2019]

   *  Lucas Pardue.  "Some challenges with IP multicast deployment"
      [Pardue2019]

   *  Jim Reid.  "Where/Why has DNS gone wrong?"  [Reid2019]

   *  Mohit Sethi and Tuomas Aura.  "IoT Security and the role of
      Manufacturers: A Story of Unrealistic Design Expectations"
      [Sethi2019]

   *  Andrew Sullivan.  "Three kinds of concentration in open protocols"
      [Sullivan2019]

   These papers are available from the IAB website [CFP] [POS].

4.  Discussions

4.1.  Past Experiences

   The workshop investigated deployment cases from certificate
   authorities for web connections (WebPKI) to DNS Security (DNSSEC),
   from the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) to Network Address Translators
   (NATs), from DNS resolvers to CDNs, and from Internet of Things (IoT)
   systems to instant messaging and social media applications.

   In many cases, (1) there was a surprise in how technology was
   deployed, (2) there was a lack of sufficient adoption, or (3) the
   business models associated with chosen technologies were not in favor
   of broader interoperability.

   In general, the protocol designers cannot affect market forces but
   must work within them.  But there are often competing technical
   approaches or features that are tailored for a particular deployment
   pattern.  In some cases, it is possible to choose whether to support,
   for instance, a clear need for an established business, a feature
   designed to support collaboration among smaller players, or some kind
   of disruption through a more speculative new feature or technology.

   Lessons learned include the following:

   *  Feedback from those who deploy often comes too late.

   *  Building blocks get repurposed in unexpected ways.

   *  User communities come in too late.

   *  The Web is getting more centralized, and counteracting this trend
      is difficult.  It is not necessarily clear what technical path
      leads to distributed markets and decentralized architectures, for
      instance.

   *  There are also many forces that make it easier to pursue
      centralized models than other models.  For instance, deployment is
      often easier in a centralized model.  And various business and
      regulatory processes work best within a small, well-defined set of
      entities that can interact with each other.  This can lead to, for
      instance, regulators preferring a situation with a small number of
      entities that they can talk to, rather than a diverse set of
      providers.

   *  It is important but hard to determine how useful new protocols
      are.

   *  It is difficult for the IETF community to interact with other
      communities, e.g., specific business sectors that need new
      technology (such as aviation or healthcare) or regulators.

4.2.  Principles

   Several underlying principles can be observed in the example cases
   that were discussed.  Deployment failures tend to be associated with
   cases where interdependencies make progress difficult and there's no
   major advantage for early deployment.  Despite persistent problems in
   the currently used technology, it becomes difficult for the ecosystem
   to switch to better technology.  For instance, there are a number of
   areas where the Internet routing protocol BGP [RFC4271] is lacking,
   but there has been only limited success in deploying significant
   improvements -- for instance, in the area of security.

   Another principle appears to be first-mover advantage.  Several
   equally interesting technologies have fared in very different ways,
   depending on whether there was an earlier system that provided most
   of the benefits of the new system.  Again, despite potential problems
   in an already-deployed technology, it becomes difficult to deploy
   improvements due to a lack of immediate incentives and due to the
   competing and already-deployed alternative that is proceeding forward
   in the ecosystem.  For instance, WebPKI is very widely deployed and
   used, but DNSSEC [RFC4033] is not.  Is this because of the earlier
   commercial adoption of WebPKI, the more complex interdependencies
   between systems that wished to deploy DNSSEC, or some other reason?

   The definition of "success" in [RFC5218] appears to be part of the
   problem.  The only way to control deployments up front is to prevent
   wild success, but wild successes are actually what we want.  And it
   seems very difficult to predict these successes.

   The workshop also discussed the extent to which protocol work even
   should be controlled by the IETF, or the IESG.  It seems unproductive
   to attempt to constrain deployment models, as one can only offer
   possibilities but not force anyone to use a particular possibility.

