Skip to main content

Internet of Things (IoT) Edge Challenges and Functions
RFC 9556

Document Type RFC - Informational (April 2024)
Authors Jungha Hong , Yong-Geun Hong , Xavier de Foy , Matthias Kovatsch , Eve Schooler , Dirk Kutscher
Last updated 2024-04-11
RFC stream Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)
Additional resources Mailing list discussion
IESG Responsible AD (None)
Send notices to (None)
RFC 9556

Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)                              J. Hong
Request for Comments: 9556                                          ETRI
Category: Informational                                        Y-G. Hong
ISSN: 2070-1721                                       Daejeon University
                                                               X. de Foy
                                        InterDigital Communications, LLC
                                                             M. Kovatsch
                                    Huawei Technologies Duesseldorf GmbH
                                                             E. Schooler
                                                    University of Oxford
                                                             D. Kutscher
                                                              April 2024

         Internet of Things (IoT) Edge Challenges and Functions


   Many Internet of Things (IoT) applications have requirements that
   cannot be satisfied by centralized cloud-based systems (i.e., cloud
   computing).  These include time sensitivity, data volume,
   connectivity cost, operation in the face of intermittent services,
   privacy, and security.  As a result, IoT is driving the Internet
   toward edge computing.  This document outlines the requirements of
   the emerging IoT edge and its challenges.  It presents a general
   model and major components of the IoT edge to provide a common basis
   for future discussions in the Thing-to-Thing Research Group (T2TRG)
   and other IRTF and IETF groups.  This document is a product of the

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Research Task Force
   (IRTF).  The IRTF publishes the results of Internet-related research
   and development activities.  These results might not be suitable for
   deployment.  This RFC represents the consensus of the Thing-to-Thing
   Research Group of the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF).  Documents
   approved for publication by the IRSG are not candidates for any level
   of Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   ( in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
   2.  Background
     2.1.  Internet of Things (IoT)
     2.2.  Cloud Computing
     2.3.  Edge Computing
     2.4.  Examples of IoT Edge Computing Use Cases
   3.  IoT Challenges Leading toward Edge Computing
     3.1.  Time Sensitivity
     3.2.  Connectivity Cost
     3.3.  Resilience to Intermittent Services
     3.4.  Privacy and Security
   4.  IoT Edge Computing Functions
     4.1.  Overview of IoT Edge Computing
     4.2.  General Model
     4.3.  OAM Components
       4.3.1.  Resource Discovery and Authentication
       4.3.2.  Edge Organization and Federation
       4.3.3.  Multi-Tenancy and Isolation
     4.4.  Functional Components
       4.4.1.  In-Network Computation
       4.4.2.  Edge Storage and Caching
       4.4.3.  Communication
     4.5.  Application Components
       4.5.1.  IoT Device Management
       4.5.2.  Data Management and Analytics
     4.6.  Simulation and Emulation Environments
   5.  Security Considerations
   6.  Conclusion
   7.  IANA Considerations
   8.  Informative References
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   At the time of writing, many IoT services leverage cloud computing
   platforms because they provide virtually unlimited storage and
   processing power.  The reliance of IoT on back-end cloud computing
   provides additional advantages, such as scalability and efficiency.
   At the time of writing, IoT systems are fairly static with respect to
   integrating and supporting computation.  It is not that there is no
   computation, but that systems are often limited to static
   configurations (edge gateways and cloud services).

   However, IoT devices generate large amounts of data at the edges of
   the network.  To meet IoT use case requirements, data is increasingly
   being stored, processed, analyzed, and acted upon close to the data
   sources.  These requirements include time sensitivity, data volume,
   connectivity cost, and resiliency in the presence of intermittent
   connectivity, privacy, and security, which cannot be addressed by
   centralized cloud computing.  A more flexible approach is necessary
   to address these needs effectively.  This involves distributing
   computing (and storage) and seamlessly integrating it into the edge-
   cloud continuum.  We refer to this integration of edge computing and
   IoT as "IoT edge computing".  This document describes the related
   background, use cases, challenges, system models, and functional

   Owing to the dynamic nature of the IoT edge computing landscape, this
   document does not list existing projects in this field.  Section 4.1
   presents a high-level overview of the field based on a limited review
   of standards, research, and open-source and proprietary products in

   This document represents the consensus of the Thing-to-Thing Research
   Group (T2TRG).  It has been reviewed extensively by the research
   group members who are actively involved in the research and
   development of the technology covered by this document.  It is not an
   IETF product and is not a standard.

2.  Background

2.1.  Internet of Things (IoT)

   Since the term "Internet of Things" was coined by Kevin Ashton in
   1999 while working on Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)
   technology [Ashton], the concept of IoT has evolved.  At the time of
   writing, it reflects a vision of connecting the physical world to the
   virtual world of computers using (often wireless) networks over which
   things can send and receive information without human intervention.
   Recently, the term has become more literal by connecting things to
   the Internet and converging on Internet and web technologies.

   A "Thing" is a physical item made available in the IoT, thereby
   enabling digital interaction with the physical world for humans,
   services, and/or other Things [REST-IOT].  In this document, we will
   use the term "IoT device" to designate the embedded system attached
   to the Thing.

   Resource-constrained Things, such as sensors, home appliances, and
   wearable devices, often have limited storage and processing power,
   which can create challenges with respect to reliability, performance,
   energy consumption, security, and privacy [Lin].  Some, less-
   resource-constrained Things, can generate a voluminous amount of
   data.  This range of factors led to IoT designs that integrate Things
   into larger distributed systems, for example, edge or cloud computing

2.2.  Cloud Computing

   Cloud computing has been defined in [NIST]:

   |  Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient,
   |  on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable
   |  computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,
   |  applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and
   |  released with minimal management effort or service provider
   |  interaction.

   The low cost and massive availability of storage and processing power
   enabled the realization of another computing model in which
   virtualized resources can be leased in an on-demand fashion and
   provided as general utilities.  Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and
   cloud computing platforms widely adopted this paradigm for delivering
   services over the Internet, gaining both economical and technical
   benefits [Botta].

   At the time of writing, an unprecedented volume and variety of data
   is generated by Things, and applications deployed at the network edge
   consume this data.  In this context, cloud-based service models are
   not suitable for some classes of applications that require very short
   response times, require access to local personal data, or generate
   vast amounts of data.  These applications may instead leverage edge

2.3.  Edge Computing

   Edge computing, also referred to as "fog computing" in some settings,
   is a new paradigm in which substantial computing and storage
   resources are placed at the edge of the Internet, close to mobile
   devices, sensors, actuators, or machines.  Edge computing happens
   near data sources [Mahadev] as well as close to where decisions are
   made or where interactions with the physical world take place
   ("close" here can refer to a distance that is topological, physical,
   latency-based, etc.).  It processes both downstream data (originating
   from cloud services) and upstream data (originating from end devices
   or network elements).  The term "fog computing" usually represents
   the notion of multi-tiered edge computing, that is, several layers of
   compute infrastructure between end devices and cloud services.

   An edge device is any computing or networking resource residing
   between end-device data sources and cloud-based data centers.  In
   edge computing, end devices consume and produce data.  At the network
   edge, devices not only request services and information from the
   cloud but also handle computing tasks including processing, storing,
   caching, and load balancing on data sent to and from the cloud [Shi].
   This does not preclude end devices from hosting computation
   themselves, when possible, independently or as part of a distributed
   edge computing platform.

   Several Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs) and industry forums
   have provided definitions of edge and fog computing:

   *  ISO defines edge computing as a "form of distributed computing in
      which significant processing and data storage takes place on nodes
      which are at the edge of the network" [ISO_TR].

   *  ETSI defines multi-access edge computing as a "system which
      provides an IT service environment and cloud-computing
      capabilities at the edge of an access network which contains one
      or more type of access technology, and in close proximity to its
      users" [ETSI_MEC_01].

   *  The Industry IoT Consortium (IIC) (now incorporating what was
      formerly OpenFog) defines fog computing as "a horizontal, system-
      level architecture that distributes computing, storage, control
      and networking functions closer to the users along a cloud-to-
      thing continuum" [OpenFog].

   Based on these definitions, we can summarize a general philosophy of
   edge computing as distributing the required functions close to users
   and data, while the difference to classic local systems is the usage
   of management and orchestration features adopted from cloud

   Actors from various industries approach edge computing using
   different terms and reference models, although, in practice, these
   approaches are not incompatible and may integrate with each other:

   *  The telecommunication industry tends to use a model where edge
      computing services are deployed over a Network Function
      Virtualization (NFV) infrastructure, at aggregation points, or in
      proximity to the user equipment (e.g., gNodeBs) [ETSI_MEC_03].

