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Standard Public Key Cryptography (PKC) Test Keys
RFC 9500

Document Type RFC - Informational (December 2023)
Was draft-gutmann-testkeys (individual in sec area)
Authors Peter Gutmann , Corey Bonnell
Last updated 2023-12-08
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
IESG Responsible AD Paul Wouters
Send notices to (None)
RFC 9500

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        P. Gutmann
Request for Comments: 9500                        University of Auckland
Category: Informational                                       C. Bonnell
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                 DigiCert
                                                           December 2023

            Standard Public Key Cryptography (PKC) Test Keys


   This document provides a set of standard Public Key Cryptography
   (PKC) test keys that may be used wherever pre-generated keys and
   associated operations like digital signatures are required.  Like the
   European Institute for Computer Antivirus Research (EICAR) virus test
   and the Generic Test for Unsolicited Bulk Email (GTUBE) spam test
   files, these publicly known test keys can be detected and recognised
   by applications consuming them as being purely for testing purposes
   without assigning any security properties to them.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at

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   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
   2.  Publicly Known Test Keys
     2.1.  RSA Keys
     2.2.  DLP Keys
     2.3.  ECDLP Keys
   3.  IANA Considerations
   4.  Security Considerations
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   The widespread use of public key cryptosystems on the Internet has
   led to a proliferation of publicly known but not necessarily
   acknowledged keys that are used for testing purposes or that ship
   preconfigured in applications.  These keys provide no security, but
   since there's no record of them, relying parties are often unaware
   that they provide no security.  In order to address this issue, this
   document provides a set of standard public test keys that may be used
   wherever a preconfigured or sample key is required and, by extension,
   also in situations where such keys may be used, such as when testing
   digitally signed data.  Their purpose corresponds roughly to that of
   the European Institute for Computer Antivirus Research (EICAR) test
   file, a non-virus used as a test file for antivirus products, and the
   Generic Test for Unsolicited Bulk Email (GTUBE) file, a similar file
   used with spam-detection products.

   The keys provided cover three major algorithm families:

   *  RSA

   *  algorithms based on the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP), such as
      DSA, Diffie-Hellman (DH), and Elgamal

   *  algorithms based on the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem
      (ECDLP), such as ECDSA and Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH)

   Although some of the algorithms and key sizes are no longer
   recommended, keys corresponding to those algorithms and key sizes are
   provided in order to accommodate the large installed base of existing
   implementations that use them.

   This document does not try to cover every possible algorithm family
   and type since there are far too many of these and new ones are
   constantly appearing and, in some cases, disappearing.  If similar
   documents are created for further algorithm families, they should
   update this document, and for ease of implementation and use, they
   should maintain compatibility with the format and naming conventions
   used here.

2.  Publicly Known Test Keys

   This section provides the test keys for the algorithm groups in
   various sizes in a C-like notation that may be directly used in
   crypto code written in C-like languages such as C, C++, Java,
   JavaScript, Go, Swift, and Rust, covering the majority of languages
   likely to be used to implement crypto code.

   Alongside the source code format, they are also provided in encoded
   form, specifically the OpenSSL private key format, which many
   applications can process directly.

   Each element of the key is given in a form consisting of a count in
   bits (the value from which the nominal key size is taken) followed by
   a byte string containing that key element in big-endian form.  For
   example, the following is a sample key component for the RSA p value,
   where 0xCF is the most significant byte of the RSA p value and 0x03
   is the least significant byte of the value:

       /* p */
       { 0xCF, 0xDA, 0xF9, 0x99, 0x6F, 0x05, 0x95, 0x84,
         0x09, 0x90, 0xB3, 0xAB, 0x39, 0xB7, 0xDD, 0x1D,
         0xE1, 0x2C, 0x0D, 0xF7, 0x30, 0xE2, 0xB8, 0x09,
         0x73, 0x50, 0x28, 0xF6, 0x55, 0x85, 0x57, 0x03 },

   In addition to the key data, each key is given a recommended name for
   use in source code as a means of providing a standard reference for
   each one.

2.1.  RSA Keys

   The following publicly known test keys may be used for RSA.

   RSA-1024 key "testRSA1024":

           /* n */
           { 0xB0, 0xD1, 0x83, 0x52, 0xA8, 0x8F, 0x53, 0xD5,
             0x51, 0x6F, 0x46, 0xC2, 0x0E, 0x7A, 0x36, 0x7D,
             0x7D, 0xE8, 0x8A, 0xCF, 0x54, 0xA0, 0x19, 0xF6,
             0xDE, 0xF5, 0x7A, 0xB9, 0xB4, 0x4C, 0xED, 0xDB,
             0x22, 0x42, 0xB1, 0xBC, 0xA0, 0xFB, 0x1B, 0x5C,
             0xB8, 0x2B, 0x30, 0x36, 0x17, 0x6A, 0x63, 0x90,
             0x35, 0x64, 0xDE, 0xC6, 0xEB, 0x41, 0xDB, 0x2F,
             0x8F, 0xC7, 0x87, 0xF4, 0xE5, 0x2E, 0x11, 0x49,
             0xE3, 0x33, 0x47, 0x57, 0x29, 0x73, 0xF6, 0x60,
             0xC3, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xA9, 0xE0, 0x82, 0x1C, 0x2B,
             0x69, 0x5B, 0xE7, 0xAE, 0x9D, 0x7D, 0x30, 0xF4,
             0x07, 0x91, 0x10, 0xF4, 0x8A, 0xAE, 0x6F, 0x8B,
             0x70, 0x2D, 0x47, 0x4B, 0x29, 0x00, 0x81, 0x7F,
             0x28, 0x66, 0x24, 0x9B, 0xEC, 0x12, 0xA2, 0xB1,
             0x9B, 0x82, 0x78, 0x41, 0x68, 0x08, 0xF8, 0x1A,
             0xE1, 0xFC, 0xF9, 0xB7, 0x77, 0x8A, 0x62, 0x3F },
           /* e */
           { 0x01, 0x00, 0x01 },
           /* d */
           { 0x48, 0x2E, 0x9F, 0x8F, 0xA4, 0xE4, 0x2D, 0xF3,
             0x0D, 0x75, 0x81, 0xCB, 0x42, 0xA1, 0xBD, 0x90,
             0xE9, 0x4F, 0x7F, 0x2B, 0x38, 0x7E, 0xCB, 0x5A,
             0xAE, 0x96, 0x43, 0xED, 0x7F, 0x9F, 0x50, 0x12,
             0x7F, 0x1F, 0xFE, 0xF2, 0xE4, 0x3C, 0xDE, 0x64,
             0xB1, 0x82, 0x60, 0x02, 0x14, 0xF9, 0x07, 0x80,
             0x1D, 0x6B, 0xFA, 0x4D, 0xF6, 0x48, 0x42, 0x34,
             0x5E, 0x5B, 0xB4, 0x32, 0xD3, 0x44, 0x45, 0x25,
             0xD8, 0x30, 0x16, 0x54, 0xC5, 0x44, 0x2B, 0x0A,
             0x5E, 0x11, 0xB9, 0xC7, 0xE2, 0x01, 0xFA, 0x32,
             0xF4, 0x1A, 0xBA, 0xF4, 0xF0, 0xA6, 0xE0, 0x3C,
             0xF0, 0xE0, 0xCB, 0x82, 0x66, 0xC6, 0x2A, 0xD1,
             0x1D, 0x95, 0x6D, 0x53, 0xC9, 0x46, 0x6E, 0x48,
             0x99, 0x5F, 0xEA, 0x26, 0x0C, 0x85, 0x36, 0xF0,
             0x41, 0xCB, 0x35, 0x62, 0xFA, 0xAC, 0x51, 0x1C,
             0x4D, 0x66, 0xA8, 0xFE, 0xD1, 0x11, 0xB2, 0x91 },
           /* p */
           { 0xE9, 0xD8, 0x6E, 0x4D, 0xC3, 0x4A, 0x98, 0x5A,
             0x7E, 0xC7, 0x5A, 0x6F, 0x54, 0xA7, 0x5C, 0xE4,
             0x51, 0x39, 0xE4, 0x52, 0x40, 0xB3, 0x86, 0xAB,
             0x71, 0x1D, 0xB7, 0x91, 0xBC, 0xD9, 0x87, 0x18,
             0xA1, 0x3B, 0xAF, 0x21, 0x8C, 0x24, 0x49, 0x36,
             0x46, 0x68, 0x07, 0x56, 0xCB, 0x50, 0xA6, 0xCB,
             0xEE, 0x15, 0x8E, 0x25, 0x21, 0x44, 0x99, 0x12,
             0x30, 0x1C, 0x0D, 0x41, 0x49, 0x11, 0x18, 0x45 },
           /* q */
           { 0xC1, 0x91, 0xFA, 0x3B, 0x55, 0x0B, 0x39, 0x1A,
             0x7C, 0xB0, 0x72, 0x83, 0x76, 0x27, 0x72, 0x95,
             0xE6, 0x1C, 0x65, 0x4F, 0x0B, 0xEF, 0x2F, 0x58,
             0xDC, 0xE5, 0xC9, 0x62, 0xA1, 0x0B, 0x7D, 0xD7,
             0x5F, 0x06, 0x01, 0x54, 0x65, 0xE5, 0x50, 0x76,
             0xE4, 0x66, 0x26, 0x3E, 0xEB, 0xCA, 0xED, 0x20,
             0xD2, 0xEB, 0xAB, 0x39, 0x31, 0x3E, 0x8B, 0xC5,
             0x67, 0x32, 0x0F, 0xE8, 0xB2, 0xDC, 0x62, 0xB3 },
           /* u */
           { 0xB9, 0x9D, 0x7F, 0x8F, 0x4D, 0x4D, 0x45, 0x5F,
             0x1F, 0xBA, 0x46, 0x2D, 0x99, 0x0A, 0x2E, 0x84,
             0x8C, 0x42, 0x8C, 0x1E, 0xBE, 0xE0, 0x1D, 0xC0,
             0x01, 0x84, 0xC8, 0xA7, 0x65, 0x83, 0xAD, 0x37,
             0x9F, 0x69, 0xAD, 0xAF, 0x54, 0x75, 0x54, 0x30,
             0xF6, 0x3C, 0x42, 0x53, 0xD1, 0xBB, 0x78, 0xCC,
             0x9B, 0xD2, 0x32, 0x64, 0x34, 0x00, 0x80, 0xB8,
             0x4C, 0x1A, 0x91, 0x7D, 0xE0, 0x8B, 0x6E, 0xDB },
           /* exponent1 */
           { 0xE7, 0x3A, 0xE0, 0x37, 0x7C, 0xB8, 0xB2, 0x56,
             0x29, 0xAE, 0xAE, 0xBA, 0x0F, 0x97, 0x3E, 0xBF,
             0x75, 0xA2, 0x2D, 0x27, 0x38, 0x5B, 0x4C, 0xFB,
             0x11, 0xEB, 0x34, 0xAD, 0xA3, 0x73, 0xE5, 0xA6,
             0x71, 0x28, 0x37, 0x50, 0x90, 0xE7, 0x00, 0x8D,
             0xEE, 0xA8, 0xC7, 0x39, 0x07, 0xEA, 0x44, 0x44,
             0xBA, 0xB4, 0x0D, 0xCE, 0xA1, 0x4A, 0xD7, 0xA1,
             0xA8, 0x78, 0xD4, 0x92, 0x8D, 0xD1, 0x9D, 0x91 },
           /* exponent2 */
           { 0x41, 0x99, 0x79, 0x16, 0x16, 0x72, 0x21, 0x3E,
             0x0A, 0xB7, 0xB9, 0x77, 0x37, 0xD9, 0x92, 0x89,
             0x9E, 0x5C, 0x4D, 0x31, 0x06, 0xB8, 0x5E, 0x71,
             0x5D, 0x1B, 0x3A, 0xAE, 0x84, 0x29, 0x62, 0xD2,
             0x54, 0x4F, 0xB2, 0xAF, 0xA9, 0x80, 0x97, 0x4E,
             0x53, 0x85, 0x12, 0xBD, 0x0C, 0x27, 0xCF, 0x48,
             0xEA, 0x72, 0x17, 0xAA, 0xE0, 0x37, 0x74, 0x22,
             0xC8, 0x20, 0x3D, 0x27, 0xFD, 0x45, 0x96, 0xE5 }

   RSA-1024 key in encoded form:

   -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

   RSA-2048 key "testRSA2048":