   The workshop also discussed different types of deployment patterns on
   the Internet:

   *  Delivering functionality over the Internet as a web service.  The
      Internet is an open and standardized system, but the service on
      top may be closed, essentially running two components of the same
      service provider's software against each other over the browser
      and Internet infrastructure.  Several large application systems
      have grown in the Internet in this manner, encompassing large
      amounts of functionality and a large fraction of Internet users.
      This makes it easier for web applications to grow by themselves
      without cross-fertilization or interoperability.

   *  Delivering concentrated network services that offer the standard
      capabilities of the Internet.  Examples in this category include
      the provisioning of some mail services, DNS resolution, and so on.

   The second case is more interesting for an Internet architecture
   discussion.  There can, however, be different underlying situations
   even in that case.  The service may be simply a concentrated way to
   provide a commodity service.  The market should find a natural
   equilibrium for such situations.  This may be fine, particularly
   where the service does not provide any new underlying advantage to
   whoever is providing it (in the form of user data that can be
   commercialized, for instance, or as training data for an important
   Machine Learning service).

   Secondly, the service may be an extension beyond standard protocols,
   leading to some questions about how well standards and user
   expectations match.  But those questions could be addressed by better
   or newer standards.  Thirdly, and potentially most disturbingly, the
   service may be provided in this concentrated manner due to business
   patterns that make it easier for particular entities to deploy such
   services.

   The group also discussed monocultures, and their negative effect on
   the Internet and its stability and resistance to various problems and
   attacks.

   Regulation may affect the Internet businesses as well.  Regulation
   can exist in multiple forms, based on economic rationale (e.g.,
   competition law) or other factors.  For instance, user privacy is a
   common regulatory topic.

4.3.  Centralized Deployment Models

   Many of the participants have struggled with these trends and their
   effect on desirable characteristics of Internet systems, such as
   distributed, end-to-end architecture or privacy.  Yet, there are many
   business and technical drivers causing the Internet architecture to
   become further and further centralized.

   Some observations that were made:

   *  When standardizing new technology, the parties involved in the
      effort may think they agree on what the goals are but in reality
      are often surprised in the end.  For instance, with DNS (queries)
      over HTTPS (DoH) [RFC8484], there were very different aspirations,
      some around improvements in confidentiality of the queries, some
      around operational and latency improvements to DNS operations, and
      some about shifting business and deployment models.  The full
      picture was not clear before the work was completed.

   *  In DNS, DDoS is a practical reality, and only a handful of
      providers can handle the traffic load in these attacks.

   The hopeful side of this issue is that there are some potential
   answers:

   *  DDoS defenses do not have to come through large entities, as
      layered defenses and federation also help similarly.

   *  Surveillance state data capture can be fought with data object
      encryption and by not storing all of the data in one place.

   *  Web tracking can be combatted by browsers choosing to avoid
      techniques that are sensitive to tracking.  Competition in the
      browser market may help drive some of these changes.

   *  Open interfaces help guard against the bundling of services in one
      large entity; as long as there are open, well-defined interfaces
      to specific functions, these functions can also be performed by
      other parties.

   *  Commercial surveillance does not seem to be curbed by current
      means.  But there are still possibilities, such as stronger
      regulation, data minimization, or browsers acting on behalf of
      users.  There are hopeful signs that at least some browsers are
      becoming more aggressive in this regard.  But more is needed.

   One comment made in the workshop was that the Internet community
   needs to curb the architectural trend of centralization.  Another
   comment was that discussing this in the abstract is not as useful as
   more concrete, practical actions.  For instance, one might imagine
   different DoH deployments with widely different implications for
   privacy or tolerance of failures.  Getting to the specifics of how a
   particular service can be made better is important.

4.4.  Security

   This part of the discussion focused on whether in the current state
   of the Internet we actually need a new threat model.

   Many of the security concerns regarding communications have been
   addressed in the past few years, with increasing encryption.
   However, issues with trusting endpoints on the other side of the
   communication have not been addressed and are becoming more urgent
   with the advent of centralized service architectures.

   Further effort may be needed to minimize centralization, as having
   only a few places to tap increases the likelihood of surveillance.

   There may be a need to update [RFC3552] and [RFC7258].

   The participants in the workshop agreed that a new threat model is
   needed and that non-communications-security issues need to be
   handled.