   *  Enterprise and campus solutions often interpret edge computing as
      an "edge cloud", that is, a smaller data center directly connected
      to the local network (often referred to as "on-premise").

   *  The automation industry defines the edge as the connection point
      between IT and Operational Technology (OT).  Hence, edge computing
      sometimes refers to applying IT solutions to OT problems, such as
      analytics, more-flexible user interfaces, or simply having more
      computing power than an automation controller.

2.4.  Examples of IoT Edge Computing Use Cases

   IoT edge computing can be used in home, industry, grid, healthcare,
   city, transportation, agriculture, and/or educational scenarios.
   Here, we discuss only a few examples of such use cases to identify
   differentiating requirements, providing references to other use

   *Smart Factory*
      As part of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, smart factories run
      real-time processes based on IT technologies, such as artificial
      intelligence and big data.  Even a very small environmental change
      in a smart factory can lead to a situation in which production
      efficiency decreases or product quality problems occur.
      Therefore, simple but time-sensitive processing can be performed
      at the edge, for example, controlling the temperature and humidity
      in the factory or operating machines based on the real-time
      collection of the operational status of each machine.  However,
      data requiring highly precise analysis, such as machine life-cycle
      management or accident risk prediction, can be transferred to a
      central data center for processing.

      The use of edge computing in a smart factory [Argungu] can reduce
      the cost of network and storage resources by reducing the
      communication load to the central data center or server.  It is
      also possible to improve process efficiency and facility asset
      productivity through real-time prediction of failures and to
      reduce the cost of failure through preliminary measures.  In the
      existing manufacturing field, production facilities are manually
      run according to a program entered in advance; however, edge
      computing in a smart factory enables tailoring solutions by
      analyzing data at each production facility and machine level.
      Digital twins [Jones] of IoT devices have been jointly used with
      edge computing in industrial IoT scenarios [Chen].

   *Smart Grid*
      In future smart-city scenarios, the smart grid will be critical in
      ensuring highly available and efficient energy control in city-
      wide electricity management [Mehmood].  Edge computing is expected
      to play a significant role in these systems to improve the
      transmission efficiency of electricity, to react to and restore
      power after a disturbance, to reduce operation costs, and to reuse
      energy effectively since these operations involve local decision-
      making.  In addition, edge computing can help monitor power
      generation and power demand and make local electrical energy
      storage decisions in smart grid systems.

   *Smart Agriculture*
      Smart agriculture integrates information and communication
      technologies with farming technology.  Intelligent farms use IoT
      technology to measure and analyze parameters, such as the
      temperature, humidity, sunlight, carbon dioxide, and soil quality,
      in crop cultivation facilities.  Depending on the analysis
      results, control devices are used to set the environmental
      parameters to an appropriate state.  Remote management is also
      possible through mobile devices, such as smartphones.

      In existing farms, simple systems, such as management according to
      temperature and humidity, can be easily and inexpensively
      implemented using IoT technology [Tanveer].  Field sensors gather
      data on field and crop condition.  This data is then transmitted
      to cloud servers that process data and recommend actions.  The use
      of edge computing can reduce the volume of back-and-forth data
      transmissions significantly, resulting in cost and bandwidth
      savings.  Locally generated data can be processed at the edge, and
      local computing and analytics can drive local actions.  With edge
      computing, it is easy for farmers to select large amounts of data
      for processing, and data can be analyzed even in remote areas with
      poor access conditions.  Other applications include enabling
      dashboarding, for example, to visualize the farm status, as well
      as enhancing Extended Reality (XR) applications that require edge
      audio and/or video processing.  As the number of people working on
      farming has been decreasing over time, increasing automation
      enabled by edge computing can be a driving force for future smart
      agriculture [OGrady].

   *Smart Construction*
      Safety is critical at construction sites.  Every year, many
      construction workers lose their lives because of falls,
      collisions, electric shocks, and other accidents [BigRentz].
      Therefore, solutions have been developed to improve construction
      site safety, including the real-time identification of workers,
      monitoring of equipment location, and predictive accident
      prevention.  To deploy these solutions, many cameras and IoT
      sensors have been installed on construction sites to measure
      noise, vibration, gas concentration, etc.  Typically, the data
      generated from these measurements is collected in on-site gateways
      and sent to remote cloud servers for storage and analysis.  Thus,
      an inspector can check the information stored on the cloud server
      to investigate an incident.  However, this approach can be
      expensive because of transmission costs (for example, of video
      streams over a mobile network connection) and because usage fees
      of private cloud services.

      Using edge computing [Yue], data generated at the construction
      site can be processed and analyzed on an edge server located
      within or near the site.  Only the result of this processing needs
      to be transferred to a cloud server, thus reducing transmission
      costs.  It is also possible to locally generate warnings to
      prevent accidents in real time.

   *Self-Driving Car*
      Edge computing plays a crucial role in safety-focused self-driving
      car systems [Badjie].  With a multitude of sensors, such as high-
      resolution cameras, radars, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)
      systems, sonar sensors, and GPS systems, autonomous vehicles
      generate vast amounts of real-time data.  Local processing
      utilizing edge computing nodes allows for efficient collection and
      analysis of this data to monitor vehicle distances and road
      conditions and respond promptly to unexpected situations.
      Roadside computing nodes can also be leveraged to offload tasks
      when necessary, for example, when the local processing capacity of
      the car is insufficient because of hardware constraints or a large
      data volume.

      For instance, when the car ahead slows, a self-driving car adjusts
      its speed to maintain a safe distance, or when a roadside signal
      changes, it adapts its behavior accordingly.  In another example,
      cars equipped with self-parking features utilize local processing
      to analyze sensor data, determine suitable parking spots, and
      execute precise parking maneuvers without relying on external
      processing or connectivity.  It is also possible to use in-cabin
      cameras coupled with local processing to monitor the driver's
      attention level and detect signs of drowsiness or distraction.
      The system can issue warnings or implement preventive measures to
      ensure driver safety.

      Edge computing empowers self-driving cars by enabling real-time
      processing, reducing latency, enhancing data privacy, and
      optimizing bandwidth usage.  By leveraging local processing
      capabilities, self-driving cars can make rapid decisions, adapt to
      changing environments, and ensure safer and more efficient
      autonomous driving experiences.

   *Digital Twin*
      A digital twin can simulate different scenarios and predict
      outcomes based on real-time data collected from the physical
      environment.  This simulation capability empowers proactive
      maintenance, optimization of operations, and the prediction of
      potential issues or failures.  Decision makers can use digital
      twins to test and validate different strategies, identify
      inefficiencies, and optimize performance [CertMagic].

      With edge computing, real-time data is collected, processed, and
      analyzed directly at the edge, allowing for the accurate
      monitoring and simulation of physical assets.  Moreover, edge
      computing effectively minimizes latency, enabling rapid responses
      to dynamic conditions as computational resources are brought
      closer to the physical object.  Running digital twin processing at
      the edge enables organizations to obtain timely insights and make
      informed decisions that maximize efficiency and performance.

   *Other Use Cases*
      Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) systems at
      the edge empower real-time analysis, faster decision-making,
      reduced latency, improved operational efficiency, and personalized
      experiences across various industries by bringing AI and ML
      capabilities closer to edge devices.

      In addition, oneM2M has studied several IoT edge computing use
      cases, which are documented in [oneM2M-TR0001], [oneM2M-TR0018],
      and [oneM2M-TR0026].  The edge-computing-related requirements
      raised through the analysis of these use cases are captured in

3.  IoT Challenges Leading toward Edge Computing

   This section describes the challenges faced by the IoT that are
   motivating the adoption of edge computing.  These are distinct from
   the research challenges applicable to IoT edge computing, some of
   which are mentioned in Section 4.

   IoT technology is used with increasingly demanding applications in
   domains such as industrial, automotive, and healthcare, which leads
   to new challenges.  For example, industrial machines, such as laser
   cutters, produce over 1 terabyte of data per hour, and similar
   amounts can be generated in autonomous cars [NVIDIA].  90% of IoT
   data is expected to be stored, processed, analyzed, and acted upon
   close to the source [Kelly], as cloud computing models alone cannot
   address these new challenges [Chiang].

   Below, we discuss IoT use case requirements that are moving cloud
   capabilities to be more proximate, distributed, and disaggregated.