           /* n */
           { 0xB0, 0xF9, 0xE8, 0x19, 0x43, 0xA7, 0xAE, 0x98,
             0x92, 0xAA, 0xDE, 0x17, 0xCA, 0x7C, 0x40, 0xF8,
             0x74, 0x4F, 0xED, 0x2F, 0x81, 0x48, 0xE6, 0xC8,
             0xEA, 0xA2, 0x7B, 0x7D, 0x00, 0x15, 0x48, 0xFB,
             0x51, 0x92, 0xAB, 0x28, 0xB5, 0x6C, 0x50, 0x60,
             0xB1, 0x18, 0xCC, 0xD1, 0x31, 0xE5, 0x94, 0x87,
             0x4C, 0x6C, 0xA9, 0x89, 0xB5, 0x6C, 0x27, 0x29,
             0x6F, 0x09, 0xFB, 0x93, 0xA0, 0x34, 0xDF, 0x32,
             0xE9, 0x7C, 0x6F, 0xF0, 0x99, 0x8C, 0xFD, 0x8E,
             0x6F, 0x42, 0xDD, 0xA5, 0x8A, 0xCD, 0x1F, 0xA9,
             0x79, 0x86, 0xF1, 0x44, 0xF3, 0xD1, 0x54, 0xD6,
             0x76, 0x50, 0x17, 0x5E, 0x68, 0x54, 0xB3, 0xA9,
             0x52, 0x00, 0x3B, 0xC0, 0x68, 0x87, 0xB8, 0x45,
             0x5A, 0xC2, 0xB1, 0x9F, 0x7B, 0x2F, 0x76, 0x50,
             0x4E, 0xBC, 0x98, 0xEC, 0x94, 0x55, 0x71, 0xB0,
             0x78, 0x92, 0x15, 0x0D, 0xDC, 0x6A, 0x74, 0xCA,
             0x0F, 0xBC, 0xD3, 0x54, 0x97, 0xCE, 0x81, 0x53,
             0x4D, 0xAF, 0x94, 0x18, 0x84, 0x4B, 0x13, 0xAE,
             0xA3, 0x1F, 0x9D, 0x5A, 0x6B, 0x95, 0x57, 0xBB,
             0xDF, 0x61, 0x9E, 0xFD, 0x4E, 0x88, 0x7F, 0x2D,
             0x42, 0xB8, 0xDD, 0x8B, 0xC9, 0x87, 0xEA, 0xE1,
             0xBF, 0x89, 0xCA, 0xB8, 0x5E, 0xE2, 0x1E, 0x35,
             0x63, 0x05, 0xDF, 0x6C, 0x07, 0xA8, 0x83, 0x8E,
             0x3E, 0xF4, 0x1C, 0x59, 0x5D, 0xCC, 0xE4, 0x3D,
             0xAF, 0xC4, 0x91, 0x23, 0xEF, 0x4D, 0x8A, 0xBB,
             0xA9, 0x3D, 0x39, 0x05, 0xE4, 0x02, 0x8D, 0x7B,
             0xA9, 0x14, 0x84, 0xA2, 0x75, 0x96, 0xE0, 0x7B,
             0x4B, 0x6E, 0xD9, 0x92, 0xF0, 0x77, 0xB5, 0x24,
             0xD3, 0xDC, 0xFE, 0x7D, 0xDD, 0x55, 0x49, 0xBE,
             0x7C, 0xCE, 0x8D, 0xA0, 0x35, 0xCF, 0xA0, 0xB3,
             0xFB, 0x8F, 0x9E, 0x46, 0xF7, 0x32, 0xB2, 0xA8,
             0x6B, 0x46, 0x01, 0x65, 0xC0, 0x8F, 0x53, 0x13 },
           /* e */
           { 0x01, 0x00, 0x01 },
           /* d */
           { 0x41, 0x18, 0x8B, 0x20, 0xCF, 0xDB, 0xDB, 0xC2,
             0xCF, 0x1F, 0xFE, 0x75, 0x2D, 0xCB, 0xAA, 0x72,
             0x39, 0x06, 0x35, 0x2E, 0x26, 0x15, 0xD4, 0x9D,
             0xCE, 0x80, 0x59, 0x7F, 0xCF, 0x0A, 0x05, 0x40,
             0x3B, 0xEF, 0x00, 0xFA, 0x06, 0x51, 0x82, 0xF7,
             0x2D, 0xEC, 0xFB, 0x59, 0x6F, 0x4B, 0x0C, 0xE8,
             0xFF, 0x59, 0x70, 0xBA, 0xF0, 0x7A, 0x89, 0xA5,
             0x19, 0xEC, 0xC8, 0x16, 0xB2, 0xF4, 0xFF, 0xAC,
             0x50, 0x69, 0xAF, 0x1B, 0x06, 0xBF, 0xEF, 0x7B,
             0xF6, 0xBC, 0xD7, 0x9E, 0x4E, 0x81, 0xC8, 0xC5,
             0xA3, 0xA7, 0xD9, 0x13, 0x0D, 0xC3, 0xCF, 0xBA,
             0xDA, 0xE5, 0xF6, 0xD2, 0x88, 0xF9, 0xAE, 0xE3,
             0xF6, 0xFF, 0x92, 0xFA, 0xE0, 0xF8, 0x1A, 0xF5,
             0x97, 0xBE, 0xC9, 0x6A, 0xE9, 0xFA, 0xB9, 0x40,
             0x2C, 0xD5, 0xFE, 0x41, 0xF7, 0x05, 0xBE, 0xBD,
             0xB4, 0x7B, 0xB7, 0x36, 0xD3, 0xFE, 0x6C, 0x5A,
             0x51, 0xE0, 0xE2, 0x07, 0x32, 0xA9, 0x7B, 0x5E,
             0x46, 0xC1, 0xCB, 0xDB, 0x26, 0xD7, 0x48, 0x54,
             0xC6, 0xB6, 0x60, 0x4A, 0xED, 0x46, 0x37, 0x35,
             0xFF, 0x90, 0x76, 0x04, 0x65, 0x57, 0xCA, 0xF9,
             0x49, 0xBF, 0x44, 0x88, 0x95, 0xC2, 0x04, 0x32,
             0xC1, 0xE0, 0x9C, 0x01, 0x4E, 0xA7, 0x56, 0x60,
             0x43, 0x4F, 0x1A, 0x0F, 0x3B, 0xE2, 0x94, 0xBA,
             0xBC, 0x5D, 0x53, 0x0E, 0x6A, 0x10, 0x21, 0x3F,
             0x53, 0xB6, 0x03, 0x75, 0xFC, 0x84, 0xA7, 0x57,
             0x3F, 0x2A, 0xF1, 0x21, 0x55, 0x84, 0xF5, 0xB4,
             0xBD, 0xA6, 0xD4, 0xE8, 0xF9, 0xE1, 0x7A, 0x78,
             0xD9, 0x7E, 0x77, 0xB8, 0x6D, 0xA4, 0xA1, 0x84,
             0x64, 0x75, 0x31, 0x8A, 0x7A, 0x10, 0xA5, 0x61,
             0x01, 0x4E, 0xFF, 0xA2, 0x3A, 0x81, 0xEC, 0x56,
             0xE9, 0xE4, 0x10, 0x9D, 0xEF, 0x8C, 0xB3, 0xF7,
             0x97, 0x22, 0x3F, 0x7D, 0x8D, 0x0D, 0x43, 0x51 },
           /* p */
           { 0xDD, 0x10, 0x57, 0x02, 0x38, 0x2F, 0x23, 0x2B,
             0x36, 0x81, 0xF5, 0x37, 0x91, 0xE2, 0x26, 0x17,
             0xC7, 0xBF, 0x4E, 0x9A, 0xCB, 0x81, 0xED, 0x48,
             0xDA, 0xF6, 0xD6, 0x99, 0x5D, 0xA3, 0xEA, 0xB6,
             0x42, 0x83, 0x9A, 0xFF, 0x01, 0x2D, 0x2E, 0xA6,
             0x28, 0xB9, 0x0A, 0xF2, 0x79, 0xFD, 0x3E, 0x6F,
             0x7C, 0x93, 0xCD, 0x80, 0xF0, 0x72, 0xF0, 0x1F,
             0xF2, 0x44, 0x3B, 0x3E, 0xE8, 0xF2, 0x4E, 0xD4,
             0x69, 0xA7, 0x96, 0x13, 0xA4, 0x1B, 0xD2, 0x40,
             0x20, 0xF9, 0x2F, 0xD1, 0x10, 0x59, 0xBD, 0x1D,
             0x0F, 0x30, 0x1B, 0x5B, 0xA7, 0xA9, 0xD3, 0x63,
             0x7C, 0xA8, 0xD6, 0x5C, 0x1A, 0x98, 0x15, 0x41,
             0x7D, 0x8E, 0xAB, 0x73, 0x4B, 0x0B, 0x4F, 0x3A,
             0x2C, 0x66, 0x1D, 0x9A, 0x1A, 0x82, 0xF3, 0xAC,
             0x73, 0x4C, 0x40, 0x53, 0x06, 0x69, 0xAB, 0x8E,
             0x47, 0x30, 0x45, 0xA5, 0x8E, 0x65, 0x53, 0x9D },
           /* q */
           { 0xCC, 0xF1, 0xE5, 0xBB, 0x90, 0xC8, 0xE9, 0x78,
             0x1E, 0xA7, 0x5B, 0xEB, 0xF1, 0x0B, 0xC2, 0x52,
             0xE1, 0x1E, 0xB0, 0x23, 0xA0, 0x26, 0x0F, 0x18,
             0x87, 0x55, 0x2A, 0x56, 0x86, 0x3F, 0x4A, 0x64,
             0x21, 0xE8, 0xC6, 0x00, 0xBF, 0x52, 0x3D, 0x6C,
             0xB1, 0xB0, 0xAD, 0xBD, 0xD6, 0x5B, 0xFE, 0xE4,
             0xA8, 0x8A, 0x03, 0x7E, 0x3D, 0x1A, 0x41, 0x5E,
             0x5B, 0xB9, 0x56, 0x48, 0xDA, 0x5A, 0x0C, 0xA2,
             0x6B, 0x54, 0xF4, 0xA6, 0x39, 0x48, 0x52, 0x2C,
             0x3D, 0x5F, 0x89, 0xB9, 0x4A, 0x72, 0xEF, 0xFF,
             0x95, 0x13, 0x4D, 0x59, 0x40, 0xCE, 0x45, 0x75,
             0x8F, 0x30, 0x89, 0x80, 0x90, 0x89, 0x56, 0x58,
             0x8E, 0xEF, 0x57, 0x5B, 0x3E, 0x4B, 0xC4, 0xC3,
             0x68, 0xCF, 0xE8, 0x13, 0xEE, 0x9C, 0x25, 0x2C,
             0x2B, 0x02, 0xE0, 0xDF, 0x91, 0xF1, 0xAA, 0x01,
             0x93, 0x8D, 0x38, 0x68, 0x5D, 0x60, 0xBA, 0x6F },
           /* u */
           { 0x0A, 0x81, 0xD8, 0xA6, 0x18, 0x31, 0x4A, 0x80,
             0x3A, 0xF6, 0x1C, 0x06, 0x71, 0x1F, 0x2C, 0x39,
             0xB2, 0x66, 0xFF, 0x41, 0x4D, 0x53, 0x47, 0x6D,
             0x1D, 0xA5, 0x2A, 0x43, 0x18, 0xAA, 0xFE, 0x4B,
             0x96, 0xF0, 0xDA, 0x07, 0x15, 0x5F, 0x8A, 0x51,
             0x34, 0xDA, 0xB8, 0x8E, 0xE2, 0x9E, 0x81, 0x68,
             0x07, 0x6F, 0xCD, 0x78, 0xCA, 0x79, 0x1A, 0xC6,
             0x34, 0x42, 0xA8, 0x1C, 0xD0, 0x69, 0x39, 0x27,
             0xD8, 0x08, 0xE3, 0x35, 0xE8, 0xD8, 0xCB, 0xF2,
             0x12, 0x19, 0x07, 0x50, 0x9A, 0x57, 0x75, 0x9B,
             0x4F, 0x9A, 0x18, 0xFA, 0x3A, 0x7B, 0x33, 0x37,
             0x79, 0xED, 0xDE, 0x7A, 0x45, 0x93, 0x84, 0xF8,
             0x44, 0x4A, 0xDA, 0xEC, 0xFF, 0xEC, 0x95, 0xFD,
             0x55, 0x2B, 0x0C, 0xFC, 0xB6, 0xC7, 0xF6, 0x92,
             0x62, 0x6D, 0xDE, 0x1E, 0xF2, 0x68, 0xA4, 0x0D,
             0x2F, 0x67, 0xB5, 0xC8, 0xAA, 0x38, 0x7F, 0xF7 },
           /* exponent1 */
           { 0x09, 0xED, 0x54, 0xEA, 0xED, 0x98, 0xF8, 0x4C,
             0x55, 0x7B, 0x4A, 0x86, 0xBF, 0x4F, 0x57, 0x84,
             0x93, 0xDC, 0xBC, 0x6B, 0xE9, 0x1D, 0xA1, 0x89,
             0x37, 0x04, 0x04, 0xA9, 0x08, 0x72, 0x76, 0xF4,
             0xCE, 0x51, 0xD8, 0xA1, 0x00, 0xED, 0x85, 0x7D,
             0xC2, 0xB0, 0x64, 0x94, 0x74, 0xF3, 0xF1, 0x5C,
             0xD2, 0x4C, 0x54, 0xDB, 0x28, 0x71, 0x10, 0xE5,
             0x6E, 0x5C, 0xB0, 0x08, 0x68, 0x2F, 0x91, 0x68,
             0xAA, 0x81, 0xF3, 0x14, 0x58, 0xB7, 0x43, 0x1E,
             0xCC, 0x1C, 0x44, 0x90, 0x6F, 0xDA, 0x87, 0xCA,
             0x89, 0x47, 0x10, 0xC3, 0x71, 0xE9, 0x07, 0x6C,
             0x1D, 0x49, 0xFB, 0xAE, 0x51, 0x27, 0x69, 0x34,
             0xF2, 0xAD, 0x78, 0x77, 0x89, 0xF4, 0x2D, 0x0F,
             0xA0, 0xB4, 0xC9, 0x39, 0x85, 0x5D, 0x42, 0x12,
             0x09, 0x6F, 0x70, 0x28, 0x0A, 0x4E, 0xAE, 0x7C,
             0x8A, 0x27, 0xD9, 0xC8, 0xD0, 0x77, 0x2E, 0x65 },
           /* exponent2 */
           { 0x8C, 0xB6, 0x85, 0x7A, 0x7B, 0xD5, 0x46, 0x5F,
             0x80, 0x04, 0x7E, 0x9B, 0x87, 0xBC, 0x00, 0x27,
             0x31, 0x84, 0x05, 0x81, 0xE0, 0x62, 0x61, 0x39,
             0x01, 0x2A, 0x5B, 0x50, 0x5F, 0x0A, 0x33, 0x84,
             0x7E, 0xB7, 0xB8, 0xC3, 0x28, 0x99, 0x49, 0xAD,
             0x48, 0x6F, 0x3B, 0x4B, 0x3D, 0x53, 0x9A, 0xB5,
             0xDA, 0x76, 0x30, 0x21, 0xCB, 0xC8, 0x2C, 0x1B,
             0xA2, 0x34, 0xA5, 0x66, 0x8D, 0xED, 0x08, 0x01,
             0xB8, 0x59, 0xF3, 0x43, 0xF1, 0xCE, 0x93, 0x04,
             0xE6, 0xFA, 0xA2, 0xB0, 0x02, 0xCA, 0xD9, 0xB7,
             0x8C, 0xDE, 0x5C, 0xDC, 0x2C, 0x1F, 0xB4, 0x17,
             0x1C, 0x42, 0x42, 0x16, 0x70, 0xA6, 0xAB, 0x0F,
             0x50, 0xCC, 0x4A, 0x19, 0x4E, 0xB3, 0x6D, 0x1C,
             0x91, 0xE9, 0x35, 0xBA, 0x01, 0xB9, 0x59, 0xD8,
             0x72, 0x8B, 0x9E, 0x64, 0x42, 0x6B, 0x3F, 0xC3,
             0xA7, 0x50, 0x6D, 0xEB, 0x52, 0x39, 0xA8, 0xA7 }