   Other security discussions were focused on IoT systems, algorithm
   agility issues, experiences from difficult security upgrades such as
   DNSSEC key rollovers, and routing security.

   The participants cautioned against relying too much on device
   manufacturers for security, and being clear on security models and
   assumptions.  Security is often poorly understood, and the
   assumptions about who the system defends against and who it does not
   are not clear.

4.5.  Future

   The workshop turned into a discussion of what actions we can take:

   *  Documenting our experiences?

   *  Providing advice (to the IETF or to others)?

   *  Waiting for the catastrophe that will make people agree to
      changes?  The participants of course did not wish for this.

   *  Work at the IETF?

   *  Technical solutions/choices?

   The best way for the IETF to do things is through standards;
   convincing people through other requests is difficult.  The IETF
   needs to:

   *  Pick pieces that it is responsible for.

   *  Be reactive for the rest, be available as an expert in other
      discussions, provide Internet technology knowledge where needed,
      etc.

   One key question is what other parties need to be involved in any
   discussions.  Platform developers (mobile platforms, cloud systems,
   etc.) are one such group.  Specific technology or business groups
   (such as email provider or certificate authority forums) are another.

   The workshop also discussed specific technology issues -- for
   instance, around IoT systems.  One observation in those systems is
   that there is no single model for applications; they vary.  There are
   a lot of different constraints in different systems and different
   control points.  What is perhaps most needed today is user control
   and transparency (for instance, via Manufacturer Usage Descriptions
   (MUDs) [RFC8520]).  Another issue is management, particularly for
   devices that could be operational for decades.  Given the diversity
   of IoT systems, it may also make more sense to build support systems
   for broader solutions than for specific solutions or specific
   protocols.

   There are also many security issues.  While some of them are trivial
   (such as default passwords), one should also look forward and be
   prepared to have solutions for, say, trust management for long time
   scales, or be able to provide data minimization to cut down on the
   potential for leakages.  And the difficulty of establishing peer-to-
   peer security strengthens the need for a central point, which may
   also be harmful from a long-term privacy perspective.

5.  Conclusions

5.1.  Summary of Discussions

   The workshop met in the sunny Finnish countryside and made the
   unsurprising observation that technologies sometimes get deployed in
   surprising ways.  But the consequences of deployment choices can have
   an impact on security, privacy, centralized vs. distributed models,
   competition, and surveillance.  As the IETF community cares deeply
   about these aspects, it is worthwhile to spend time on the analysis
   of these choices.

   The prime factor driving deployments is perceived needs; expecting
   people to recognize obvious virtues and therefore deploy them is not
   likely to work.

   And the ecosystem is complex, including, for instance, many parties:
   different business roles, users, regulators, and so on, and
   perceptions of needs and the ability to act depend highly on what
   party one talks to.

   While the workshop discussed actions and advice, there is a critical
   question of who these are targeted towards.  There is a need to
   construct a map of what parties need to perform what actions.

   The workshop also made some technical observations.  One issue is
   that the workshop identified a set of hard issues that affect
   deployment and for which we have no good solutions.  These issues
   include, for instance, dealing with DDoS attacks and how to handle
   spam.  Similarly, a lack of good solutions for micropayments is one
   factor behind a lot of the Internet economy being based on
   advertisements.

   One recent trend is that technology is moving up the stack, e.g., in
   the areas of services, transport protocol functionality, security,
   naming, and so on.  This impacts how easy or hard changes are and who
   is able to perform them.

   It was also noted that interoperability continues to be important,
   and we need to explore what new interfaces need standardization --
   this will enable different deployment models and competition.  The
   prime factor driving deployments is actual needs; we cannot force
   anything on others but can provide solutions for those that need
   them.  Needs and actions may fall to different parties.

   The workshop also considered the balancing of user non-involvement
   and transparency, as well as choice, relevant threats such as
   communicating with malicious endpoints, the role and willingness of
   browsers in increasing the ability to defend users' privacy, and
   concerns around centralized control or data storage points.

   The workshop also discussed specific issues around routing, DoS
   attacks, IoT systems, the role of device manufacturers, the DNS, and
   regulatory reactions and their possible consequences.