3.1.  Time Sensitivity

   Often, many industrial control systems, such as manufacturing
   systems, smart grids, and oil and gas systems, require stringent end-
   to-end latency between the sensor and control nodes.  While some IoT
   applications may require latency below a few tens of milliseconds
   [Weiner], industrial robots and motion control systems have use cases
   for cycle times in the order of microseconds [IEC_IEEE_60802].  In
   some cases, speed-of-light limitations may simply prevent cloud-based
   solutions; however, this is not the only challenge relative to time
   sensitivity.  Guarantees for bounded latency and jitter ([RFC8578],
   Section 7) are also important for industrial IoT applications.  This
   means that control packets must arrive with as little variation as
   possible and within a strict deadline.  Given the best-effort
   characteristics of the Internet, this challenge is virtually
   impossible to address without using end-to-end guarantees for
   individual message delivery and continuous data flows.

3.2.  Connectivity Cost

   Some IoT deployments may not face bandwidth constraints when
   uploading data to the cloud.  Theoretically, both 5G and Wi-Fi 6
   networks top out at 10 gigabits per second (i.e., 4.5 terabytes per
   hour), allowing the transfer of large amounts of uplink data.
   However, the cost of maintaining continuous high-bandwidth
   connectivity for such usage is unjustifiable and impractical for most
   IoT applications.  In some settings, for example, in aeronautical
   communication, higher communication costs reduce the amount of data
   that can be practically uploaded even further.  Therefore, minimizing
   reliance on high-bandwidth connectivity is a requirement; this can be
   done, for example, by processing data at the edge and deriving
   summarized or actionable insights that can be transmitted to the

3.3.  Resilience to Intermittent Services

   Many IoT devices, such as sensors, actuators, and controllers, have
   very limited hardware resources and cannot rely solely on their own
   resources to meet their computing and/or storage needs.  They require
   reliable, uninterrupted, or resilient services to augment their
   capabilities to fulfill their application tasks.  This is difficult
   and partly impossible to achieve using cloud services for systems
   such as vehicles, drones, or oil rigs that have intermittent network
   connectivity.  Conversely, a cloud backend might want to access
   device data even if the device is currently asleep.

3.4.  Privacy and Security

   When IoT services are deployed at home, personal information can be
   learned from detected usage data.  For example, one can extract
   information about employment, family status, age, and income by
   analyzing smart meter data [ENERGY].  Policy makers have begun to
   provide frameworks that limit the usage of personal data and impose
   strict requirements on data controllers and processors.  Data stored
   indefinitely in the cloud also increases the risk of data leakage,
   for instance, through attacks on rich targets.

   It is often argued that industrial systems do not provide privacy
   implications, as no personal data is gathered.  However, data from
   such systems is often highly sensitive, as one might be able to infer
   trade secrets, such as the setup of production lines.  Hence, owners
   of these systems are generally reluctant to upload IoT data to the

   Furthermore, passive observers can perform traffic analysis on
   device-to-cloud paths.  Therefore, hiding traffic patterns associated
   with sensor networks can be another requirement for edge computing.

4.  IoT Edge Computing Functions

   We first look at the current state of IoT edge computing
   (Section 4.1) and then define a general system model (Section 4.2).
   This provides a context for IoT edge computing functions, which are
   listed in Sections 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5.

4.1.  Overview of IoT Edge Computing

   This section provides an overview of the current (at the time of
   writing) IoT edge computing field based on a limited review of
   standards, research, and open-source and proprietary products in

   IoT gateways, both open-source (such as EdgeX Foundry or Home Edge)
   and proprietary products, represent a common class of IoT edge
   computing products, where the gateway provides a local service on
   customer premises and is remotely managed through a cloud service.
   IoT communication protocols are typically used between IoT devices
   and the gateway, including a Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)
   [RFC7252], Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) [MQTT5], and
   many specialized IoT protocols (such as Open Platform Communications
   Unified Architecture (OPC UA) and Data Distribution Service (DDS) in
   the industrial IoT space), while the gateway communicates with the
   distant cloud typically using HTTPS.  Virtualization platforms enable
   the deployment of virtual edge computing functions (using Virtual
   Machines (VMs) and application containers), including IoT gateway
   software, on servers in the mobile network infrastructure (at base
   stations and concentration points), edge data centers (in central
   offices), and regional data centers located near central offices.
   End devices are envisioned to become computing devices in forward-
   looking projects but are not commonly used at the time of writing.

   In addition to open-source and proprietary solutions, a horizontal
   IoT service layer is standardized by the oneM2M standards body to
   reduce fragmentation, increase interoperability, and promote reuse in
   the IoT ecosystem.  Furthermore, ETSI Multi-access Edge Computing
   (MEC) developed an IoT API [ETSI_MEC_33] that enables the deployment
   of heterogeneous IoT platforms and provides a means to configure the
   various components of an IoT system.

   Physical or virtual IoT gateways can host application programs that
   are typically built using an SDK to access local services through a
   programmatic API.  Edge cloud system operators host their customers'
   application VMs or containers on servers located in or near access
   networks that can implement local edge services.  For example, mobile
   networks can provide edge services for radio network information,
   location, and bandwidth management.

   Resilience in the IoT can entail the ability to operate autonomously
   in periods of disconnectedness to preserve the integrity and safety
   of the controlled system, possibly in a degraded mode.  IoT devices
   and gateways are often expected to operate in always-on and
   unattended modes, using fault detection and unassisted recovery

   The life-cycle management of services and applications on physical
   IoT gateways is generally cloud based.  Edge cloud management
   platforms and products (such as StarlingX, Akraino Edge Stack, or
   proprietary products from major cloud providers) adapt cloud
   management technologies (e.g., Kubernetes) to the edge cloud, that
   is, to smaller, distributed computing devices running outside a
   controlled data center.  Typically, the service and application life
   cycle is using an NFV-like management and orchestration model.

   The platform generally enables advertising or consuming services
   hosted on the platform (e.g., the Mp1 interface in ETSI MEC supports
   service discovery and communication), and enables communication with
   local and remote endpoints (e.g., message routing function in IoT
   gateways).  The platform is usually extensible to edge applications
   because it can advertise a service that other edge applications can
   consume.  The IoT communication services include protocol
   translation, analytics, and transcoding.  Communication between edge
   computing devices is enabled in tiered or distributed deployments.

   An edge cloud platform may enable pass-through without storage or
   local storage (e.g., on IoT gateways).  Some edge cloud platforms use
   distributed storage such as that provided by a distributed storage
   platform (e.g., EdgeFS and Ceph) or, in more experimental settings,
   by an Information-Centric Networking (ICN) network, for example,
   systems such as Chipmunk [Chipmunk] and Kua [Kua] have been proposed
   as distributed information-centric objects stores.  External storage,
   for example, on databases in a distant or local IT cloud, is
   typically used for filtered data deemed worthy of long-term storage;
   although, in some cases, it may be for all data, for example, when
   required for regulatory reasons.

   Stateful computing is the default on most systems, VMs, and
   containers.  Stateless computing is supported on platforms providing
   a "serverless computing" service (also known as function-as-
   a-service, e.g., using stateless containers) or on systems based on
   named function networking.

   In many IoT use cases, a typical network usage pattern is a high-
   volume uplink with some form of traffic reduction enabled by
   processing over edge computing devices.  Alternatives to traffic
   reduction include deferred transmission (to off-peak hours or using
   physical shipping).  Downlink traffic includes application control
   and software updates.  Downlink-heavy traffic patterns are not
   excluded but are more often associated with non-IoT usage (e.g.,
   video Content Delivery Networks (CDNs)).

4.2.  General Model

   Edge computing is expected to play an important role in deploying new
   IoT services integrated with big data and AI enabled by flexible in-
   network computing platforms.  Although there are many approaches to
   edge computing, this section lays out an attempt at a general model
   and lists associated logical functions.  In practice, this model can
   be mapped to different architectures, such as:

   *  A single IoT gateway, or a hierarchy of IoT gateways, typically
      connected to the cloud (e.g., to extend the centralized cloud-
      based management of IoT devices and data to the edge).  The IoT
      gateway plays a common role in providing access to a heterogeneous
      set of IoT devices and sensors, handling IoT data, and delivering
      IoT data to its final destination in a cloud network.  An IoT
      gateway requires interactions with the cloud; however, it can also
      operate independently in a disconnected mode.