   RSA-2048 key in encoded form:

   -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

   RSA-4096 key "testRSA4096":

           /* n */
           { 0xB3, 0x8B, 0x49, 0x60, 0xE6, 0x3B, 0xE6, 0xA8,
             0xDB, 0xA8, 0x9A, 0x82, 0x97, 0x8E, 0xF1, 0xF6,
             0x32, 0x44, 0xE5, 0x57, 0x7D, 0x8C, 0xF5, 0x86,
             0x16, 0xD5, 0xCA, 0x57, 0x59, 0xD4, 0x9C, 0xC8,
             0xD9, 0x36, 0xC3, 0x38, 0xAA, 0x3C, 0xB9, 0xB1,
             0x11, 0xC1, 0x49, 0x7E, 0x5B, 0x51, 0xAF, 0x69,
             0x2F, 0x26, 0x11, 0xE6, 0x89, 0xF7, 0x67, 0x54,
             0x80, 0xC0, 0xB0, 0xF4, 0xC3, 0x65, 0x4F, 0x43,
             0xAF, 0x85, 0xFE, 0x8C, 0x8A, 0xD7, 0x34, 0xE0,
             0x42, 0xA8, 0xAD, 0xA0, 0x5F, 0xD7, 0x65, 0x08,
             0xE0, 0x0B, 0xA0, 0xF7, 0x56, 0xC3, 0x44, 0x3B,
             0xBE, 0x83, 0x3E, 0xA7, 0xD1, 0x00, 0xD4, 0xFB,
             0x36, 0x7E, 0xEB, 0xD6, 0x0B, 0xDB, 0x64, 0x86,
             0x77, 0xFC, 0x7D, 0xEB, 0x94, 0x24, 0x4D, 0xAD,
             0x1A, 0xF8, 0xEE, 0xD1, 0xC6, 0x58, 0x12, 0xC0,
             0x3E, 0x7C, 0x73, 0xF7, 0xF3, 0x58, 0xE9, 0x41,
             0xBC, 0x66, 0x45, 0x8F, 0xF7, 0xBB, 0x97, 0xA4,
             0x9A, 0x98, 0xA1, 0x18, 0x07, 0xE0, 0x2C, 0x1A,
             0x3B, 0x9A, 0xD3, 0x3A, 0x57, 0x3A, 0xE1, 0x80,
             0xE1, 0xFF, 0x43, 0x2A, 0xE5, 0x58, 0x0C, 0xC9,
             0xCA, 0xBF, 0xAB, 0x60, 0x2F, 0x32, 0x5B, 0xCD,
             0xA0, 0x97, 0xE8, 0x7B, 0xC7, 0xA6, 0xD7, 0x4E,
             0x34, 0xA8, 0x7D, 0x60, 0x8A, 0x43, 0xFE, 0xB2,
             0xE4, 0xFF, 0xF1, 0xF4, 0xB8, 0xE7, 0x68, 0x6A,
             0x98, 0x47, 0x5D, 0xB5, 0x1A, 0x6E, 0xBD, 0x08,
             0x17, 0x2A, 0x57, 0x41, 0x77, 0x49, 0x24, 0x8B,
             0x21, 0x55, 0xC8, 0xB9, 0x06, 0xE0, 0xD5, 0x40,
             0xE8, 0xCB, 0x28, 0xF4, 0xC0, 0x0A, 0xDC, 0x9F,
             0xE4, 0x75, 0x8A, 0x1A, 0xC3, 0x64, 0xAB, 0x39,
             0xE4, 0xE1, 0x55, 0x28, 0x98, 0x54, 0x44, 0x15,
             0x3F, 0xEE, 0xC6, 0xAD, 0x4C, 0x53, 0x48, 0xB2,
             0xE3, 0x8F, 0xF5, 0x50, 0xF5, 0xFA, 0x58, 0x33,
             0x97, 0x93, 0x37, 0x30, 0xC8, 0x08, 0x81, 0xBF,
             0x11, 0xEE, 0xE8, 0xFE, 0x38, 0x6D, 0x5B, 0x51,
             0x28, 0x49, 0xA9, 0x83, 0x99, 0x43, 0xAB, 0xF3,
             0xD9, 0x72, 0x20, 0x76, 0x97, 0xB8, 0xEC, 0x24,
             0x11, 0xA2, 0x61, 0x9D, 0x55, 0xCA, 0x04, 0x23,
             0x3C, 0x5A, 0x2C, 0xED, 0xC6, 0xF2, 0x86, 0xD8,
             0x29, 0xD0, 0xE8, 0x37, 0x20, 0x7B, 0x76, 0x52,
             0x9A, 0xA2, 0x44, 0x87, 0x21, 0x26, 0x8D, 0xC0,
             0x15, 0x0B, 0xB7, 0xB0, 0x7E, 0x73, 0x31, 0x3A,
             0x71, 0x3E, 0x58, 0x95, 0xBA, 0xAF, 0x3A, 0xDF,
             0xFA, 0x60, 0x39, 0x58, 0xC5, 0x67, 0xF8, 0x5C,
             0xF2, 0x5B, 0x1D, 0x80, 0xA2, 0x77, 0x56, 0xA3,
             0x0D, 0x1A, 0x50, 0xA1, 0xE4, 0x69, 0x8E, 0xDA,
             0x9A, 0x12, 0x2B, 0xB0, 0xAA, 0x7A, 0x60, 0xF7,
             0xCD, 0x22, 0x6C, 0xB1, 0x16, 0x5C, 0xFC, 0xF9,
             0xCA, 0x83, 0x0A, 0x60, 0x6C, 0xC0, 0xFB, 0x14,
             0x87, 0xF2, 0x49, 0xE5, 0xE0, 0xC7, 0x1C, 0x88,
             0x62, 0x6C, 0x57, 0x12, 0x80, 0x81, 0xDE, 0x76,
             0xC1, 0x23, 0x84, 0xB6, 0xD4, 0x48, 0xB6, 0x7F,
             0x0E, 0x71, 0x23, 0xAE, 0xEF, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x85,
             0x96, 0x03, 0x74, 0x75, 0x54, 0x83, 0xF2, 0x90,
             0xA7, 0xDE, 0x66, 0x46, 0x5E, 0x22, 0x7B, 0x2B,
             0x17, 0x31, 0x8F, 0x8A, 0x49, 0x05, 0x2B, 0x01,
             0x45, 0xFB, 0xA2, 0x83, 0x77, 0x2B, 0xC2, 0x9A,
             0x5B, 0x58, 0x12, 0xAC, 0xCE, 0xE3, 0xAB, 0x62,
             0x81, 0x70, 0x19, 0xE5, 0x48, 0x07, 0xF2, 0x88,
             0x97, 0x12, 0xB7, 0xB8, 0xF3, 0x03, 0xBA, 0x5F,
             0xE1, 0x47, 0xF9, 0xC2, 0xF3, 0x43, 0x4A, 0xB7,
             0x03, 0xC1, 0xD9, 0x46, 0x73, 0x43, 0x82, 0xA0,
             0xA3, 0x53, 0xF4, 0xE0, 0xCB, 0xBE, 0xA2, 0x6A,
             0x4B, 0xBF, 0x21, 0xCE, 0x9E, 0xB5, 0xE7, 0x9D,
             0x47, 0x57, 0xD7, 0xDE, 0x02, 0x7F, 0x20, 0xE5 },
           /* e */
           { 0x01, 0x00, 0x01 },
           /* d */
           { 0x6A, 0xD1, 0xB0, 0xBB, 0x7C, 0xDF, 0x20, 0x91,
             0x4F, 0xF6, 0x94, 0xCE, 0xA3, 0x7B, 0x01, 0x4B,
             0xD7, 0x86, 0x93, 0xE8, 0x24, 0xA3, 0x4B, 0xA4,
             0x16, 0x4B, 0xE5, 0xD1, 0x68, 0x79, 0x8D, 0x3A,
             0x15, 0xB9, 0x76, 0x16, 0x6D, 0x7A, 0x29, 0x84,
             0x46, 0xAA, 0xF7, 0x9D, 0xBC, 0x98, 0xF1, 0xC2,
             0xA3, 0xB1, 0x83, 0xAE, 0xE4, 0x60, 0x94, 0x52,
             0x7B, 0x33, 0xA9, 0x54, 0x46, 0x38, 0x2D, 0x1B,
             0x78, 0xFF, 0x40, 0x7D, 0xBF, 0x50, 0xE0, 0x7D,
             0x98, 0x4B, 0x20, 0xD9, 0xAC, 0x8B, 0xCA, 0xE9,
             0xA7, 0xDA, 0x63, 0x4F, 0x24, 0x88, 0x92, 0x3C,
             0xF5, 0x50, 0xC2, 0x63, 0x37, 0x7E, 0xC6, 0x38,
             0x1B, 0xA9, 0x11, 0x88, 0xCC, 0x8F, 0x1F, 0xD4,
             0xBC, 0xE8, 0x34, 0xC6, 0x86, 0xE1, 0xBE, 0x71,
             0x01, 0xFE, 0x1E, 0xA0, 0x21, 0xE0, 0x5E, 0x6F,
             0x8F, 0xFD, 0x9D, 0x45, 0x64, 0xBB, 0x7E, 0x33,
             0x84, 0xF2, 0x57, 0xEA, 0x9A, 0x9A, 0x3A, 0x53,
             0x4D, 0x43, 0x07, 0x7C, 0xF3, 0x9A, 0x94, 0xC2,
             0x9A, 0xB9, 0xB7, 0x78, 0x1B, 0x53, 0xC5, 0xBC,
             0x57, 0x38, 0xF6, 0x6E, 0x3B, 0xFA, 0xD1, 0xC8,
             0xF0, 0xDE, 0x6E, 0x08, 0x90, 0xAB, 0xE6, 0x60,
             0x85, 0x6E, 0x3B, 0x7C, 0x01, 0x41, 0xAB, 0x11,
             0x35, 0x55, 0x15, 0x1A, 0xED, 0xC8, 0x1C, 0x6D,
             0xB4, 0xBE, 0xED, 0xE6, 0x0A, 0x68, 0x6B, 0x00,
             0x18, 0x4F, 0x45, 0x5A, 0x2D, 0x3A, 0xBB, 0x2E,
             0x68, 0x11, 0xE1, 0xCD, 0xEA, 0x39, 0x53, 0x0B,
             0x8F, 0xAE, 0xA8, 0xF8, 0x24, 0x36, 0x79, 0xC9,
             0xDF, 0x76, 0x97, 0x8C, 0x5E, 0x01, 0x58, 0x57,
             0xAC, 0xA5, 0x9D, 0x9F, 0xE4, 0xA6, 0x2D, 0x15,
             0x09, 0xAE, 0x62, 0x6A, 0xFF, 0x8E, 0x0A, 0xDF,
             0x95, 0xA4, 0xEB, 0x01, 0x49, 0xCA, 0xB7, 0x12,
             0xEF, 0x3E, 0xC3, 0xD6, 0x02, 0x32, 0x8A, 0x6C,
             0x50, 0x21, 0xBA, 0x1B, 0x35, 0xB8, 0x58, 0x3D,
             0x9A, 0x90, 0x40, 0x55, 0x03, 0xF5, 0xFA, 0x0F,
             0x42, 0x4C, 0x72, 0x86, 0x23, 0xFC, 0x81, 0xD3,
             0xDD, 0x7B, 0xFF, 0x1B, 0xF7, 0x8C, 0x8E, 0x2E,
             0xBD, 0x03, 0xA5, 0x11, 0x2D, 0xEB, 0x65, 0x89,
             0x98, 0x6E, 0x49, 0xBD, 0x30, 0x07, 0x1A, 0xD8,
             0x41, 0xA3, 0xCC, 0xA8, 0x07, 0x6C, 0xCF, 0xC7,
             0x94, 0x63, 0x30, 0xB1, 0xFD, 0x1C, 0x21, 0x2A,
             0xD3, 0xEB, 0xD3, 0x7D, 0x9A, 0x4D, 0x0A, 0x96,
             0x95, 0xB8, 0x16, 0x8A, 0x08, 0x89, 0x32, 0x7D,
             0x52, 0x6F, 0x16, 0xD1, 0x56, 0x37, 0xFA, 0x9D,
             0xBF, 0x04, 0xB0, 0xB8, 0x3D, 0xD8, 0xB5, 0xC4,
             0x05, 0x2D, 0xC5, 0x38, 0xB6, 0xCA, 0xE9, 0xC9,
             0x2E, 0xC9, 0x70, 0x10, 0x7A, 0x2F, 0x1E, 0xE4,
             0xD4, 0x7A, 0x65, 0xCC, 0xA5, 0xB9, 0x59, 0x6E,
             0x42, 0x74, 0x91, 0x9B, 0xE7, 0xD1, 0xEC, 0x90,
             0xE4, 0x50, 0xFE, 0x58, 0x58, 0xDC, 0x2E, 0x01,
             0xE8, 0x4E, 0xBD, 0x92, 0x07, 0xD8, 0xEA, 0x20,
             0xFA, 0x37, 0x14, 0x0E, 0x89, 0xD0, 0x10, 0xD6,
             0x50, 0x1F, 0x22, 0x61, 0x97, 0x18, 0x04, 0xDE,
             0x73, 0x68, 0x0F, 0xE6, 0x1C, 0x23, 0x5C, 0x8F,
             0x4E, 0x63, 0x1F, 0xF0, 0x6D, 0xBD, 0xEE, 0x66,
             0x6D, 0xBB, 0x9A, 0xFB, 0xFD, 0xA3, 0xB9, 0x71,
             0xC3, 0x29, 0x0D, 0x7B, 0xDE, 0xF5, 0xC5, 0x78,
             0x5A, 0x07, 0x1B, 0xE9, 0x4A, 0xE1, 0x8A, 0x0B,
             0x2E, 0xD8, 0xAE, 0x67, 0x9A, 0xBA, 0xA6, 0x10,
             0x85, 0x28, 0xA8, 0x5E, 0x31, 0x7F, 0x87, 0xA8,
             0x99, 0xC5, 0x89, 0xF4, 0xA8, 0xAD, 0x42, 0x90,
             0xA6, 0xCA, 0x1E, 0xF9, 0xF1, 0x4D, 0x8D, 0x0A,
             0x7A, 0x66, 0xDC, 0x75, 0x0B, 0x69, 0xB1, 0x9C,
             0xB2, 0x58, 0x28, 0xC3, 0xEA, 0xF0, 0x42, 0x21,
             0x5C, 0x09, 0xAA, 0xD4, 0xA9, 0x54, 0xE8, 0x55 },
           /* p */
           { 0xE0, 0x41, 0xBD, 0xF1, 0xC9, 0xB5, 0x69, 0xAC,
             0xF5, 0xE8, 0x02, 0x2D, 0x21, 0x1B, 0x87, 0x1B,
             0x5F, 0x29, 0x21, 0x41, 0xA5, 0x89, 0xFD, 0x0F,
             0x6D, 0xCB, 0x59, 0x47, 0x6B, 0x1C, 0x1D, 0xA4,
             0x01, 0x8D, 0xD7, 0xA1, 0xE1, 0x08, 0x39, 0x32,
             0x74, 0x5E, 0xF3, 0xC6, 0x6C, 0xF7, 0xFF, 0x31,
             0x3E, 0xED, 0x4C, 0xB1, 0x68, 0x1D, 0xEF, 0x9D,
             0x29, 0xCC, 0x3F, 0xE8, 0x7A, 0xF7, 0xAD, 0x19,
             0xE9, 0xEF, 0x34, 0x56, 0x62, 0xC9, 0xC4, 0xF4,
             0xE6, 0xE7, 0x07, 0xAA, 0x4E, 0x99, 0x49, 0x63,
             0x4C, 0x08, 0x64, 0x71, 0xA5, 0x5B, 0x67, 0x46,
             0xC2, 0xAE, 0xEF, 0x87, 0x71, 0xEF, 0x21, 0xA2,
             0xEE, 0x8A, 0xB4, 0xDE, 0xC4, 0xC2, 0x04, 0x3C,
             0x70, 0xCF, 0xBA, 0x89, 0xE5, 0xEB, 0x2F, 0x62,
             0xEA, 0x07, 0xC7, 0x4B, 0xD4, 0x16, 0x67, 0x69,