5.2.  Actions

   The prime conclusion from the workshop was that the topics we
   discussed were not completed in the workshop.  Much more work is
   needed.  The best way for the IETF to make an impact is through
   standards.  The IETF should focus on the parts that it is responsible
   for and be available as an expert on other discussions.

5.2.1.  Potential Architecture Actions and Outputs

   The documents/outputs and actions described in the following items
   were deemed relevant by the participants.

   *  Develop and document a modern threat model.

   *  Continue discussion of consolidation/centralization issues.

   *  Document architectural principles, e.g., (re)application of the
      end-to-end principle.

   The first receiver of these thoughts is the IETF and protocol
   community, but combined with some evangelizing and validation
   elsewhere.

5.2.2.  Other Potential Actions

   *  Pursuit of specific IETF topics, e.g., working on taking into
      account reputation systems in IETF work, working to ensure that
      certificate scoping can be appropriately limited, building end-to-
      end encryption tools for applications, etc.

   *  General deployment experiences/advice, and documenting deployment
      assumptions possibly already in WG charters.

   *  A report will be produced from the workshop (this RFC).

5.3.  Other Publications

   The workshop results have also been reported at [ISPColumn] by Geoff
   Huston.

5.4.  Feedback

   Feedback regarding the workshop is appreciated and can be sent to the
   program committee, the IAB, or the architecture-discuss list.

6.  Security Considerations

   Proposals discussed at the workshop would have significantly
   different security impacts, and each workshop paper should be read
   for its own security considerations.

7.  Informative References

   [Arkko2019]
              Arkko, J., "Changes in the Internet Threat Model",
              position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June
              2019.

   [Bertola2019]
              Bertola, V., "How the Internet Was Won and Where It Got
              Us", position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop,
              June 2019.

   [Bormann2019]
              Bormann, C. and J. Rieckers, "WiFi authentication: Some
              deployment observations from eduroam", position paper
              submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June 2019.

   [Bortzmeyer2019]
              Bortzmeyer, S., "Encouraging better deployments", position
              paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June 2019.

   [Carpenter2019]
              Carpenter, B. and B. Liu, "Limited Domains and Internet
              Protocols", position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR
              workshop, June 2019.

   [CFP]      IAB, "Design Expectations vs. Deployment Reality in
              Protocol Development Workshop 2019", June 2019,
              <https://www.iab.org/activities/workshops/dedr-workshop/>.

   [Cooper2019]
              Cooper, A., "Don't Forget the Access Network", position
              paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June 2019.

   [Farrell2019]
              Farrell, S., "We're gonna need a bigger threat model",
              position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June
              2019.

   [HallamBaker2019]
              Hallam-Baker, P., "The Devil is in the Deployment",
              position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June
              2019.

   [Hardie2019]
              Hardie, T., "Instant Messaging and Presence: A Cautionary
              Tale", position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop,
              June 2019.

   [Hoffman2019]
              Hoffman, P., "Realities in DNSSEC Deployment", position
              paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June 2019.

   [Huitema2019]
              Huitema, C., "Concentration is a business model", position
              paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June 2019.

   [Huston2019]
              Huston, G., "The Border Gateway Protocol, 25 years on",
              position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June
              2019.

   [ISPColumn]
              Huston, G., "Network Protocols and their Use", June 2019,
              <https://www.potaroo.net/ispcol/2019-06/dedr.html>.

   [Kutscher2019]
              Kutscher, D., "Great Expectations: Protocol Design and
              Socioeconomic Realities", position paper submitted for the
              IAB DEDR workshop, June 2019.

   [Maisonneuve2019]
              Maisonneuve, J., "DNS, side effects and concentration",
              position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June
              2019.

   [Mattsson2019]
              Mattsson, J., "Consolidation, Privacy, Jurisdiction, and
              the Health of the Internet", position paper submitted for
              the IAB DEDR workshop, June 2019.

   [Muller2019]
              Müller, M., "Rolling Forward: An Outlook on Future Root
              Rollovers", position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR
              workshop, June 2019.