   *  A set of distributed computing nodes, for example, embedded in
      switches, routers, edge cloud servers, or mobile devices.  Some
      IoT devices have sufficient computing capabilities to participate
      in such distributed systems owing to advances in hardware
      technology.  In this model, edge computing nodes can collaborate
      to share resources.

   *  A hybrid system involving both IoT gateways and supporting
      functions in distributed computing nodes.

   In the general model described in Figure 1, the edge computing domain
   is interconnected with IoT devices (southbound connectivity),
   possibly with a remote (e.g., cloud) network (northbound
   connectivity), and with a service operator's system.  Edge computing
   nodes provide multiple logical functions or components that may not
   be present in a given system.  They may be implemented in a
   centralized or distributed fashion, at the network edge, or through
   interworking between the edge network and remote cloud networks.

                |   Remote Network    |  +---------------+
                |(e.g., cloud network)|  |   Service     |
                +-----------+---------+  |   Operator    |
                            |            +------+--------+
                            |                   |
             |            Edge Computing Domain             |
             |                                              |
             |   One or more computing nodes                |
             |   (IoT gateway, end devices, switches,       |
             |   routers, mini/micro-data centers, etc.)    |
             |                                              |
             |   OAM Components                             |
             |   - Resource Discovery and Authentication    |
             |   - Edge Organization and Federation         |
             |   - Multi-Tenancy and Isolation              |
             |   - ...                                      |
             |                                              |
             |   Functional Components                      |
             |   - In-Network Computation                   |
             |   - Edge Caching                             |
             |   - Communication                            |
             |   - Other Services                           |
             |   - ...                                      |
             |                                              |
             |   Application Components                     |
             |   - IoT Devices Management                   |
             |   - Data Management and Analytics            |
             |   - ...                                      |
             |                                              |
             +------+--------------+-------- - - - -+- - - -+
                    |              |       |        |       |
                    |              |          +-----+--+
               +----+---+    +-----+--+    |  |Compute |    |
               |  End   |    |  End   | ...   |Node/End|
               |Device 1|    |Device 2| ...|  |Device n|    |
               +--------+    +--------+       +--------+
                                           + - - - - - - - -+

                   Figure 1: Model of IoT Edge Computing

   In the distributed model described in Figure 2, the edge computing
   domain is composed of IoT edge gateways and IoT devices that are also
   used as computing nodes.  Edge computing domains are connected to a
   remote (e.g., cloud) network and their respective service operator's
   system.  The computing nodes provide logical functions, for example,
   as part of distributed machine learning or distributed image
   processing applications.  The processing capabilities in IoT devices
   are limited; they require the support of other nodes.  In a
   distributed machine learning application, the training process for AI
   services can be executed at IoT edge gateways or cloud networks, and
   the prediction (inference) service is executed in the IoT devices.
   Similarly, in a distributed image processing application, some image
   processing functions can be executed at the edge or in the cloud.  To
   limit the amount of data to be uploaded to central cloud functions,
   IoT edge devices may pre-process data.

             |            Edge Computing Domain             |
             |                                              |
             | +--------+    +--------+        +--------+   |
             | |Compute |    |Compute |        |Compute |   |
             | |Node/End|    |Node/End|  ....  |Node/End|   |
             | |Device 1|    |Device 2|  ....  |Device m|   |
             | +----+---+    +----+---+        +----+---+   |
             |      |             |                 |       |
             |  +---+-------------+-----------------+--+    |
             |  |           IoT Edge Gateway           |    |
             |  +-----------+-------------------+------+    |
             |              |                   |           |
                            |                   |
                +-----------+---------+  +------+-------+
                |   Remote Network    |  |   Service    |
                |(e.g., cloud network)|  |  Operator(s) |
                +-----------+---------+  +------+-------+
                            |                   |
             |              |                   |           |
             |  +-----------+-------------------+------+    |
             |  |           IoT Edge Gateway           |    |
             |  +---+-------------+-----------------+--+    |
             |      |             |                 |       |
             | +----+---+    +----+---+        +----+---+   |
             | |Compute |    |Compute |        |Compute |   |
             | |Node/End|    |Node/End|  ....  |Node/End|   |
             | |Device 1|    |Device 2|  ....  |Device n|   |
             | +--------+    +--------+        +--------+   |
             |                                              |
             |            Edge Computing Domain             |

     Figure 2: Example of Machine Learning over a Distributed IoT Edge
                              Computing System

   In the following, we enumerate major edge computing domain
   components.  Here, they are loosely organized into Operations,
   Administration, and Maintenance (OAM); functional; and application
   components, with the understanding that the distinction between these
   classes may not always be clear, depending on actual system
   architectures.  Some representative research challenges are
   associated with those functions.  We used input from coauthors,
   participants of T2TRG meetings, and some comprehensive reviews of the
   field ([Yousefpour], [Zhang2], and [Khan]).

4.3.  OAM Components

   Edge computing OAM extends beyond the network-related OAM functions
   listed in [RFC6291].  In addition to infrastructure (network,
   storage, and computing resources), edge computing systems can also
   include computing environments (for VMs, software containers, and
   functions), IoT devices, data, and code.

   Operation-related functions include performance monitoring for
   Service Level Agreement (SLA) measurements, fault management, and
   provisioning for links, nodes, compute and storage resources,
   platforms, and services.  Administration covers network/compute/
   storage resources, platform and service discovery, configuration, and
   planning.  Discovery during normal operation (e.g., discovery of
   compute or storage nodes by endpoints) is typically not included in
   OAM; however, in this document, we do not address it separately.
   Management covers the monitoring and diagnostics of failures, as well
   as means to minimize their occurrence and take corrective actions.
   This may include software update management and high service
   availability through redundancy and multipath communication.
   Centralized (e.g., Software-Defined Networking (SDN)) and
   decentralized management systems can be used.  Finally, we
   arbitrarily chose to address data management as an application
   component; however, in some systems, data management may be
   considered similar to a network management function.

   We further detail a few relevant OAM components.

4.3.1.  Resource Discovery and Authentication

   Discovery and authentication may target platforms and infrastructure
   resources, such as computing, networking, and storage, as well as
   other resources, such as IoT devices, sensors, data, code units,
   services, applications, and users interacting with the system.  In a
   broker-based system, an IoT gateway can act as a broker to discover
   IoT resources.  More decentralized solutions can also be used in
   replacement of or in complement to the broker-based solutions; for
   example, CoAP enables multicast discovery of an IoT device and CoAP
   service discovery enables one to obtain a list of resources made
   available by this device [RFC7252].  For device authentication,
   current centralized gateway-based systems rely on the installation of
   a secret on IoT devices and computing devices (e.g., a device
   certificate stored in a hardware security module or a combination of
   code and data stored in a trusted execution environment).

   Related challenges include:

   *  Discovery, authentication, and trust establishment between IoT
      devices, compute nodes, and platforms, with regard to concerns
      such as mobility, heterogeneous devices and networks, scale,
      multiple trust domains, constrained devices, anonymity, and

   *  Intermittent connectivity to the Internet, removing the need to
      rely on a third-party authority [Echeverria].

   *  Resiliency to failure [Harchol], denial-of-service attacks, and
      easier physical access for attackers.

4.3.2.  Edge Organization and Federation

   In a distributed system context, once edge devices have discovered
   and authenticated each other, they can be organized or self-organized
   into hierarchies or clusters.  The organizational structure may range
   from centralized to peer-to-peer, or it may be closely tied to other
   systems.  Such groups can also form federations with other edges or
   with remote clouds.

   Related challenges include:

   *  Support for scaling and enabling fault tolerance or self-healing
      [Jeong].  In addition to using a hierarchical organization to cope
      with scaling, another available and possibly complementary
      mechanism is multicast [RFC7390] [CORE-GROUPCOMM-BIS].  Other
      approaches include relying on blockchains [Ali].

   *  Integration of edge computing with virtualized Radio Access
      Networks (Fog RAN) [SFC-FOG-RAN] and 5G access networks.

   *  Sharing resources in multi-vendor and multi-operator scenarios to
      optimize criteria such as profit [Anglano], resource usage,
      latency, and energy consumption.

   *  Capacity planning, placement of infrastructure nodes to minimize
      delay [Fan], cost, energy, etc.

   *  Incentives for participation, for example, in peer-to-peer
      federation schemes.

   *  Design of federated AI over IoT edge computing systems [Brecko],
      for example, for anomaly detection.