             0x12, 0xA9, 0x58, 0x9F, 0xB3, 0xED, 0x70, 0x28,
             0x8F, 0x8A, 0x03, 0xD1, 0x91, 0xC5, 0x8A, 0x88,
             0x96, 0xE8, 0xB2, 0x0F, 0x1E, 0xDE, 0x91, 0x80,
             0xCE, 0xD3, 0x03, 0x59, 0xF7, 0x5F, 0x48, 0xAF,
             0xE9, 0x7C, 0x46, 0xEE, 0x59, 0xC9, 0x27, 0x1E,
             0x71, 0x37, 0x55, 0x4A, 0xD7, 0x05, 0x56, 0x17,
             0x84, 0x8F, 0xD3, 0x04, 0x1C, 0xD6, 0x30, 0x47,
             0xF6, 0x46, 0x2C, 0x0E, 0x66, 0xE1, 0x83, 0x9F,
             0x63, 0xC6, 0x12, 0xD4, 0xA3, 0x57, 0xF5, 0xE5,
             0x76, 0x35, 0x6A, 0xAA, 0xE7, 0xC6, 0x4A, 0xC0,
             0xBF, 0xD9, 0xD6, 0x5E, 0xDF, 0x4B, 0x2F, 0x34,
             0xDA, 0xDB, 0xDF, 0x69, 0x06, 0x20, 0xC8, 0x95,
             0xCA, 0x44, 0xD9, 0x61, 0xDA, 0x05, 0xB1, 0x36,
             0x2B, 0x4A, 0xD5, 0xDA, 0xAC, 0xB9, 0x0F, 0xF5,
             0x86, 0x33, 0x5E, 0xCD, 0x7E, 0x1D, 0x7A, 0x16,
             0x00, 0xCB, 0x1A, 0xB3, 0x72, 0x69, 0x5B, 0x6E,
             0xC7, 0x71, 0x76, 0x21, 0xDB, 0xBE, 0x93, 0x57 },
           /* q */
           { 0xCC, 0xF5, 0x51, 0x29, 0xD3, 0xB9, 0x24, 0xC8,
             0x38, 0xA7, 0x6C, 0xD3, 0x69, 0xD4, 0x6E, 0x9C,
             0xB8, 0x13, 0xFE, 0x3B, 0x39, 0xBA, 0xF1, 0xEB,
             0x10, 0x18, 0x47, 0xD3, 0x1D, 0x09, 0x13, 0x50,
             0x03, 0xAB, 0x2F, 0xC2, 0x39, 0x43, 0x1C, 0xDA,
             0x6E, 0x99, 0x08, 0x88, 0x3D, 0xE8, 0xA0, 0x54,
             0x6E, 0x35, 0x28, 0x37, 0xD4, 0xEB, 0x95, 0xCB,
             0x41, 0xD8, 0xEE, 0xC1, 0x4A, 0x66, 0xCD, 0x38,
             0xC2, 0x24, 0x7E, 0x82, 0xA3, 0x94, 0x39, 0x29,
             0x27, 0xBB, 0xF5, 0x70, 0xA8, 0x65, 0x5E, 0x0F,
             0x2A, 0xC2, 0x43, 0xE5, 0xFB, 0x87, 0x6F, 0xD2,
             0x0B, 0x48, 0x76, 0x73, 0xA2, 0x77, 0x2D, 0xA9,
             0x70, 0xC1, 0xDF, 0x47, 0xA3, 0x2D, 0xEA, 0x8A,
             0x75, 0xE7, 0x09, 0x54, 0x73, 0x22, 0x9C, 0x69,
             0x3C, 0x88, 0x6A, 0x31, 0x6D, 0x2C, 0xEC, 0xBF,
             0x03, 0x59, 0x7B, 0x04, 0xCA, 0x9E, 0xCA, 0xBD,
             0xA3, 0x36, 0x6E, 0x07, 0x64, 0x88, 0x05, 0x9B,
             0x24, 0x59, 0x6F, 0x5D, 0xF6, 0xE8, 0x56, 0x97,
             0xDB, 0xE6, 0x2A, 0xB2, 0xF8, 0xCC, 0x71, 0xAC,
             0x7F, 0x74, 0x3B, 0x64, 0x12, 0x6D, 0x01, 0xF2,
             0xB3, 0x61, 0x27, 0x16, 0xEC, 0xA7, 0x69, 0x75,
             0xE5, 0x14, 0xED, 0x4D, 0x78, 0xA3, 0x22, 0x90,
             0xBE, 0x0A, 0x82, 0xF1, 0x44, 0x14, 0x99, 0x2B,
             0xD1, 0x80, 0x3D, 0xAD, 0xC9, 0x83, 0xDD, 0xF2,
             0x76, 0xD2, 0xCA, 0xE1, 0xA0, 0xA9, 0x03, 0xF9,
             0x1E, 0x78, 0xBE, 0x3C, 0x0B, 0xCA, 0xF5, 0x8F,
             0x3C, 0xE9, 0x8D, 0x12, 0x3A, 0xA6, 0xC8, 0x5F,
             0x65, 0x51, 0xC5, 0x70, 0x07, 0xFE, 0x47, 0x7A,
             0xC8, 0x7E, 0x03, 0x8B, 0x9A, 0x94, 0xAC, 0xC6,
             0x20, 0xDE, 0x12, 0x25, 0x81, 0x05, 0x34, 0x4A,
             0x0C, 0xFB, 0x37, 0x65, 0x50, 0x5E, 0x8E, 0x7E,
             0xC8, 0x6A, 0xC0, 0x86, 0xF6, 0x55, 0x64, 0x23 },
           /* u */
           { 0xD1, 0x0C, 0x91, 0x8D, 0xA9, 0xF2, 0x6D, 0xA9,
             0x4D, 0xFF, 0x3B, 0x09, 0x24, 0x3C, 0x8C, 0xC3,
             0xD4, 0x39, 0x02, 0x6D, 0xE6, 0x2B, 0x9E, 0x9F,
             0x37, 0xAC, 0x60, 0xBB, 0xD7, 0xA9, 0x52, 0xCB,
             0x07, 0x84, 0x94, 0xBD, 0x73, 0x7E, 0xCC, 0x3A,
             0x65, 0x0C, 0x93, 0xC4, 0x2E, 0xD7, 0xF6, 0x49,
             0x02, 0x07, 0xAE, 0x99, 0x6B, 0x3C, 0xD1, 0xFF,
             0x1F, 0x4D, 0x63, 0x9D, 0x61, 0xDD, 0xD1, 0xE7,
             0x12, 0x8D, 0x56, 0x3C, 0x1C, 0x16, 0xC8, 0xB3,
             0x9D, 0x94, 0xD5, 0xDE, 0x5E, 0x93, 0x7F, 0xE6,
             0x5A, 0x38, 0xB8, 0x19, 0xE4, 0x69, 0xF8, 0x8C,
             0x3C, 0xE0, 0x25, 0x21, 0xE2, 0xAD, 0xA9, 0xE3,
             0x46, 0xE6, 0xA1, 0xBD, 0x51, 0x27, 0xC7, 0xBD,
             0xB2, 0x1D, 0xA2, 0xC6, 0x11, 0xE3, 0x5F, 0x6C,
             0x89, 0xE7, 0xDD, 0x66, 0xA0, 0x66, 0xCB, 0x23,
             0x3E, 0xF9, 0x6B, 0xAD, 0x1A, 0xD3, 0x99, 0x94,
             0x0C, 0xAD, 0x05, 0x5A, 0xDF, 0x5C, 0x58, 0x79,
             0xF8, 0x30, 0xA8, 0x08, 0x3C, 0xA6, 0xD6, 0xC0,
             0x58, 0x58, 0xC2, 0x66, 0x03, 0x0A, 0x33, 0xBF,
             0xB4, 0xAD, 0x83, 0xB5, 0xCC, 0x92, 0x9F, 0x2F,
             0x6C, 0xA2, 0x1E, 0x50, 0x29, 0x54, 0x2B, 0x8A,
             0xEB, 0xE7, 0x6B, 0x69, 0x44, 0xE1, 0x86, 0x3E,
             0x39, 0x47, 0x3B, 0x6E, 0xD9, 0xAD, 0x92, 0x6A,
             0x7D, 0xBF, 0xE2, 0xC7, 0x28, 0xE2, 0x3C, 0x74,
             0xF6, 0x9B, 0xB0, 0xE0, 0x54, 0xF1, 0x9F, 0x14,
             0x6C, 0xE1, 0x9E, 0x1D, 0x23, 0x6B, 0x65, 0x34,
             0x30, 0xA7, 0x1D, 0xC4, 0xA7, 0x4A, 0xE2, 0x0E,
             0x0D, 0x14, 0x13, 0x31, 0x66, 0xA1, 0x8A, 0xDF,
             0x6E, 0xF7, 0xFE, 0xD9, 0x5C, 0xC4, 0x64, 0x35,
             0xFF, 0x4C, 0x96, 0x23, 0x2B, 0xD5, 0x64, 0x03,
             0xCC, 0x39, 0xFB, 0x16, 0xAD, 0xF2, 0x24, 0xB4,
             0xFD, 0xEB, 0x8A, 0xBA, 0xF4, 0x91, 0x31, 0xBF },
           /* exponent1 */
           { 0x2F, 0x7C, 0x1C, 0x31, 0x37, 0x69, 0xCF, 0x6F,
             0x8D, 0x3E, 0x4C, 0x3F, 0xAC, 0x13, 0xFD, 0x1E,
             0xC1, 0x9E, 0x9E, 0xE9, 0x1C, 0x99, 0x44, 0x59,
             0x61, 0x01, 0x3E, 0xED, 0x4D, 0x73, 0xCD, 0x9E,
             0xED, 0xA9, 0x50, 0x30, 0x79, 0xCA, 0xD8, 0xF9,
             0xA3, 0x04, 0x7C, 0x0F, 0xD7, 0x01, 0x08, 0x2B,
             0x30, 0x4C, 0xE5, 0x01, 0x67, 0xAF, 0x77, 0x0E,
             0x4B, 0x4C, 0x71, 0x77, 0xD3, 0x99, 0xE0, 0x30,
             0x6D, 0x85, 0x76, 0x0A, 0x98, 0xAE, 0x6A, 0xA3,
             0x04, 0xC5, 0x84, 0xAC, 0xFE, 0x29, 0x9D, 0x0D,
             0x86, 0x8A, 0xFC, 0x61, 0xC8, 0x06, 0xBB, 0xAE,
             0x93, 0x08, 0xA1, 0xB5, 0x87, 0x5D, 0x80, 0x3C,
             0xD4, 0xCF, 0xD0, 0x0E, 0x9F, 0x91, 0x09, 0x7E,
             0x96, 0xD0, 0x95, 0x8A, 0x1F, 0x82, 0x16, 0x2D,
             0x96, 0xAA, 0x80, 0xFB, 0xC0, 0x73, 0xE1, 0xFF,
             0xB0, 0xB0, 0xE5, 0x10, 0x23, 0xF4, 0x31, 0xDC,
             0x94, 0xD0, 0x3F, 0x90, 0xBF, 0x92, 0x19, 0x8C,
             0x64, 0x8F, 0xEF, 0x2C, 0x1E, 0x78, 0x38, 0x4D,
             0x12, 0xFE, 0x41, 0x66, 0x6A, 0x67, 0xE5, 0xA7,
             0x42, 0x04, 0x4B, 0xAC, 0xAA, 0x9C, 0x5A, 0x49,
             0x2A, 0xE5, 0xF1, 0x8C, 0x80, 0x4D, 0x23, 0xF6,
             0xA4, 0xDE, 0x23, 0x6B, 0x6A, 0x83, 0xBC, 0x03,
             0x70, 0xD5, 0x58, 0xFC, 0xCF, 0xB2, 0x0E, 0xC1,
             0xD0, 0x49, 0x9F, 0xB1, 0x20, 0xC9, 0x3E, 0x4B,
             0x11, 0x25, 0xAC, 0x69, 0x75, 0xDC, 0x59, 0xF5,
             0xC8, 0x69, 0xE2, 0xE7, 0x81, 0xD6, 0x94, 0xAF,
             0x57, 0x6C, 0x59, 0x39, 0x0E, 0xD0, 0x20, 0x48,
             0xFF, 0x64, 0x66, 0xB7, 0x3E, 0x88, 0x18, 0x07,
             0x05, 0x51, 0xBA, 0x48, 0xAC, 0x6C, 0x1F, 0x41,
             0xF8, 0xE1, 0xA5, 0xC0, 0x53, 0x65, 0x00, 0x75,
             0xEA, 0x43, 0x17, 0x6B, 0x49, 0xDD, 0x9F, 0x3B,
             0xAC, 0xC5, 0x8C, 0xA3, 0x0C, 0xB9, 0xA4, 0xCF },
           /* exponent2 */
           { 0x57, 0x5A, 0x87, 0x09, 0x28, 0xAF, 0xD4, 0x39,
             0x71, 0xCC, 0x09, 0xD9, 0xE1, 0x55, 0x24, 0xFF,
             0xAE, 0x84, 0xF6, 0xEA, 0x0F, 0x24, 0xDA, 0x4E,
             0xB1, 0x41, 0x67, 0xFB, 0x56, 0x78, 0xB3, 0xBE,
             0x7A, 0x91, 0xCF, 0x7D, 0x1C, 0x22, 0xBA, 0x7D,
             0x6E, 0x7D, 0xD2, 0xE1, 0x1E, 0x61, 0xB3, 0x53,
             0xC8, 0xD4, 0xE7, 0x1B, 0x44, 0xA8, 0x53, 0xE3,
             0x99, 0x60, 0xF8, 0x01, 0x71, 0xD0, 0x76, 0xCF,
             0x26, 0x0F, 0x9F, 0xCB, 0xD6, 0x24, 0x2A, 0x68,
             0x9C, 0x02, 0xC4, 0x0D, 0x0B, 0xF8, 0x88, 0x2A,
             0x36, 0xB3, 0x2D, 0x75, 0x2B, 0xCB, 0x01, 0xA1,
             0xA8, 0x25, 0x6E, 0x36, 0xC2, 0x9B, 0xC0, 0xDE,
             0x62, 0xAC, 0x7E, 0x99, 0x6D, 0xB6, 0xF8, 0x2B,
             0xA3, 0x2C, 0xA1, 0x11, 0x59, 0x30, 0xFB, 0x30,
             0xEF, 0x17, 0xC5, 0x0A, 0xE3, 0xD9, 0x2D, 0xDE,
             0x0B, 0x73, 0x6B, 0xB7, 0x13, 0x14, 0xB2, 0x9C,
             0x38, 0x9F, 0xCE, 0x2D, 0x60, 0x6F, 0x88, 0xD4,
             0x22, 0x9D, 0xEB, 0x95, 0x44, 0xD2, 0xA9, 0x75,
             0x77, 0xC7, 0x95, 0x93, 0x49, 0xEE, 0xF8, 0xD3,
             0xE8, 0x4E, 0x85, 0xB1, 0x95, 0x18, 0xD8, 0xA7,
             0xB4, 0x44, 0x48, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x44, 0x68, 0xF2,
             0x52, 0x7C, 0xA4, 0xD7, 0x4B, 0xFF, 0x5B, 0x90,
             0x0D, 0x2F, 0x35, 0xB7, 0xD6, 0xA8, 0x60, 0xD0,
             0x08, 0x2E, 0x7C, 0x1B, 0x41, 0xB3, 0xEE, 0x38,
             0x94, 0xE4, 0x2A, 0x8C, 0x17, 0x89, 0x71, 0xA4,
             0x0F, 0x94, 0xAE, 0x9F, 0xB0, 0xF7, 0x03, 0xC9,
             0xD4, 0xD0, 0x45, 0xCB, 0xEB, 0x2B, 0x82, 0x63,
             0x06, 0x2F, 0xDF, 0xD2, 0x6B, 0xD5, 0xB8, 0x69,
             0x60, 0x62, 0x34, 0xE8, 0x9F, 0x2D, 0x96, 0xA5,
             0xAB, 0x04, 0x7A, 0xFF, 0x79, 0x09, 0xDA, 0xCB,
             0x64, 0xD4, 0xFD, 0x3B, 0x35, 0x11, 0xD7, 0xF1,
             0xB9, 0x41, 0xA6, 0x64, 0xDF, 0x40, 0x6D, 0xB9 }

