Specification for DNS over Transport Layer Security (TLS)
RFC 7858

Document Type RFC - Proposed Standard (May 2016; No errata)
Last updated 2016-05-17
Replaces draft-ietf-dprive-start-tls-for-dns
Stream IETF
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Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication Jul 2015
Document shepherd Tim Wicinski
Shepherd write-up Show (last changed 2016-01-24)
IESG IESG state RFC 7858 (Proposed Standard)
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Responsible AD Terry Manderson
Send notices to allison.mankin@gmail.com
IANA IANA review state Version Changed - Review Needed
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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                             Z. Hu
Request for Comments: 7858                                        L. Zhu
Category: Standards Track                                   J. Heidemann
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                  USC/ISI
                                                               A. Mankin
                                                             Independent
                                                              D. Wessels
                                                           Verisign Labs
                                                              P. Hoffman
                                                                   ICANN
                                                                May 2016

       Specification for DNS over Transport Layer Security (TLS)

Abstract

   This document describes the use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) to
   provide privacy for DNS.  Encryption provided by TLS eliminates
   opportunities for eavesdropping and on-path tampering with DNS
   queries in the network, such as discussed in RFC 7626.  In addition,
   this document specifies two usage profiles for DNS over TLS and
   provides advice on performance considerations to minimize overhead
   from using TCP and TLS with DNS.

   This document focuses on securing stub-to-recursive traffic, as per
   the charter of the DPRIVE Working Group.  It does not prevent future
   applications of the protocol to recursive-to-authoritative traffic.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7858.

Hu, et al.                   Standards Track                    [Page 1]
RFC 7858                      DNS over TLS                      May 2016

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Key Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Establishing and Managing DNS-over-TLS Sessions . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Session Initiation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  TLS Handshake and Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  Transmitting and Receiving Messages . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.4.  Connection Reuse, Close, and Reestablishment  . . . . . .   6
   4.  Usage Profiles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.1.  Opportunistic Privacy Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Out-of-Band Key-Pinned Privacy Profile  . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Performance Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  Design Evolution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix A.  Out-of-Band Key-Pinned Privacy Profile Example . . .  16
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

Hu, et al.                   Standards Track                    [Page 2]
RFC 7858                      DNS over TLS                      May 2016

1.  Introduction

   Today, nearly all DNS queries [RFC1034] [RFC1035] are sent
   unencrypted, which makes them vulnerable to eavesdropping by an
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