4.3.3.  Multi-Tenancy and Isolation

   Some IoT edge computing systems make use of virtualized (compute,
   storage, and networking) resources to address the need for secure
   multi-tenancy at the edge.  This leads to "edge clouds" that share
   properties with remote clouds and can reuse some of their ecosystems.
   Virtualization function management is largely covered by ETSI NFV and
   MEC standards and recommendations.  Projects such as [LFEDGE-EVE]
   further cover virtualization and its management in distributed edge
   computing settings.

   Related challenges include:

   *  Adapting cloud management platforms to the edge to account for its
      distributed nature, heterogeneity, need for customization, and
      limited resources (for example, using Conflict-free Replicated
      Data Types (CRDTs) [Jeffery] or intent-based management mechanisms

   *  Minimizing virtual function instantiation time and resource usage.

4.4.  Functional Components

4.4.1.  In-Network Computation

   A core function of IoT edge computing is to enable local computation
   on a node at the network edge, typically for application-layer
   processing, such as processing input data from sensors, making local
   decisions, preprocessing data, and offloading computation on behalf
   of a device, service, or user.  Related functions include
   orchestrating computation (in a centralized or distributed manner)
   and managing application life cycles.  Support for in-network
   computation may vary in terms of capability; for example, computing
   nodes can host virtual machines, software containers, software
   actors, unikernels running stateful or stateless code, or a rule
   engine providing an API to register actions in response to conditions
   (such as an IoT device ID, sensor values to check, thresholds, etc.).

   Edge offloading includes offloading to and from an IoT device and to
   and from a network node.  [Cloudlets] describes an example of
   offloading computation from an end device to a network node.  In
   contrast, oneM2M is an example of a system that allows a cloud-based
   IoT platform to transfer resources and tasks to a target edge node
   [oneM2M-TR0052].  Once transferred, the edge node can directly
   support IoT devices that it serves with the service offloaded by the
   cloud (e.g., group management, location management, etc.).

   QoS can be provided in some systems through the combination of
   network QoS (e.g., traffic engineering or wireless resource
   scheduling) and compute and storage resource allocations.  For
   example, in some systems, a bandwidth manager service can be exposed
   to enable allocation of the bandwidth to or from an edge computing
   application instance.

   In-network computation can leverage the underlying services provided
   using data generated by IoT devices and access networks.  Such
   services include IoT device location, radio network information,
   bandwidth management, and congestion management (e.g., the congestion
   management feature of oneM2M [oneM2M-TR0052]).

   Related challenges include:

   *  Computation placement: in a centralized or distributed (e.g.,
      peer-to-peer) manner, selecting an appropriate compute device.
      The selection is based on available resources, location of data
      input and data sinks, compute node properties, etc. with varying
      goals.  These goals include end-to-end latency, privacy, high
      availability, energy conservation, or network efficiency (for
      example, using load-balancing techniques to avoid congestion).

   *  Onboarding code on a platform or computing device and invoking
      remote code execution, possibly as part of a distributed
      programming model and with respect to similar concerns of latency,
      privacy, etc.  For example, offloading can be included in a
      vehicular scenario [Grewe].  These operations should deal with
      heterogeneous compute nodes [Schafer] and may also support end
      devices, including IoT devices, as compute nodes [Larrea].

   *  Adapting Quality of Results (QoR) for applications where a perfect
      result is not necessary [Li].

   *  Assisted or automatic partitioning of code.  For example, for
      application programs [COIN-APPCENTRES] or network programs

   *  Supporting computation across trust domains.  For example,
      verifying computation results.

   *  Supporting computation mobility: relocating an instance from one
      compute node to another while maintaining a given service level;
      session continuity when communicating with end devices that are
      mobile, possibly at high speed (e.g., in vehicular scenarios);
      defining lightweight execution environments for secure code
      mobility, for example, using WebAssembly [Nieke].

   *  Defining, managing, and verifying SLAs for edge computing systems;
      pricing is a challenging task.

4.4.2.  Edge Storage and Caching

   Local storage or caching enables local data processing (e.g.,
   preprocessing or analysis) as well as delayed data transfer to the
   cloud or delayed physical shipping.  An edge node may offer local
   data storage (in which persistence is subject to retention policies),
   caching, or both.  Generally, "caching" refers to temporary storage
   to improve performance without persistence guarantees.  An edge-
   caching component manages data persistence; for example, it schedules
   the removal of data when it is no longer needed.  Other related
   aspects include the authentication and encryption of data.  Edge
   storage and caching can take the form of a distributed storage

   Related challenges include:

   *  Cache and data placement: using cache positioning and data
      placement strategies to minimize data retrieval delay [Liu] and
      energy consumption.  Caches may be positioned in the access-
      network infrastructure or on end devices.

   *  Maintaining consistency, freshness, reliability, and privacy of
      data stored or cached in systems that are distributed,
      constrained, and dynamic (e.g., due to node mobility, energy-
      saving regimes, and disruptions) and which can have additional
      data governance constraints on data storage location.  For
      example, [Mortazavi] describes leveraging a hierarchical storage
      organization.  Freshness-related metrics include the age of
      information [Yates] that captures the timeliness of information
      received from a sender (e.g., an IoT device).

4.4.3.  Communication

   An edge cloud may provide a northbound data plane or management plane
   interface to a remote network, such as a cloud, home, or enterprise
   network.  This interface does not exist in stand-alone (local-only)
   scenarios.  To support such an interface when it exists, an edge
   computing component needs to expose an API, deal with authentication
   and authorization, and support secure communication.

   An edge cloud may provide an API or interface to local or mobile
   users, for example, to provide access to services and applications or
   to manage data published by local or mobile devices.

   Edge computing nodes communicate with IoT devices over a southbound
   interface, typically for data acquisition and IoT device management.

   Communication brokering is a typical function of IoT edge computing
   that facilitates communication with IoT devices, enables clients to
   register as recipients for data from devices, forwards traffic to or
   from IoT devices, enables various data discovery and redistribution
   patterns (for example, north-south with clouds and east-west with
   other edge devices [EDGE-DATA-DISCOVERY-OVERVIEW]).  Another related
   aspect is dispatching alerts and notifications to interested
   consumers both inside and outside the edge computing domain.
   Protocol translation, analytics, and video transcoding can also be
   performed when necessary.  Communication brokering may be centralized
   in some systems, for example, using a hub-and-spoke message broker or
   distributed with message buses, possibly in a layered bus approach.
   Distributed systems can leverage direct communication between end
   devices over device-to-device links.  A broker can ensure
   communication reliability and traceability and, in some cases,
   transaction management.

   Related challenges include:

   *  Defining edge computing abstractions, such as PaaS [Yangui],
      suitable for users and cloud systems to interact with edge
      computing systems and dealing with interoperability issues, such
      as data-model heterogeneity.

   *  Enabling secure and resilient communication between IoT devices
      and a remote cloud, for example, through multipath support.

4.5.  Application Components

   IoT edge computing can host applications, such as those mentioned in
   Section 2.4.  While describing the components of individual
   applications is out of our scope, some of those applications share
   similar functions, such as IoT device management and data management,
   as described below.

4.5.1.  IoT Device Management

   IoT device management includes managing information regarding IoT
   devices, including their sensors and how to communicate with them.
   Edge computing addresses the scalability challenges of a large number
   of IoT devices by separating the scalability domain into local (e.g.,
   edge) networks and remote networks.  For example, in the context of
   the oneM2M standard, a device management functionality (called
   "software campaign" in oneM2M) enables the installation, deletion,
   activation, and deactivation of software functions and services on a
   potentially large number of edge nodes [oneM2M-TR0052].  Using a
   dashboard or management software, a service provider issues these
   requests through an IoT cloud platform supporting the software
   campaign functionality.

   The challenges listed in Section 4.3.1 may be applicable to IoT
   device management as well.

4.5.2.  Data Management and Analytics

   Data storage and processing at the edge are major aspects of IoT edge
   computing, directly addressing the high-level IoT challenges listed
   in Section 3.  Data analysis, for example, through AI/ML tasks
   performed at the edge, may benefit from specialized hardware support
   on the computing nodes.

   Related challenges include:

   *  Addressing concerns regarding resource usage, security, and
      privacy when sharing, processing, discovering, or managing data:
      for example, presenting data in views composed of an aggregation
      of related data [Zhang], protecting data communication between
      authenticated peers [Basudan], classifying data (e.g., in terms of
      privacy, importance, and validity), and compressing and encrypting
      data, for example, using homomorphic encryption to directly
      process encrypted data [Stanciu].