   RSA-4096 key in encoded form:

   -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

2.2.  DLP Keys

   The following publicly known test keys may be used for DLP-based
   algorithms such as DSA, DH, and Elgamal.

   DLP-1024 key "testDLP1024":

           /* p */
           { 0x03, 0x0C, 0xDF, 0xC3, 0x8F, 0xC3, 0xE4, 0x21,
             0x27, 0x90, 0xB0, 0xA4, 0x1E, 0x45, 0xB4, 0xE4,
             0xE8, 0x80, 0xDE, 0x8A, 0xBF, 0xD3, 0xAE, 0xCA,
             0x0B, 0x23, 0x8F, 0xB6, 0xCD, 0x73, 0x0C, 0xC3,
             0x18, 0x76, 0x93, 0x36, 0xD5, 0xB1, 0x80, 0xB2,
             0x80, 0x2A, 0x01, 0xBE, 0x4B, 0xC1, 0xAB, 0x84,
             0xFC, 0xE2, 0xFF, 0x48, 0x9B, 0x50, 0xC2, 0xD2,
             0x9D, 0xE9, 0x1E, 0xC0, 0xE6, 0x5B, 0x60, 0x64,
             0xFD, 0x0D, 0xE5, 0x37, 0xEA, 0xBA, 0x1C, 0x6C,
             0xDD, 0x27, 0xDC, 0x30, 0x30, 0x48, 0x1E, 0x8B,
             0xB9, 0x60, 0xAA, 0x8B, 0x8A, 0xEF, 0x93, 0x35,
             0x30, 0xE6, 0xB1, 0xCC, 0x51, 0x60, 0xBB, 0xFA,
             0xAF, 0x85, 0x0F, 0xF6, 0x57, 0x81, 0x12, 0x33,
             0x7D, 0x53, 0x03, 0x4E, 0x41, 0x63, 0xDC, 0x65,
             0x03, 0xBD, 0xF8, 0x89, 0x25, 0x81, 0x14, 0x1F,
             0xAB, 0x82, 0x55, 0xB6, 0xD9, 0x72, 0x7B, 0xB3 },
           /* q */
           { 0xEC, 0x41, 0xB9, 0xC0, 0x62, 0x1D, 0x5B, 0xDC,
             0xAF, 0x11, 0xD5, 0x19, 0x8F, 0x72, 0x08, 0x88,
             0x2E, 0x65, 0xBB, 0xDF },
           /* g */
           { 0x01, 0x64, 0x87, 0xAC, 0xCF, 0xCD, 0x95, 0x50,
             0x51, 0xE0, 0x6E, 0x1C, 0x5B, 0xEF, 0x45, 0x2C,
             0x12, 0x63, 0xC7, 0x5D, 0x2B, 0x36, 0x50, 0x4F,
             0xB4, 0x27, 0x57, 0x35, 0xC2, 0x83, 0x32, 0x0B,
             0x63, 0xAC, 0x91, 0xC6, 0xF4, 0x02, 0x09, 0x32,
             0x53, 0x1C, 0xAB, 0x04, 0xB1, 0xCD, 0x72, 0xFD,
             0xF2, 0x9D, 0xE2, 0x4E, 0x27, 0x17, 0x97, 0xA7,
             0xDD, 0x21, 0x97, 0x67, 0x69, 0x31, 0xF9, 0x33,
             0x1D, 0x1F, 0x59, 0xEE, 0xE5, 0xBA, 0x2C, 0x7D,
             0x54, 0xAE, 0x13, 0x5C, 0x7F, 0x79, 0x41, 0x37,
             0xD8, 0xD8, 0x0E, 0xB6, 0x29, 0x28, 0x8E, 0x26,
             0x8A, 0x3B, 0xEB, 0xD2, 0x1F, 0x16, 0xA4, 0x03,
             0xF1, 0xD5, 0xDA, 0xD8, 0x3C, 0x1C, 0x47, 0x80,
             0x17, 0xA3, 0xCD, 0x26, 0x6F, 0x1B, 0xA4, 0x9B,
             0x89, 0x0D, 0xC0, 0x89, 0x21, 0x2E, 0x72, 0x26,
             0x1D, 0xA3, 0x67, 0xAF, 0x80, 0x3B, 0x02, 0x50 },
           /* x */
           { 0x11, 0xED, 0x99, 0x78, 0x5A, 0x81, 0x3A, 0x1B,
             0x0E, 0x96, 0xEC, 0xD3, 0x8D, 0x7F, 0x9B, 0xCE,
             0x9E, 0xBF, 0xD6, 0xFA },
           /* y */
           { 0x02, 0x20, 0xB9, 0x42, 0xC2, 0x5C, 0x44, 0xDA,
             0x52, 0xB0, 0xD1, 0x76, 0x82, 0xEA, 0xC4, 0x36,
             0xEA, 0x7E, 0x81, 0xEC, 0x9F, 0x76, 0xE1, 0x05,
             0x75, 0x32, 0xAA, 0x67, 0xEA, 0xDD, 0x04, 0xAD,
             0xB8, 0xFD, 0x61, 0x81, 0xBA, 0x0B, 0x25, 0xF2,
             0x84, 0xDA, 0xAA, 0xAA, 0x05, 0xF3, 0xC8, 0x40,
             0x34, 0xD4, 0x17, 0xD3, 0x7B, 0x6E, 0x0A, 0x63,
             0x31, 0x8A, 0x0A, 0x79, 0x1F, 0x1D, 0x0D, 0xD4,
             0xF6, 0x8A, 0xFA, 0xE3, 0x35, 0xAA, 0x5D, 0xBE,
             0xA3, 0xF2, 0xF6, 0xD6, 0xDD, 0x73, 0x09, 0x26,
             0x24, 0x7F, 0xDC, 0x4D, 0x1B, 0x82, 0xDF, 0x8C,
             0x2D, 0x87, 0xAE, 0x8D, 0x36, 0xAD, 0xB9, 0xDD,
             0x25, 0x13, 0x57, 0x8E, 0x8B, 0x99, 0xAA, 0x6A,
             0x0E, 0xDF, 0x67, 0x5F, 0xFC, 0x2F, 0xDE, 0xB6,
             0x4B, 0x26, 0xE5, 0xBE, 0xD8, 0x53, 0x2D, 0xFD,
             0x98, 0x11, 0x0F, 0xCF, 0xC9, 0xED, 0xF9, 0x38 }

   DLP-1024 key in encoded form:

   -----END DSA PRIVATE KEY-----

   DLP-2048 key "testDLP2048":