   [Ott2019]  Ott, J., "Protocol Design Assumptions and PEPs", position
              paper submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June 2019.

   [Pardue2019]
              Pardue, L., "Some challenges with IP multicast
              deployment", position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR
              workshop, June 2019.

   [POS]      IAB, "Position Papers: DEDR Workshop", June 2019,
              <https://www.iab.org/activities/workshops/dedr-workshop/
              position-papers/>.

   [Reid2019] Reid, J., "Where/Why has DNS gone wrong?", position paper
              submitted for the IAB DEDR workshop, June 2019.

   [RFC3552]  Rescorla, E. and B. Korver, "Guidelines for Writing RFC
              Text on Security Considerations", BCP 72, RFC 3552,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3552, July 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3552>.

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4033>.

   [RFC4271]  Rekhter, Y., Ed., Li, T., Ed., and S. Hares, Ed., "A
              Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4271, January 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4271>.

   [RFC5218]  Thaler, D. and B. Aboba, "What Makes for a Successful
              Protocol?", RFC 5218, DOI 10.17487/RFC5218, July 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5218>.

   [RFC7258]  Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
              Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, DOI 10.17487/RFC7258, May
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7258>.

   [RFC8170]  Thaler, D., Ed., "Planning for Protocol Adoption and
              Subsequent Transitions", RFC 8170, DOI 10.17487/RFC8170,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8170>.

   [RFC8484]  Hoffman, P. and P. McManus, "DNS Queries over HTTPS
              (DoH)", RFC 8484, DOI 10.17487/RFC8484, October 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8484>.

   [RFC8520]  Lear, E., Droms, R., and D. Romascanu, "Manufacturer Usage
              Description Specification", RFC 8520,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8520, March 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8520>.

   [Sethi2019]
              Sethi, M. and T. Aura, "IoT Security and the role of
              Manufacturers: A Story of Unrealistic Design
              Expectations", position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR
              workshop, June 2019.

   [Sullivan2019]
              Sullivan, A., "Three kinds of concentration in open
              protocols", position paper submitted for the IAB DEDR
              workshop, June 2019.

Appendix A.  Participant List

   The following is a list of participants on site and over a remote
   connection:

   *  Arkko, Jari

   *  Aura, Tuomas

   *  Bertola, Vittorio

   *  Bormann, Carsten

   *  Bortzmeyer, Stéphane

   *  Cooper, Alissa

   *  Farrell, Stephen

   *  Flinck, Hannu

   *  Gahnberg, Carl

   *  Hallam-Baker, Phillip

   *  Hardie, Ted

   *  Hoffman, Paul

   *  Huitema, Christian (remote)

   *  Huston, Geoff

   *  Komaitis, Konstantinos

   *  Kühlewind, Mirja

   *  Kutscher, Dirk

   *  Li, Zhenbin

   *  Maisonneuve, Julien

   *  Mattsson, John

   *  Müller, Moritz

   *  Ott, Jörg

   *  Pardue, Lucas

   *  Reid, Jim

   *  Rieckers, Jan-Frederik

   *  Sethi, Mohit

   *  Shore, Melinda (remote)

   *  Soininen, Jonne

   *  Sullivan, Andrew

   *  Trammell, Brian

IAB Members at the Time of Approval

   Internet Architecture Board members at the time this document was
   approved for publication were:

      Jari Arkko
      Alissa Cooper
      Stephen Farrell
      Wes Hardaker
      Ted Hardie
      Christian Huitema
      Zhenbin Li
      Erik Nordmark
      Mark Nottingham
      Melinda Shore
      Jeff Tantsura
      Martin Thomson
      Brian Trammell

Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank the workshop participants, the
   members of the IAB, and the participants in the architecture
   discussion list for interesting discussions.  The notes from Jim Reid
   were instrumental in writing this report.  The workshop organizers
   would also like to thank Nokia for hosting the workshop in excellent
   facilities in Kirkkonummi, Finland.

Authors' Addresses

   Jari Arkko
   Ericsson

   Email: jari.arkko@piuha.net

   Ted Hardie

   Email: ted.ietf@gmail.com