   *  Other concerns regarding edge data discovery (e.g., streaming
      data, metadata, and events) include siloization and lack of
      standards in edge environments that can be dynamic (e.g.,
      vehicular networks) and heterogeneous

   *  Data-driven programming models [Renart], for example, those that
      are event based, including handling naming and data abstractions.

   *  Data integration in an environment without data standardization or
      where different sources use different ontologies

   *  Addressing concerns such as limited resources, privacy, and
      dynamic and heterogeneous environments to deploy machine learning
      at the edge: for example, making machine learning more lightweight
      and distributed (e.g., enabling distributed inference at the
      edge), supporting shorter training times and simplified models,
      and supporting models that can be compressed for efficient
      communication [Murshed].

   *  Although edge computing can support IoT services independently of
      cloud computing, it can also be connected to cloud computing.
      Thus, the relationship between IoT edge computing and cloud
      computing, with regard to data management, is another potential
      challenge [ISO_TR].

4.6.  Simulation and Emulation Environments

   IoT edge computing introduces new challenges to the simulation and
   emulation tools used by researchers and developers.  A varied set of
   applications, networks, and computing technologies can coexist in a
   distributed system, making modeling difficult.  Scale, mobility, and
   resource management are additional challenges [SimulatingFog].

   Tools include simulators, where simplified application logic runs on
   top of a fog network model, and emulators, where actual applications
   can be deployed, typically in software containers, over a cloud
   infrastructure (e.g., Docker and Kubernetes) running over a network
   emulating network edge conditions, such as variable delays,
   throughput, and mobility events.  To gain in scale, emulated and
   simulated systems can be used together in hybrid federation-based
   approaches [PseudoDynamicTesting]; whereas to gain in realism,
   physical devices can be interconnected with emulated systems.
   Examples of related work and platforms include the publicly
   accessible MEC sandbox work recently initiated in ETSI [ETSI_Sandbox]
   and open-source simulators and emulators ([AdvantEDGE] emulator and
   tools cited in [SimulatingFog]).  EdgeNet [Senel] is a globally
   distributed edge cloud for Internet researchers, which uses nodes
   contributed by institutions and which is based on Docker for
   containerization and Kubernetes for deployment and node management.

   Digital twins are virtual instances of a physical system (twin) that
   are continually updated with the latter's performance, maintenance,
   and health status data throughout the life cycle of the physical
   system [Madni].  In contrast to an emulation or simulated
   environment, digital twins, once generated, are maintained in sync by
   their physical twin, which can be, among many other instances, an IoT
   device, edge device, or an edge network.  The benefits of digital
   twins go beyond those of emulation and include accelerated business
   processes, enhanced productivity, and faster innovation with reduced

5.  Security Considerations

   Privacy and security are drivers of the adoption of edge computing
   for the IoT (Section 3.4).  As discussed in Section 4.3.1,
   authentication and trust (among computing nodes, management nodes,
   and end devices) can be challenging as scale, mobility, and
   heterogeneity increase.  The sometimes disconnected nature of edge
   resources can avoid reliance on third-party authorities.  Distributed
   edge computing is exposed to reliability and denial-of-service
   attacks.  A personal or proprietary IoT data leakage is also a major
   threat, particularly because of the distributed nature of the systems
   (Section 4.5.2).  Furthermore, blockchain-based distributed IoT edge
   computing must be designed for privacy, since public blockchain
   addressing does not guarantee absolute anonymity [Ali].

   However, edge computing also offers solutions in the security space:
   maintaining privacy by computing sensitive data closer to data
   generators is a major use case for IoT edge computing.  An edge cloud
   can be used to perform actions based on sensitive data or to
   anonymize or aggregate data prior to transmission to a remote cloud
   server.  Edge computing communication brokering functions can also be
   used to secure communication between edge and cloud networks.

6.  Conclusion

   IoT edge computing plays an essential role, complementary to the
   cloud, in enabling IoT systems in certain situations.  In this
   document, we presented use cases and listed the core challenges faced
   by the IoT that drive the need for IoT edge computing.  Therefore,
   the first part of this document may help focus future research
   efforts on the aspects of IoT edge computing where it is most useful.
   The second part of this document presents a general system model and
   structured overview of the associated research challenges and related
   work.  The structure, based on the system model, is not meant to be
   restrictive and exists for the purpose of having a link between
   individual research areas and where they are applicable in an IoT
   edge computing system.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

8.  Informative References

              "AdvantEDGE, Mobile Edge Emulation Platform", commit
              8f6edbe, May 2023,

   [Ali]      Ali, M., Vecchio, M., and F. Antonelli, "Enabling a
              Blockchain-Based IoT Edge", IEEE Internet of Things
              Magazine, vol. 1, no.2, pp. 24-29,
              DOI 10.1109/IOTM.2019.1800024, December 2018,

   [Anglano]  Anglano, C., Canonico, M., Castagno, P., Guazzone, M., and
              M. Sereno, "A game-theoretic approach to coalition
              formation in fog provider federations", 2018 Third
              International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing
              (FMEC), DOI 10.1109/fmec.2018.8364054, April 2018,

   [Argungu]  Argungu, J., Idina, M., Chalawa, U., Ummar, M., Bello, S.,
              Arzika, I., and B. Mala, "A Survey of Edge Computing
              Approaches in Smart Factory", International Journal of
              Advanced Research in Computer and Communication
              Engineering, Vol. 12, Issue 9, September 2023.

   [Ashton]   Ashton, K., "That 'Internet of Things' Thing", RFID
              Journal, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 97-114, June 2009,

   [Badjie]   Badjie, B., "The Future of Autonomous Driving Systems with
              Edge Computing", September 2023,

   [Basudan]  Basudan, S., Lin, X., and K. Sankaranarayanan, "A Privacy-
              Preserving Vehicular Crowdsensing-Based Road Surface
              Condition Monitoring System Using Fog Computing", IEEE
              Internet of Things Journal, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 772-782,
              DOI 10.1109/jiot.2017.2666783, June 2017,

   [BigRentz] BigRentz, "41 Construction Safety Statistics for 2024",
              February 2024, <

   [Botta]    Botta, A., de Donato, W., Persico, V., and A. Pescapé,
              "Integration of Cloud computing and Internet of Things: A
              survey", Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 56, pp.
              684-700, DOI 10.1016/j.future.2015.09.021, March 2016,

   [Brecko]   Brecko, A., Kajáti, E., Koziorek, J., and I. Zolotová,
              "Federated Learning for Edge Computing: A Survey", Applied
              Sciences 12(18):9124, DOI 10.3390/app12189124, September
              2022, <>.

   [Cao]      Cao, L., Merican, A., Tootaghaj, D., Ahmed, F., Sharma,
              P., and V. Saxena, "eCaaS: A Management Framework of Edge
              Container as a Service for Business Workload", Proceedings
              of the 4th International Workshop on Edge Systems,
              Analytics and Networking, DOI 10.1145/3434770.3459741,
              April 2021, <>.

              CertMagic, "Digital Twin Technology: Simulating Real-World
              Scenarios for Enhanced Decision Making", May 2023,

   [Chen]     Chen, B., Wan, J., Celesti, A., Li, D., Abbas, H., and Q.
              Zhang, "Edge Computing in IoT-Based Manufacturing", IEEE
              Communications Magazine, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 103-109,
              DOI 10.1109/mcom.2018.1701231, September 2018,

   [Chiang]   Chiang, M. and T. Zhang, "Fog and IoT: An Overview of
              Research Opportunities", IEEE Internet of Things Journal,
              vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 854-864, DOI 10.1109/jiot.2016.2584538,
              December 2016,

   [Chipmunk] Shin, Y., Park, S., Ko, N., and A. Jeong, "Chipmunk:
              Distributed Object Storage for NDN", Proceedings of the
              7th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking, ACM,
              DOI 10.1145/3405656.3420231, September 2020,

              Satyanarayanan, M., Bahl, P., Caceres, R., and N. Davies,
              "The Case for VM-Based Cloudlets in Mobile Computing",
              IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 14-23,
              DOI 10.1109/mprv.2009.82, October 2009,

              Trossen, D., Sarathchandra, C., and M. Boniface, "In-
              Network Computing for App-Centric Micro-Services", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-sarathchandra-coin-
              appcentres-04, 26 January 2021,

              Dijk, E., Wang, C., and M. Tiloca, "Group Communication
              for the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-core-groupcomm-bis-
              10, 23 October 2023,

