Terminology for Constrained-Node Networks
RFC 7228

Document Type RFC - Informational (May 2014; No errata)
Last updated 2014-05-14
Replaces draft-bormann-lwig-terms
Stream IETF
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Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication
Consensus Yes
Document shepherd Zhen Cao
Shepherd write-up Show (last changed 2013-05-19)
IESG IESG state RFC 7228 (Informational)
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Responsible AD Brian Haberman
IESG note Zhen Cao (caozhen@chinamobile.com) is the Document Shepherd.
Send notices to lwig-chairs@ietf.org, draft-ietf-lwig-terminology@ietf.org
IANA IANA review state Version Changed - Review Needed
IANA action state No IC
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        C. Bormann
Request for Comments: 7228                       Universitaet Bremen TZI
Category: Informational                                         M. Ersue
ISSN: 2070-1721                             Nokia Solutions and Networks
                                                              A. Keranen
                                                                Ericsson
                                                                May 2014

               Terminology for Constrained-Node Networks

Abstract

   The Internet Protocol Suite is increasingly used on small devices
   with severe constraints on power, memory, and processing resources,
   creating constrained-node networks.  This document provides a number
   of basic terms that have been useful in the standardization work for
   constrained-node networks.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228.

Bormann, et al.               Informational                     [Page 1]
RFC 7228                     CNN Terminology                    May 2014

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Core Terminology ................................................4
      2.1. Constrained Nodes ..........................................4
      2.2. Constrained Networks .......................................5
           2.2.1. Challenged Networks .................................6
      2.3. Constrained-Node Networks ..................................7
           2.3.1. LLN .................................................7
           2.3.2. LoWPAN, 6LoWPAN .....................................8
   3. Classes of Constrained Devices ..................................8
   4. Power Terminology ..............................................10
      4.1. Scaling Properties ........................................10
      4.2. Classes of Energy Limitation ..............................11
      4.3. Strategies for Using Power for Communication ..............12
   5. Security Considerations ........................................14
   6. Acknowledgements ...............................................14
   7. Informative References .........................................14

Bormann, et al.               Informational                     [Page 2]
RFC 7228                     CNN Terminology                    May 2014

1.  Introduction

   Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so-
   called "constrained devices" (often used as sensors/actuators, smart
   objects, or smart devices) can form a network, becoming "constrained
   nodes" in that network.  Such a network may itself exhibit
   constraints, e.g., with unreliable or lossy channels, limited and
   unpredictable bandwidth, and a highly dynamic topology.

   Constrained devices might be in charge of gathering information in
   diverse settings, including natural ecosystems, buildings, and
   factories, and sending the information to one or more server
   stations.  They might also act on information, by performing some
   physical action, including displaying it.  Constrained devices may
   work under severe resource constraints such as limited battery and
   computing power, little memory, and insufficient wireless bandwidth
   and ability to communicate; these constraints often exacerbate each
   other.  Other entities on the network, e.g., a base station or
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