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Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)

Document type: Expired Internet-Draft (individual)
Document stream: IETF
Last updated: 2013-04-23 (latest revision 2012-10-20)
Intended RFC status: Proposed Standard
Other versions: (expired, archived): plain text, pdf, html

IETF State: WG Document
Document shepherd: No shepherd assigned

IESG State: Expired (IESG: Dead)
Responsible AD: Pete Resnick
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This Internet-Draft is no longer active. A copy of the expired Internet-Draft can be found here:


This document defines the Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) protocol element, as an extension of the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). An IRI is a sequence of characters from the Universal Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646). Grammar and processing rules are given for IRIs and related syntactic forms. Defining IRI as a new protocol element (rather than updating or extending the definition of URI) allows independent orderly transitions: protocols and languages that use URIs must explicitly choose to allow IRIs. Guidelines are provided for the use and deployment of IRIs and related protocol elements when revising protocols, formats, and software components that currently deal only with URIs. This document is part of a set of documents intended to replace RFC 3987.


Martin Dürst <>
Michel Suignard <>
Larry Masinter <>

(Note: The e-mail addresses provided for the authors of this Internet-Draft may no longer be valid)