              Echeverría, S., Klinedinst, D., Williams, K., and G.
              Lewis, "Establishing Trusted Identities in Disconnected
              Edge Environments", 2016 IEEE/ACM Symposium on Edge
              Computing (SEC), DOI 10.1109/sec.2016.27, October 2016,

              de Foy, X., Hong, J., Hong, Y., Kovatsch, M., Schooler,
              E., and D. Kutscher, "IoT Edge Computing: Initiatives,
              Projects and Products", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-defoy-t2trg-iot-edge-computing-background-00, 25 May
              2020, <

              McBride, M., Kutscher, D., Schooler, E., Bernardos, C. J.,
              Lopez, D., and X. de Foy, "Edge Data Discovery for COIN",
              Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-mcbride-edge-data-
              discovery-overview-05, 1 November 2020,

   [ENERGY]   Beckel, C., Sadamori, L., Staake, T., and S. Santini,
              "Revealing household characteristics from smart meter
              data", Energy, vol. 78, pp. 397-410,
              DOI 10.1016/, December 2014,

              ETSI, "Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC); Terminology",
              V2.1.1, ETSI GS MEC 001, January 2019,

              ETSI, "Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC); Framework and
              Reference Architecture", V2.1.1, ETSI GS MEC 003, January
              2019, <

              ETSI, "Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC); IoT API",
              V3.1.1, ETSI GS MEC 033, December 2022,

              ETSI, "Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) MEC Sandbox",
              Portal, September 2023,

   [Fan]      Fan, Q. and N. Ansari, "Cost Aware cloudlet Placement for
              big data processing at the edge", 2017 IEEE International
              Conference on Communications (ICC),
              DOI 10.1109/icc.2017.7996722, May 2017,

              Farnbauer-Schmidt, M., Lindner, J., Kaffenberger, C., and
              J. Albrecht, "Combining the Concepts of Semantic Data
              Integration and Edge Computing", INFORMATIK 2019: 50 Jahre
              Gesellschaft für Informatik - Informatik für Gesellschaf,
              pp. 139-152, DOI 10.18420/inf2019_19, September 2019,

   [Grewe]    Grewe, D., Wagner, M., Arumaithurai, M., Psaras, I., and
              D. Kutscher, "Information-Centric Mobile Edge Computing
              for Connected Vehicle Environments: Challenges and
              Research Directions", Proceedings of the Workshop on
              Mobile Edge Communications, pp. 7-12,
              DOI 10.1145/3098208.3098210, August 2017,

   [Harchol]  Harchol, Y., Mushtaq, A., McCauley, J., Panda, A., and S.
              Shenker, "CESSNA: Resilient Edge-Computing", Proceedings
              of the 2018 Workshop on Mobile Edge Communications,
              DOI 10.1145/3229556.3229558, August 2018,

              IEC/IEEE, "Use Cases IEC/IEEE 60802", V1.3, IEC/
              IEEE 60802, September 2018,

   [ISO_TR]   "Internet of things (IoT) - Edge computing", ISO/IEC TR
              30164:2020, April 2020,

   [Jeffery]  Jeffery, A., Howard, H., and R. Mortier, "Rearchitecting
              Kubernetes for the Edge", Proceedings of the 4th
              International Workshop on Edge Systems, Analytics and
              Networking, DOI 10.1145/3434770.3459730, April 2021,

   [Jeong]    Jeong, T., Chung, J., Hong, J., and S. Ha, "Towards a
              distributed computing framework for Fog", 2017 IEEE Fog
              World Congress (FWC), DOI 10.1109/fwc.2017.8368528,
              October 2017, <>.

   [Jones]    Jones, D., Snider, C., Nassehi, A., Yon, J., and B. Hicks,
              "Characterising the Digital Twin: A systematic literature
              review", CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and
              Technology, vol. 29, pp. 36-52,
              DOI 10.1016/j.cirpj.2020.02.002, May 2020,

   [Kelly]    Kelly, R., "Internet of Things Data to Top 1.6 Zettabytes
              by 2020", April 2015,
              2020.aspx>.  Retrieved on 2022-05-24.

   [Khan]     Khan, L., Yaqoob, I., Tran, N., Kazmi, S., Dang, T., and
              C. Hong, "Edge-Computing-Enabled Smart Cities: A
              Comprehensive Survey", IEEE Internet of Things Journal,
              vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 10200-10232,
              DOI 10.1109/jiot.2020.2987070, October 2020,

   [Kua]      Patil, V., Desai, H., and L. Zhang, "Kua: a distributed
              object store over named data networking", Proceedings of
              the 9th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking,
              DOI 10.1145/3517212.3558083, September 2022,

   [Larrea]   Larrea, J. and A. Barbalace, "The serverkernel operating
              system", Proceedings of the Third ACM International
              Workshop on Edge Systems, Analytics and Networking,
              DOI 10.1145/3378679.3394537, May 2020,

              Linux Foundation, "Project Edge Virtualization Engine
              (EVE)", Portal, <>.
              Retrieved on 2022-05-24.

   [Li]       Li, Y., Chen, Y., Lan, T., and G. Venkataramani, "MobiQoR:
              Pushing the Envelope of Mobile Edge Computing Via Quality-
              of-Result Optimization", 2017 IEEE 37th International
              Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS),
              DOI 10.1109/icdcs.2017.54, June 2017,

   [Lin]      Lin, J., Yu, W., Zhang, N., Yang, X., Zhang, H., and W.
              Zhao, "A Survey on Internet of Things: Architecture,
              Enabling Technologies, Security and Privacy, and
              Applications", IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 4,
              no. 5, pp. 1125-1142, DOI 10.1109/jiot.2017.2683200,
              October 2017, <>.

   [Liu]      Liu, J., Bai, B., Zhang, J., and K. Letaief, "Cache
              Placement in Fog-RANs: From Centralized to Distributed
              Algorithms", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications,
              vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 7039-7051,
              DOI 10.1109/twc.2017.2737015, November 2017,

   [Madni]    Madni, A., Madni, C., and S. Lucero, "Leveraging Digital
              Twin Technology in Model-Based Systems Engineering",
              Systems 7(1):7, DOI 10.3390/systems7010007, January 2019,

   [Mahadev]  Satyanarayanan, M., "The Emergence of Edge Computing",
              Computer, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 30-39,
              DOI 10.1109/mc.2017.9, January 2017,

   [Mehmood]  Mehmood, M., Oad, A., Abrar, M., Munir, H., Hasan, S.,
              Muqeet, H., and N. Golilarz, "Edge Computing for IoT-
              Enabled Smart Grid", Security and Communication Networks,
              Vol. 2021, Article ID 5524025, DOI 10.1155/2021/5524025,
              July 2021, <>.

              Mortazavi, S., Balasubramanian, B., de Lara, E., and S.
              Narayanan, "Toward Session Consistency for the Edge",
              USENIX Workshop on Hot Topics in Edge Computing (HotEdge
              18), 2018,

   [MQTT5]    Banks, A., Ed., Briggs, E., Ed., Borgendale, K., Ed., and
              R. Gupta, Ed., "MQTT Version 5.0", OASIS Standard, March
              2019, <

   [Murshed]  Murshed, M., Murphy, C., Hou, D., Khan, N.,
              Ananthanarayanan, G., and F. Hussain, "Machine Learning at
              the Network Edge: A Survey", ACM Computing Surveys, vol.
              54, no. 8, pp. 1-37, DOI 10.1145/3469029, October 2021,

              Zhou, C., Yang, H., Duan, X., Lopez, D., Pastor, A., Wu,
              Q., Boucadair, M., and C. Jacquenet, "Network Digital
              Twin: Concepts and Reference Architecture", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-irtf-nmrg-network-digital-
              twin-arch-05, 4 March 2024,

   [Nieke]    Nieke, M., Almstedt, L., and R. Kapitza, "Edgedancer:
              Secure Mobile WebAssembly Services on the Edge",
              Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Edge
              Systems, Analytics and Networking,
              DOI 10.1145/3434770.3459731, April 2021,

   [NIST]     Mell, P. and T. Grance, "The NIST Definition of Cloud
              Computing", NIST Special Publication 800-145,
              DOI 10.6028/nist.sp.800-145, September 2011,

   [NVIDIA]   Grzywaczewski, A., "Training AI for Self-Driving Vehicles:
              the Challenge of Scale", NVIDIA Developer Blog, October
              2017, <
              vehicles-challenge-scale/>.  Retrieved on 2022-05-24.