           /* p */
           { 0x03, 0x2D, 0xD5, 0x53, 0x7D, 0x33, 0x7A, 0x91,
             0x34, 0x37, 0xD3, 0x5E, 0xA3, 0x43, 0x3D, 0xB0,
             0xE7, 0xB7, 0x21, 0x29, 0x8F, 0xBA, 0x87, 0x27,
             0xF2, 0xF9, 0xBE, 0x85, 0x6D, 0x6A, 0x14, 0x6B,
             0x92, 0x98, 0x8D, 0x50, 0x82, 0xF2, 0xC5, 0x72,
             0xB7, 0x70, 0x37, 0x63, 0xE8, 0x24, 0x54, 0xA7,
             0xA4, 0xA2, 0x25, 0x9B, 0x29, 0xAC, 0xE9, 0xB0,
             0xBC, 0x9B, 0x4B, 0x4D, 0x98, 0x5D, 0x6A, 0x9C,
             0x8C, 0xB6, 0x30, 0xE4, 0xE0, 0x9F, 0x48, 0x07,
             0x9F, 0x1B, 0xE8, 0x07, 0x69, 0x71, 0xDE, 0x92,
             0x68, 0x56, 0x70, 0xB9, 0x4C, 0xC9, 0x68, 0x7D,
             0xDC, 0x23, 0x3B, 0x30, 0xAF, 0x22, 0x94, 0xB0,
             0x30, 0xA6, 0xB4, 0x97, 0xF6, 0x46, 0xF9, 0x4E,
             0x1C, 0x17, 0xE8, 0x3A, 0x90, 0x4C, 0x2C, 0x1B,
             0x68, 0x44, 0x10, 0xCE, 0x04, 0x8F, 0xD9, 0xCD,
             0x64, 0x05, 0xA1, 0x4A, 0xA6, 0x8C, 0x2B, 0x8F,
             0x7F, 0x8B, 0xD0, 0x6E, 0x9F, 0x64, 0xC4, 0xBB,
             0x69, 0xCC, 0xBF, 0xBC, 0x80, 0x56, 0xAE, 0x41,
             0x4A, 0x8B, 0x2E, 0x35, 0xD6, 0x20, 0x5C, 0xDE,
             0xFB, 0x2A, 0x24, 0xA3, 0x79, 0xB8, 0xA1, 0x16,
             0x17, 0x50, 0x95, 0xFF, 0x57, 0xFF, 0x61, 0x55,
             0x12, 0x86, 0x86, 0xD9, 0x9B, 0x8E, 0x1F, 0x24,
             0x44, 0x63, 0x12, 0x71, 0xF0, 0x9C, 0x33, 0x4F,
             0x37, 0x22, 0x45, 0x2F, 0xE9, 0x26, 0x3F, 0xC3,
             0x34, 0x9E, 0x6F, 0x33, 0x07, 0xA6, 0x75, 0x4F,
             0xFD, 0x89, 0xD4, 0x43, 0x27, 0x38, 0x7D, 0xFD,
             0x40, 0x18, 0xA0, 0x2A, 0xEA, 0x6E, 0xF4, 0xC6,
             0x36, 0xA7, 0x69, 0xE7, 0xCE, 0xB7, 0x37, 0x19,
             0x19, 0x72, 0x49, 0xA8, 0x41, 0xA3, 0x0B, 0xE0,
             0xC4, 0xBE, 0x8E, 0xCB, 0x10, 0x7F, 0x38, 0x02,
             0xDC, 0x45, 0x83, 0xF8, 0xE0, 0x12, 0x94, 0xD5,
             0x2B, 0x62, 0x13, 0x67, 0xBD, 0x0C, 0x19, 0x53 },
           /* q */
           { 0x01, 0x95, 0x09, 0xB2, 0xED, 0xA8, 0x3B, 0x08,
             0x82, 0x73, 0x1B, 0x3F, 0xE8, 0x9C, 0x2E, 0xF6,
             0x9D, 0xB8, 0xD8, 0x36, 0x12, 0x34, 0x5D, 0x1A,
             0x66, 0xA5, 0x83, 0xB9, 0x11 },
           /* g */
           { 0xAC, 0x5D, 0x12, 0x0E, 0x46, 0xD2, 0xBA, 0xD6,
             0x87, 0x88, 0x47, 0xCC, 0xE8, 0x70, 0xA6, 0x9E,
             0xDC, 0xAD, 0xC8, 0x6C, 0x85, 0x9C, 0x49, 0xBA,
             0xF7, 0xAD, 0xE4, 0x1E, 0xD9, 0x36, 0x8E, 0xC2,
             0x3B, 0x64, 0x54, 0xFB, 0x60, 0xEA, 0xDA, 0xAC,
             0xC6, 0x64, 0x2A, 0x6F, 0xDD, 0x32, 0x2B, 0x99,
             0xAB, 0x14, 0x75, 0x81, 0xB2, 0x1B, 0xEB, 0xE0,
             0x62, 0x94, 0xE3, 0x82, 0x0B, 0xC5, 0x56, 0xFA,
             0x54, 0x11, 0xB3, 0x1C, 0x37, 0x3B, 0x39, 0xA6,
             0x7D, 0x51, 0x8A, 0x54, 0x77, 0x13, 0x41, 0x5C,
             0x67, 0xAC, 0xEF, 0x18, 0xBC, 0x6B, 0xA9, 0x4C,
             0x95, 0x60, 0x0C, 0xB5, 0xBD, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x84,
             0xAD, 0x58, 0xE5, 0x49, 0x1D, 0x26, 0x26, 0x1E,
             0xD4, 0xE5, 0x35, 0xAD, 0xB2, 0x2E, 0x35, 0xB0,
             0x6C, 0xC2, 0xB4, 0xC8, 0x9D, 0xA2, 0xDC, 0x63,
             0xE2, 0x9E, 0xDA, 0x06, 0xF0, 0x13, 0x80, 0x72,
             0x46, 0x55, 0x89, 0x32, 0xE9, 0xF2, 0xDC, 0x8B,
             0x93, 0x2E, 0x6B, 0x84, 0xB4, 0x07, 0xF5, 0x71,
             0x50, 0x9D, 0x06, 0xF7, 0x94, 0x30, 0xE9, 0x5D,
             0x46, 0xB2, 0xD0, 0x26, 0x14, 0x28, 0x84, 0x17,
             0x99, 0x98, 0x86, 0xA6, 0x71, 0x45, 0xED, 0x74,
             0x6A, 0x0C, 0xA8, 0xC0, 0x44, 0x41, 0x03, 0xF5,
             0x03, 0xE6, 0xBB, 0xE7, 0x45, 0x61, 0xC3, 0xAC,
             0xD1, 0x9A, 0xE5, 0x7A, 0x82, 0x67, 0xA1, 0xBC,
             0x3C, 0x49, 0x30, 0x83, 0xBB, 0x16, 0xC5, 0x97,
             0xA8, 0xAC, 0x99, 0x81, 0xFB, 0x70, 0x45, 0x87,
             0x17, 0xFB, 0x64, 0x9C, 0xA4, 0x61, 0xD4, 0x70,
             0xB4, 0xB3, 0x5E, 0x3E, 0x98, 0x64, 0xFA, 0x1A,
             0x59, 0x9B, 0xC0, 0x1E, 0x6F, 0xE9, 0x93, 0x0A,
             0x51, 0xF5, 0x79, 0xB0, 0x84, 0x01, 0x74, 0x25,
             0xB8, 0xD0, 0xA1, 0x02, 0x3F, 0xAE, 0xDD, 0xDC,
             0x57, 0xD1, 0xCE, 0x56, 0x25, 0x1C, 0xDA },
           /* x */
           { 0x64, 0x05, 0xBC, 0xDE, 0xB4, 0xF7, 0x68, 0x29,
             0x02, 0x23, 0xCE, 0x5D, 0xB5, 0x2A, 0x8A, 0x30,
             0xC2, 0x8A, 0xDC, 0x78, 0x02, 0xD9, 0x68, 0x1E,
             0xDC, 0xB4, 0x34, 0xE5 },
           /* y */
           { 0x02, 0x30, 0x37, 0xB2, 0xD9, 0xC9, 0x9E, 0x75,
             0x3F, 0xD2, 0x79, 0xBF, 0xFC, 0xDE, 0xE9, 0x92,
             0x9C, 0x9B, 0xA1, 0xDE, 0xAA, 0x97, 0x0B, 0x03,
             0x72, 0xAF, 0x73, 0x35, 0xE5, 0x50, 0x21, 0x37,
             0x42, 0x99, 0xF3, 0x61, 0x02, 0x7C, 0x8D, 0x65,
             0xD5, 0x7A, 0xFB, 0x4D, 0x3C, 0xCD, 0x2B, 0x47,
             0x24, 0xB5, 0x3F, 0x09, 0xEB, 0xE2, 0x8C, 0xBF,
             0x49, 0x9F, 0x6B, 0x4F, 0x86, 0x33, 0x49, 0x19,
             0x8B, 0x24, 0xB2, 0xAB, 0x0D, 0x4C, 0xEC, 0xB6,
             0xC4, 0xFD, 0x7E, 0x67, 0x2D, 0x4B, 0x2A, 0xCA,
             0x9D, 0x39, 0xE3, 0xAE, 0x20, 0xF8, 0xEC, 0xD7,
             0xFD, 0x77, 0x10, 0x7C, 0xE5, 0x4A, 0x66, 0xDD,
             0xEE, 0x97, 0x44, 0xE4, 0x8C, 0xF8, 0xDD, 0x6B,
             0xA9, 0xA5, 0x28, 0xC7, 0x51, 0xF0, 0x08, 0xC6,
             0x6F, 0x19, 0x2A, 0x20, 0x4E, 0xC7, 0xF9, 0x38,
             0x76, 0x91, 0x01, 0x79, 0xB1, 0x31, 0x1D, 0x97,
             0x5B, 0x49, 0x25, 0xC5, 0x69, 0x90, 0x29, 0xFB,
             0xD1, 0x14, 0xA5, 0xE7, 0x90, 0x19, 0x0A, 0x4D,
             0x38, 0x9B, 0x94, 0x8F, 0x8F, 0x57, 0x6A, 0x8E,
             0x45, 0xA5, 0x6B, 0xE0, 0xD4, 0xFD, 0x6C, 0xEA,
             0x63, 0x1C, 0x5F, 0x53, 0x7E, 0xF9, 0x18, 0x59,
             0x8E, 0x30, 0x52, 0x2F, 0x93, 0x64, 0x50, 0x66,
             0x18, 0xC0, 0x45, 0x84, 0xCA, 0x6F, 0xD0, 0x75,
             0x12, 0x12, 0x21, 0xA4, 0x60, 0xF9, 0x80, 0xC5,
             0x4F, 0x80, 0x1D, 0x7D, 0x6D, 0x21, 0x9D, 0xF2,
             0xA1, 0xDB, 0xEA, 0x3C, 0x8A, 0x03, 0xA0, 0x9F,
             0x6B, 0xE9, 0x1B, 0xB6, 0x29, 0x6D, 0x79, 0x1A,
             0x2A, 0x83, 0x80, 0xE8, 0x9D, 0x0C, 0xDD, 0x26,
             0xF7, 0x66, 0x3E, 0x06, 0x9A, 0x83, 0x31, 0x49,
             0xAD, 0x44, 0x2B, 0x2C, 0x13, 0x98, 0x87, 0x71,
             0xF6, 0x54, 0xB8, 0x1F, 0x50, 0xE0, 0xD7, 0x26,
             0x42, 0x47, 0xD6, 0x78, 0xEA, 0xEB, 0xB0, 0xF9 }

   DLP-2048 key in encoded form:

   -----END DSA PRIVATE KEY-----

   DLP-4096 key "testDLP4096":