   [OGrady]   O'Grady, M., Langton, D., and G. O'Hare, "Edge computing:
              A tractable model for smart agriculture?", Artificial
              Intelligence in Agriculture, Vol. 3, Pages 42-51,
              DOI 10.1016/j.aiia.2019.12.001, September 2019,

              Mladin, C., "Use Cases Collection", oneM2M, v4.2.0,
              TR 0001, October 2018,

              Lu, C. and M. Jiang, "Industrial Domain Enablement",
              oneM2M, v2.5.2, TR 0018, February 2019,

              Yamamoto, K., Mladin, C., and V. Kueh, "Vehicular Domain
              Enablement", oneM2M, TR 0026, January 2020,

              Yamamoto, K. and C. Mladin, "Study on Edge and Fog
              Computing in oneM2M systems", oneM2M, TR 0052, September
              2020, <

              He, S., "TS 0002, Requirements", oneM2M, TS 0002, February
              2019, <

   [OpenFog]  OpenFog Consortium, "OpenFog Reference Architecture for
              Fog Computing", February 2017,

              Ficco, M., Esposito, C., Xiang, Y., and F. Palmieri,
              "Pseudo-Dynamic Testing of Realistic Edge-Fog Cloud
              Ecosystems", IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no.
              11, pp. 98-104, DOI 10.1109/mcom.2017.1700328, November
              2017, <>.

   [Renart]   Renart, E., Diaz-Montes, J., and M. Parashar, "Data-Driven
              Stream Processing at the Edge", 2017 IEEE 1st
              International Conference on Fog and Edge Computing
              (ICFEC), DOI 10.1109/icfec.2017.18, May 2017,

              Singh, H. and M. Montpetit, "Requirements for P4 Program
              Splitting for Heterogeneous Network Nodes", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-hsingh-coinrg-reqs-p4comp-
              03, 18 February 2021,

   [REST-IOT] Keränen, A., Kovatsch, M., and K. Hartke, "Guidance on
              RESTful Design for Internet of Things Systems", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-irtf-t2trg-rest-iot-13, 25
              January 2024, <

   [RFC6291]  Andersson, L., van Helvoort, H., Bonica, R., Romascanu,
              D., and S. Mansfield, "Guidelines for the Use of the "OAM"
              Acronym in the IETF", BCP 161, RFC 6291,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6291, June 2011,

   [RFC7252]  Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,

   [RFC7390]  Rahman, A., Ed. and E. Dijk, Ed., "Group Communication for
              the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7390,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7390, October 2014,

   [RFC8578]  Grossman, E., Ed., "Deterministic Networking Use Cases",
              RFC 8578, DOI 10.17487/RFC8578, May 2019,

   [Schafer]  Schäfer, D., Edinger, J., VanSyckel, S., Paluska, J., and
              C. Becker, "Tasklets: Overcoming Heterogeneity in
              Distributed Computing Systems", 2016 IEEE 36th
              International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems
              Workshops (ICDCSW), DOI 10.1109/icdcsw.2016.22, June 2016,

   [Senel]    Şenel, B., Mouchet, M., Cappos, J., Fourmaux, O.,
              Friedman, T., and R. McGeer, "EdgeNet: A Multi-Tenant and
              Multi-Provider Edge Cloud", Proceedings of the 4th
              International Workshop on Edge Systems, Analytics and
              Networking, DOI 10.1145/3434770.3459737, April 2021,

              Bernardos, C. J. and A. Mourad, "Service Function Chaining
              Use Cases in Fog RAN", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-bernardos-sfc-fog-ran-10, 22 October 2021,

   [Shi]      Shi, W., Cao, J., Zhang, Q., Li, Y., and L. Xu, "Edge
              Computing: Vision and Challenges", IEEE Internet of Things
              Journal, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 637-646,
              DOI 10.1109/jiot.2016.2579198, October 2016,

              Svorobej, S., Takako Endo, P., Bendechache, M., Filelis-
              Papadopoulos, C., Giannoutakis, K., Gravvanis, G.,
              Tzovaras, D., Byrne, J., and T. Lynn, "Simulating Fog and
              Edge Computing Scenarios: An Overview and Research
              Challenges", Future Internet, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 55,
              DOI 10.3390/fi11030055, February 2019,

   [Stanciu]  Stanciu, V., Steen, M., Dobre, C., and A. Peter, "Privacy-
              Preserving Crowd-Monitoring Using Bloom Filters and
              Homomorphic Encryption", Proceedings of the 4th
              International Workshop on Edge Systems, Analytics and
              Networking, DOI 10.1145/3434770.3459735, April 2021,

   [Tanveer]  Tanveer, S., Sree, N., Bhavana, B., and D. Varsha, "Smart
              Agriculture System using IoT", 2022 IEEE World Conference
              on Applied Intelligence and Computing (AIC), Sonbhadra,
              India, pp. 482-486, DOI 10.1109/AIC55036.2022.9848948,
              August 2022,

   [Weiner]   Weiner, M., Jorgovanovic, M., Sahai, A., and B. Nikolie,
              "Design of a low-latency, high-reliability wireless
              communication system for control applications", 2014 IEEE
              International Conference on Communications (ICC),
              DOI 10.1109/icc.2014.6883918, June 2014,

   [Yangui]   Yangui, S., Ravindran, P., Bibani, O., Glitho, R., Ben
              Hadj-Alouane, N., Morrow, M., and P. Polakos, "A platform
              as-a-service for hybrid cloud/fog environments", 2016 IEEE
              International Symposium on Local and Metropolitan Area
              Networks (LANMAN), DOI 10.1109/lanman.2016.7548853, June
              2016, <>.

   [Yates]    Yates, R. and S. Kaul, "The Age of Information: Real-Time
              Status Updating by Multiple Sources", IEEE Transactions on
              Information Theory, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 1807-1827,
              DOI 10.1109/tit.2018.2871079, March 2019,

              Yousefpour, A., Fung, C., Nguyen, T., Kadiyala, K.,
              Jalali, F., Niakanlahiji, A., Kong, J., and J. Jue, "All
              one needs to know about fog computing and related edge
              computing paradigms: A complete survey", Journal of
              Systems Architecture, vol. 98, pp. 289-330,
              DOI 10.1016/j.sysarc.2019.02.009, September 2019,

   [Yue]      Yue, Q., Mu, S., Zhang, L., Wang, Z., Zhang, Z., Zhang,
              X., Wang, Y., and Z. Miao, "Assisting Smart Construction
              With Reliable Edge Computing Technology", Frontiers in
              Energy Research, Sec. Smart Grids, Vol. 10,
              DOI 10.3389/fenrg.2022.900298, May 2022,

   [Zhang]    Zhang, Q., Zhang, X., Zhang, Q., Shi, W., and H. Zhong,
              "Firework: Big Data Sharing and Processing in
              Collaborative Edge Environment", 2016 Fourth IEEE Workshop
              on Hot Topics in Web Systems and Technologies (HotWeb),
              DOI 10.1109/hotweb.2016.12, October 2016,

   [Zhang2]   Zhang, J., Chen, B., Zhao, Y., Cheng, X., and F. Hu, "Data
              Security and Privacy-Preserving in Edge Computing
              Paradigm: Survey and Open Issues", IEEE Access, vol. 6,
              pp. 18209-18237, DOI 10.1109/access.2018.2820162, March
              2018, <>.


   The authors would like to thank Joo-Sang Youn, Akbar Rahman, Michel
   Roy, Robert Gazda, Rute Sofia, Thomas Fossati, Chonggang Wang, Marie-
   José Montpetit, Carlos J. Bernardos, Milan Milenkovic, Dale Seed,
   JaeSeung Song, Roberto Morabito, Carsten Bormann, and Ari Keränen for
   their valuable comments and suggestions on this document.

Authors' Addresses

   Jungha Hong
   218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseung-Gu
   Republic of Korea

   Yong-Geun Hong
   Daejeon University
   62 Daehak-ro, Dong-gu
   Republic of Korea

   Xavier de Foy
   InterDigital Communications, LLC
   1000 Sherbrooke West
   Montreal  H3A 3G4

   Matthias Kovatsch
   Huawei Technologies Duesseldorf GmbH
   Riesstr. 25 C // 3.OG
   80992 Munich

   Eve Schooler
   University of Oxford
   Parks Road
   OX1 3PJ
   United Kingdom

   Dirk Kutscher
   Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Guangzhou)
   No.1 Du Xue Rd