           /* p */
           { 0x31, 0xD2, 0x55, 0x5F, 0xB2, 0xE8, 0x89, 0xF3,
             0x20, 0x83, 0x78, 0x79, 0x5A, 0xF4, 0x88, 0x5B,
             0x62, 0xD0, 0x13, 0x58, 0xBD, 0xF1, 0x17, 0xC0,
             0xB8, 0xAD, 0x4D, 0x22, 0xBE, 0x62, 0xCC, 0x93,
             0x34, 0x5B, 0x6E, 0xA8, 0xFC, 0x54, 0x0B, 0x56,
             0x8F, 0x50, 0x95, 0xBB, 0xA0, 0x90, 0x3E, 0xC5,
             0xEE, 0xD8, 0xC6, 0xAE, 0x52, 0x5D, 0x9A, 0xA7,
             0xE4, 0x99, 0x79, 0xF0, 0x8E, 0x6C, 0x4E, 0xDB,
             0xF5, 0x6A, 0x93, 0x29, 0x09, 0xA0, 0x6B, 0x6D,
             0x1E, 0x07, 0x57, 0x95, 0x3F, 0x90, 0x5B, 0x55,
             0x52, 0x99, 0x31, 0x5F, 0x42, 0x48, 0xF5, 0x4B,
             0x81, 0xEF, 0x5F, 0x05, 0x4D, 0x8D, 0x82, 0x4E,
             0x12, 0xAE, 0xAB, 0x82, 0x4B, 0x2C, 0x2F, 0x4C,
             0x5E, 0xDE, 0x04, 0x60, 0x30, 0xDC, 0x3B, 0x16,
             0xC2, 0x80, 0x59, 0x56, 0x85, 0xCA, 0x38, 0xC6,
             0xE7, 0x13, 0xD8, 0x2E, 0x4D, 0x1B, 0xFC, 0xD3,
             0x3D, 0x87, 0xDE, 0x26, 0x95, 0x4B, 0xA0, 0x05,
             0xBC, 0x42, 0x17, 0x77, 0x39, 0xB2, 0x0F, 0x1E,
             0x46, 0x13, 0x80, 0x79, 0xED, 0xE5, 0x91, 0x64,
             0xCE, 0x67, 0x23, 0xE3, 0x51, 0xE4, 0xB2, 0xFC,
             0xD5, 0x0D, 0x6E, 0xAB, 0xB4, 0x5D, 0xA8, 0x8F,
             0xA4, 0xCD, 0x56, 0x24, 0x8A, 0xEA, 0x44, 0xAA,
             0x2E, 0x41, 0xB8, 0xFF, 0x28, 0xBD, 0x37, 0x88,
             0x00, 0x8C, 0x2E, 0xEF, 0x4B, 0xE1, 0x90, 0xA0,
             0xAB, 0x5D, 0x7D, 0x80, 0x3C, 0x9A, 0xBE, 0xD7,
             0xC7, 0xB7, 0x74, 0xB5, 0x0F, 0xA8, 0x38, 0x0D,
             0xD7, 0xFE, 0x2B, 0x3D, 0x84, 0x85, 0xA3, 0xD8,
             0x80, 0xEF, 0x51, 0xD5, 0x6B, 0x41, 0x1F, 0x73,
             0xE6, 0x59, 0xE7, 0x9E, 0x0B, 0xFF, 0x32, 0x14,
             0x53, 0x57, 0x3E, 0xC5, 0x0D, 0x9D, 0xD4, 0xD0,
             0xAE, 0xCA, 0x30, 0x9D, 0x39, 0xE4, 0x38, 0x86,
             0x27, 0x95, 0x03, 0xEF, 0x94, 0x98, 0x51, 0xE3,
             0xD4, 0xDC, 0x71, 0xAB, 0xF3, 0xA7, 0x88, 0x63,
             0xB9, 0x75, 0xC1, 0x06, 0x24, 0xCB, 0x51, 0x73,
             0x4C, 0xDB, 0x58, 0x2A, 0x3A, 0x48, 0xC6, 0xD7,
             0x08, 0x47, 0x83, 0x6E, 0x80, 0x8B, 0x0E, 0x22,
             0x48, 0xB8, 0xFA, 0x8A, 0x8C, 0x55, 0xA3, 0x57,
             0xE8, 0x30, 0x54, 0xD6, 0x48, 0xB2, 0xCC, 0xA5,
             0xB8, 0xA3, 0xB1, 0x68, 0x91, 0xAD, 0x52, 0x35,
             0x6E, 0x92, 0x87, 0x1A, 0xF5, 0x99, 0xA5, 0x6E,
             0x90, 0xC9, 0x34, 0x33, 0xA5, 0x4A, 0x52, 0xFD,
             0x42, 0xE2, 0xBE, 0x65, 0x15, 0xC8, 0xCE, 0xC3,
             0x73, 0x94, 0x07, 0x0C, 0x26, 0xCA, 0xC5, 0xCA,
             0x8C, 0x26, 0x1D, 0x2D, 0x50, 0x21, 0x88, 0x6B,
             0xB9, 0x4C, 0x4E, 0x99, 0xFA, 0x78, 0xD2, 0x53,
             0x7C, 0xCA, 0xF5, 0xA1, 0x92, 0xC9, 0xC2, 0xAF,
             0x77, 0xA0, 0x78, 0x33, 0x45, 0x1F, 0x12, 0x2D,
             0xA9, 0xE6, 0xFD, 0x7B, 0x83, 0x92, 0x12, 0x9E,
             0xE4, 0x9A, 0x56, 0x07, 0x5F, 0x1A, 0x37, 0x05,
             0x00, 0x4C, 0x06, 0xBD, 0x36, 0x7F, 0xBF, 0xCB,
             0x9A, 0x07, 0x4A, 0x02, 0xE1, 0x65, 0x25, 0x27,
             0x2D, 0xF9, 0xD3, 0x33, 0xCB, 0x91, 0x9B, 0x5B,
             0x61, 0x14, 0x07, 0xF7, 0xF7, 0xA4, 0xD9, 0xE1,
             0x1E, 0xD2, 0x85, 0xA4, 0x75, 0x95, 0xEA, 0x74,
             0x0C, 0xBF, 0xA1, 0x6B, 0xD2, 0xFB, 0xB8, 0x0A,
             0xD2, 0xA5, 0xE6, 0x36, 0x04, 0x47, 0x80, 0x8B,
             0x1E, 0xC5, 0x07, 0x58, 0xB8, 0x56, 0xF6, 0xDC,
             0xA4, 0x25, 0xD9, 0x36, 0xB4, 0x9E, 0xEA, 0x5B,
             0x7E, 0xAA, 0x40, 0x79, 0xA3, 0x15, 0x3D, 0xED,
             0x32, 0x12, 0x76, 0x4D, 0x00, 0x06, 0xF0, 0x09,
             0x36, 0x28, 0x4B, 0x96, 0xD6, 0x8B, 0xC9, 0x74,
             0xFD, 0xAF, 0x77, 0xB6, 0x45, 0x78, 0x36, 0x38,
             0xC5, 0x1E, 0xB1, 0x18, 0x8A, 0x91, 0x72, 0xA0,
             0x37, 0xDE, 0x49, 0xDA, 0x48, 0x1A, 0x9B },
           /* q */
           { 0x01, 0xFF, 0x30, 0x36, 0x06, 0x89, 0x3F, 0x53,
             0xBE, 0x41, 0x12, 0xF9, 0x60, 0x18, 0xF9, 0x9C,
             0xCF, 0xB9, 0x67, 0x82, 0x7E, 0x49, 0x40, 0x36,
             0x98, 0x2F, 0xAF, 0x24, 0x06, 0xD2, 0x5D, 0x8B,
             0xCC, 0x52, 0x48, 0xDB, 0x2B, 0xCB, 0x13 },
           /* g */
           { 0x19, 0x89, 0x03, 0x1B, 0x12, 0xB8, 0x83, 0x5D,
             0x66, 0x5C, 0x9F, 0x42, 0x31, 0x05, 0x24, 0xA0,
             0x64, 0x9E, 0xEC, 0x4C, 0x2C, 0x4A, 0xBA, 0xAC,
             0xAD, 0x5D, 0x54, 0x8C, 0xE0, 0xFA, 0xF5, 0x3E,
             0xCA, 0x38, 0x67, 0xAA, 0xE6, 0x18, 0x7D, 0x5F,
             0x63, 0xC0, 0xF6, 0x6B, 0x56, 0xE8, 0x00, 0xAD,
             0x5D, 0x09, 0x58, 0x8C, 0xA4, 0x25, 0xBC, 0xE6,
             0xBD, 0x33, 0x97, 0x6B, 0xBA, 0xC9, 0x68, 0x63,
             0xD1, 0xC2, 0x6E, 0x4F, 0x48, 0x27, 0x67, 0x05,
             0x63, 0xFB, 0x9C, 0xA5, 0x16, 0x5C, 0x3C, 0x9F,
             0x14, 0x1D, 0x2E, 0x7D, 0x77, 0xA6, 0x11, 0x95,
             0x55, 0x4D, 0x9C, 0xE6, 0xA3, 0x25, 0xB9, 0x34,
             0x2A, 0x5F, 0x0A, 0xDE, 0x00, 0x7E, 0xED, 0x69,
             0xF3, 0x2C, 0x78, 0x67, 0x8C, 0x5F, 0x30, 0x2C,
             0xAF, 0x97, 0x62, 0xFC, 0xC0, 0xD6, 0x22, 0xD2,
             0xBF, 0xA5, 0xFF, 0x72, 0x4B, 0x59, 0x49, 0x21,
             0x1C, 0x66, 0x2E, 0xD3, 0xD8, 0x14, 0x1E, 0xAF,
             0xAB, 0xB6, 0x28, 0x65, 0xC2, 0xF2, 0xA6, 0x44,
             0xA5, 0xDC, 0x34, 0x0F, 0x24, 0x0F, 0x73, 0x61,
             0x53, 0x3C, 0x65, 0x64, 0xCD, 0x9E, 0x33, 0xB6,
             0x58, 0xC1, 0x39, 0x71, 0xEC, 0xDA, 0x66, 0x2E,
             0x1C, 0x79, 0xB5, 0x88, 0x7E, 0xA2, 0x46, 0x1E,
             0x35, 0xA6, 0xBA, 0x2B, 0xD0, 0x20, 0x80, 0xF8,
             0xE5, 0xC6, 0xC8, 0xBE, 0x7B, 0xFB, 0xB9, 0x6C,
             0xF4, 0x1F, 0x07, 0xD5, 0xBD, 0xC9, 0x65, 0x00,
             0xB5, 0x6C, 0x53, 0x4B, 0x70, 0x36, 0x99, 0x56,
             0x8F, 0x70, 0x0B, 0x9A, 0xD5, 0xEF, 0xFC, 0x1E,
             0xE8, 0xBE, 0x2F, 0x70, 0x39, 0x50, 0xAC, 0xD3,
             0xB8, 0x8C, 0x24, 0x3F, 0x82, 0xA2, 0xE9, 0xF5,
             0x01, 0xE3, 0x87, 0x84, 0x4E, 0x77, 0xAA, 0x90,
             0x2D, 0xC0, 0xD7, 0xD9, 0x6E, 0xBE, 0x4E, 0x4B,
             0xC8, 0xB3, 0xAB, 0x09, 0x64, 0xAC, 0x28, 0xB1,
             0x54, 0xCD, 0x15, 0x35, 0xA4, 0x06, 0x55, 0x40,
             0x83, 0x39, 0x8E, 0x0B, 0xE6, 0xAC, 0x9B, 0x26,
             0xFF, 0x9A, 0xF4, 0xC2, 0xCD, 0xA9, 0x55, 0x17,
             0x51, 0x15, 0x2F, 0xBD, 0x4C, 0xC2, 0xD7, 0xF1,
             0x9A, 0x9E, 0x7F, 0x41, 0xA5, 0x6E, 0xBB, 0xEF,
             0x3C, 0xD5, 0x1D, 0xF6, 0xB1, 0x08, 0x48, 0x06,
             0x15, 0xA8, 0xF3, 0xED, 0x99, 0x9F, 0xEC, 0x7F,
             0x0F, 0x3C, 0x53, 0x87, 0x55, 0x27, 0x70, 0x74,
             0xB3, 0xA8, 0x0D, 0x4B, 0x6A, 0x84, 0x71, 0x26,
             0xE1, 0xB9, 0xDF, 0xE2, 0x38, 0x96, 0xF5, 0xB1,
             0x97, 0x53, 0x83, 0x9B, 0x18, 0xA7, 0xE6, 0x69,
             0x3E, 0x9F, 0xB1, 0x3D, 0x11, 0x58, 0xA3, 0xAB,
             0xAF, 0x4E, 0x04, 0x62, 0x7D, 0xEB, 0x96, 0x12,
             0xD9, 0x59, 0x4D, 0x33, 0x26, 0x1A, 0xE5, 0x93,
             0x67, 0xFF, 0xCA, 0xDE, 0xC3, 0xB5, 0xAF, 0xFF,
             0xCB, 0xDF, 0xED, 0x45, 0x0B, 0x53, 0x8B, 0xC8,
             0xD8, 0x8D, 0x29, 0x8E, 0xDD, 0x27, 0xB3, 0x36,
             0xE8, 0xF5, 0xEE, 0x6D, 0x46, 0x1F, 0x57, 0x40,
             0x3B, 0xB4, 0x6D, 0xBC, 0x04, 0xB6, 0xD9, 0x00,
             0xC7, 0x48, 0x72, 0x8D, 0xE7, 0x8F, 0x68, 0x8F,
             0xCD, 0x9A, 0x90, 0x29, 0x4E, 0xEA, 0x95, 0xE7,
             0xCE, 0x48, 0x2A, 0x39, 0xB0, 0x62, 0xE8, 0x04,
             0xFC, 0xCB, 0x6E, 0xF7, 0xD1, 0x35, 0x94, 0xB9,
             0x35, 0x0E, 0xC2, 0x0F, 0xB5, 0x02, 0xA8, 0x4C,
             0x4E, 0x30, 0x96, 0xC5, 0x90, 0xAA, 0x29, 0x63,
             0x78, 0x79, 0x0D, 0x81, 0x9E, 0xC2, 0xC5, 0x0D,
             0xD5, 0xF5, 0x46, 0xF5, 0xE3, 0xE4, 0xD9, 0x69,
             0xEC, 0x33, 0xDA, 0x45, 0x52, 0x14, 0xD7, 0xA0,
             0x5C, 0xAA, 0xF8, 0x87, 0xB5, 0xE8, 0x9B, 0x09,
             0xE6, 0xB2, 0xCF, 0x0D, 0x56, 0x43, 0xC3, 0x85,
             0x48, 0x01, 0x8A, 0x87, 0x7B, 0x5A, 0x17, 0x72,
             0x40, 0x2B, 0x4B, 0x29, 0xF3, 0x5C, 0x8B },
           /* x */
           { 0x01, 0xA7, 0x77, 0x11, 0xB8, 0x9D, 0x45, 0x53,
             0x27, 0x29, 0x01, 0xBA, 0x09, 0x5A, 0x7F, 0xFC,
             0x14, 0x9C, 0x8C, 0x05, 0xB0, 0x2F, 0xDD, 0x04,
             0x0D, 0xC9, 0x98, 0x97, 0x11, 0x5B, 0xCE, 0xC3,
             0xE6, 0x14, 0xF2, 0x55, 0x7F, 0x9C, 0x0C },
           /* y */
           { 0x2A, 0x49, 0x11, 0x73, 0x18, 0x65, 0x11, 0x4B,
             0x8A, 0x6C, 0x6F, 0x8E, 0x40, 0x7D, 0x55, 0xC3,
             0x9A, 0xB7, 0x10, 0xBB, 0x45, 0xCA, 0xBA, 0x94,
             0xE6, 0xB1, 0x85, 0x87, 0xD2, 0x8F, 0x9C, 0x6C,
             0x69, 0x4C, 0x01, 0x9A, 0x09, 0xB2, 0x6F, 0x44,
             0x8C, 0x2A, 0x33, 0x55, 0xA5, 0x67, 0xB1, 0xA0,
             0xC8, 0x61, 0x82, 0x2E, 0x19, 0xC6, 0xFA, 0xDE,
             0x8C, 0x43, 0xAA, 0x61, 0xC3, 0xBF, 0x39, 0xB6,
             0x95, 0xE2, 0xA2, 0x74, 0x55, 0x2F, 0xE8, 0x5C,
             0x76, 0x5B, 0x8A, 0x1E, 0xF7, 0x8D, 0x1B, 0x42,
             0x97, 0xEF, 0x4C, 0x31, 0x3F, 0xE8, 0xDB, 0xF2,
             0x22, 0x11, 0x30, 0xC5, 0xEE, 0x91, 0xF9, 0xE3,
             0xD3, 0xBB, 0xF2, 0x9C, 0xC4, 0x7B, 0x1B, 0xAB,
             0xAF, 0x17, 0x9C, 0xBA, 0x8B, 0xD4, 0x5B, 0xA9,
             0x61, 0xD7, 0x0A, 0xB6, 0xBD, 0x7A, 0xA0, 0x75,
             0xFB, 0x2A, 0x15, 0x33, 0x14, 0xFC, 0x3B, 0x2C,
             0x3B, 0x89, 0x86, 0x6E, 0x68, 0x2C, 0x7A, 0x95,
             0x8D, 0x3B, 0x78, 0x87, 0xF0, 0xD7, 0xD8, 0xF4,
             0x0D, 0xF5, 0x5E, 0x6E, 0x51, 0x5D, 0x1F, 0xBB,
             0x88, 0x77, 0x8E, 0xAF, 0x8E, 0xF1, 0xE8, 0xF3,
             0x11, 0x9A, 0x74, 0x98, 0x80, 0x66, 0x7C, 0xA8,
             0xEC, 0xC4, 0x6B, 0xFA, 0x10, 0xBA, 0xC4, 0x67,
             0x4B, 0x77, 0xB9, 0x4E, 0xB0, 0xE9, 0x2A, 0x76,
             0xA6, 0xC0, 0x81, 0x59, 0xD1, 0xF4, 0x06, 0xB6,
             0x68, 0x5F, 0xE8, 0x5B, 0x41, 0xA8, 0xD8, 0x04,
             0x93, 0x91, 0x8A, 0xF5, 0x29, 0x9A, 0x1C, 0x6A,
             0x11, 0x3D, 0xE2, 0xF9, 0x74, 0x27, 0xCD, 0x87,
             0xC4, 0xBA, 0x28, 0x2A, 0x65, 0x5D, 0x6A, 0x4E,
             0xE7, 0x15, 0x01, 0x2E, 0x0C, 0x75, 0x0C, 0xC3,
             0xB1, 0xE5, 0xC0, 0xF2, 0x2B, 0xC8, 0x2A, 0xD2,
             0x3E, 0xB4, 0xC0, 0xEC, 0xF4, 0x80, 0xAC, 0xB7,
             0xD7, 0x31, 0x21, 0x57, 0xDB, 0xB7, 0xE0, 0xE5,
             0x23, 0x78, 0xE9, 0xFF, 0x46, 0xEE, 0xEF, 0x04,
             0xAF, 0x47, 0x4F, 0x2C, 0x4C, 0x55, 0xDF, 0xFF,
             0xCF, 0x79, 0x8B, 0x90, 0x3F, 0x49, 0xEA, 0x43,
             0xD0, 0x60, 0xEF, 0x23, 0xED, 0x7D, 0x63, 0x89,
             0x7B, 0xCB, 0x2F, 0xF1, 0x39, 0xAB, 0x0D, 0x80,
             0x5F, 0xF7, 0x85, 0x87, 0xCC, 0xE6, 0xF1, 0xF2,
             0xCE, 0x39, 0x07, 0xBB, 0xDA, 0x5A, 0x67, 0x39,
             0xCF, 0x62, 0x47, 0x2C, 0xA2, 0x11, 0x85, 0x18,
             0xDA, 0xFE, 0x90, 0x7C, 0x4B, 0xEA, 0x88, 0xDC,
             0xAE, 0x39, 0x01, 0x07, 0x3A, 0xB6, 0xCC, 0x60,
             0xA5, 0x60, 0xC9, 0xA4, 0xD6, 0x33, 0x1E, 0x29,
             0xF8, 0x8A, 0xFE, 0xB9, 0x99, 0xA6, 0x4A, 0xE4,
             0xDB, 0xC7, 0xBF, 0x02, 0x22, 0xA9, 0xD4, 0x19,
             0x3A, 0x20, 0xE8, 0x1B, 0x40, 0x30, 0xF3, 0x28,
             0xE3, 0xA9, 0xCB, 0x7C, 0x92, 0x62, 0x04, 0x98,
             0x47, 0x4F, 0xCB, 0x64, 0xDA, 0xE1, 0xBB, 0xD7,
             0x9E, 0x4A, 0x9C, 0x04, 0x76, 0x47, 0x5E, 0xF0,
             0xF9, 0xAB, 0x5E, 0x89, 0xAE, 0x4D, 0x5A, 0xAE,
             0x9F, 0x87, 0x60, 0x21, 0xFA, 0x0B, 0xB2, 0x82,
             0x17, 0xCF, 0x27, 0x8D, 0x3A, 0xE9, 0xED, 0xDC,
             0x1C, 0x57, 0xBE, 0x5E, 0x17, 0xDC, 0x0D, 0x94,
             0x8E, 0x02, 0xFC, 0x05, 0xFE, 0xDF, 0x74, 0x07,
             0x05, 0xD8, 0xDC, 0xDC, 0x9D, 0x4B, 0x9C, 0xE6,
             0x80, 0x93, 0x65, 0x74, 0x94, 0x01, 0x5E, 0x05,
             0x17, 0x78, 0x96, 0xF1, 0x29, 0xFD, 0xFF, 0xB5,
             0xFF, 0x4A, 0xF5, 0x7C, 0x64, 0xD1, 0x51, 0xEC,
             0xEC, 0x8E, 0x74, 0x7B, 0x72, 0x67, 0xFA, 0x2D,
             0x8C, 0xF5, 0x97, 0x5E, 0x84, 0xC2, 0xEF, 0xAC,
             0x18, 0xDF, 0x16, 0xF2, 0xD8, 0x98, 0x0C, 0xE4,
             0x09, 0xC0, 0x3A, 0x1B, 0xC2, 0xB9, 0x5B, 0x34,
             0x34, 0x18, 0x98, 0xC6, 0xA5, 0xC6, 0x28, 0x54,
             0xB8, 0x53, 0x33, 0xE1, 0x4A, 0xA8, 0xE9 }

   DLP-4096 key in encoded form:

   -----END DSA PRIVATE KEY-----

2.3.  ECDLP Keys

   The following publicly known test keys may be used for ECDLP-based
   algorithms such as ECDSA and ECDH.

   P256 key "testECCP256":

           /* qx */
           { 0x42, 0x25, 0x48, 0xF8, 0x8F, 0xB7, 0x82, 0xFF,
             0xB5, 0xEC, 0xA3, 0x74, 0x44, 0x52, 0xC7, 0x2A,
             0x1E, 0x55, 0x8F, 0xBD, 0x6F, 0x73, 0xBE, 0x5E,
             0x48, 0xE9, 0x32, 0x32, 0xCC, 0x45, 0xC5, 0xB1 },
           /* qy */
           { 0x6C, 0x4C, 0xD1, 0x0C, 0x4C, 0xB8, 0xD5, 0xB8,
             0xA1, 0x71, 0x39, 0xE9, 0x48, 0x82, 0xC8, 0x99,
             0x25, 0x72, 0x99, 0x34, 0x25, 0xF4, 0x14, 0x19,
             0xAB, 0x7E, 0x90, 0xA4, 0x2A, 0x49, 0x42, 0x72 },
           /* d */
           { 0xE6, 0xCB, 0x5B, 0xDD, 0x80, 0xAA, 0x45, 0xAE,
             0x9C, 0x95, 0xE8, 0xC1, 0x54, 0x76, 0x67, 0x9F,
             0xFE, 0xC9, 0x53, 0xC1, 0x68, 0x51, 0xE7, 0x11,
             0xE7, 0x43, 0x93, 0x95, 0x89, 0xC6, 0x4F, 0xC1 }

   P256 key in encoded form:

   -----END EC PRIVATE KEY-----

   P384 key "testECCP384":

           /* qx */
           { 0x5B, 0x09, 0x01, 0xB8, 0x85, 0x23, 0x29, 0x6E,
             0xB9, 0x19, 0xD5, 0x0F, 0xFA, 0x1A, 0x9C, 0xB3,
             0x74, 0xBC, 0x4D, 0x40, 0x95, 0x86, 0x28, 0x2B,
             0xFE, 0xCA, 0x11, 0xB1, 0xD9, 0x5A, 0xDB, 0xB5,
             0x47, 0x34, 0xAF, 0x57, 0x0B, 0xF8, 0x2B, 0x72,
             0x28, 0xCF, 0x22, 0x6B, 0xCF, 0x4C, 0x25, 0xDD },
           /* qy */
           { 0xBC, 0xFE, 0x3B, 0x1A, 0x3A, 0xD3, 0x94, 0x30,
             0xEF, 0xF7, 0x63, 0xE1, 0xD6, 0x8D, 0x2E, 0x15,
             0x1D, 0x91, 0x72, 0x0B, 0x77, 0x95, 0xB5, 0x8D,
             0xA6, 0xB3, 0x46, 0x39, 0x61, 0x3A, 0x8F, 0xB9,
             0xB5, 0xA8, 0xDA, 0x48, 0xC6, 0x74, 0x71, 0x17,
             0xF9, 0x91, 0x9E, 0x84, 0x24, 0xF3, 0x7E, 0xC8 },
           /* d */
           { 0xE2, 0x56, 0x33, 0x28, 0xDF, 0xAB, 0xF6, 0x81,
             0x88, 0x60, 0x6B, 0x91, 0x32, 0x42, 0x81, 0xC1,
             0xD5, 0x8A, 0x44, 0x56, 0x43, 0x1B, 0x09, 0xD5,
             0x10, 0xB3, 0x5F, 0xEC, 0xC9, 0xF3, 0x07, 0xCA,
             0x18, 0x22, 0x84, 0x6F, 0xA2, 0x67, 0x13, 0x71,
             0xA9, 0xA8, 0x1B, 0xAC, 0x0E, 0x35, 0x74, 0x9D }

   P384 key in encoded form:

   -----END EC PRIVATE KEY-----

   P521 key "testECCP521":

           /* qx */
           { 0x01, 0xD0, 0xFD, 0x72, 0x57, 0xA8, 0x4C, 0x74,
             0x7F, 0x56, 0x25, 0x75, 0xC0, 0x73, 0x85, 0xDB,
             0xEB, 0xF2, 0xF5, 0x2B, 0xEA, 0x58, 0x08, 0x3D,
             0xB8, 0x2F, 0xDD, 0x15, 0x31, 0xD8, 0xAA, 0xE3,
             0xCC, 0x87, 0x5F, 0xF0, 0x2F, 0xF7, 0xFA, 0x2D,
             0xA2, 0x60, 0xD8, 0xEB, 0x62, 0xD6, 0xD2, 0xF5,
             0xD6, 0x49, 0x27, 0x8E, 0x32, 0x17, 0x36, 0xA0,
             0x62, 0x8C, 0xBB, 0xB3, 0x03, 0x08, 0xB6, 0xE6,
             0x18, 0xDB },
           /* qy */
           { 0xF6, 0x2A, 0xD2, 0x04, 0xC6, 0x46, 0x03, 0x59,
             0xBC, 0x81, 0x8A, 0xB8, 0x96, 0x1B, 0xF0, 0xF0,
             0xFC, 0x0E, 0xC5, 0xAA, 0xE8, 0xA4, 0x28, 0x17,
             0x3C, 0xE5, 0x6F, 0x00, 0xDE, 0x9B, 0x15, 0x7C,
             0x1E, 0x5C, 0x82, 0xC6, 0x4F, 0x56, 0x2F, 0xCA,
             0xDE, 0xFC, 0x4A, 0x4C, 0x28, 0xF6, 0xD3, 0x42,
             0xCF, 0x3E, 0xF6, 0x16, 0xFC, 0x82, 0xD3, 0x3B,
             0x72, 0x85, 0xC9, 0x21, 0xF2, 0xBF, 0x36, 0xFD,
             0xD8 },
           /* d */
           { 0x01, 0xD9, 0x24, 0xDC, 0xCA, 0x0A, 0x88, 0x7F,
             0x8D, 0x99, 0x76, 0x7A, 0x37, 0xD8, 0x74, 0xE6,
             0x37, 0xA1, 0x2C, 0xCB, 0x47, 0x7D, 0x6E, 0x08,
             0x66, 0x53, 0x56, 0x69, 0x4D, 0x68, 0xB7, 0x65,
             0x5E, 0x50, 0x69, 0x63, 0x8F, 0xDE, 0x7B, 0x45,
             0xC8, 0x54, 0x01, 0x3D, 0xC7, 0x7A, 0x35, 0xB1,
             0x86, 0x55, 0xB8, 0x4C, 0x96, 0x6A, 0x60, 0x22,
             0x0D, 0x40, 0xF9, 0x1E, 0xD9, 0xF5, 0x14, 0x58,
             0x02, 0xEA }

   P521 key in encoded form:

   -----END EC PRIVATE KEY-----

3.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

4.  Security Considerations

   The intent of publishing known keys in this form is that they may be
   easily recognised as being test keys when encountered.  It should go
   without saying that these keys should never be used or relied upon in
   production environments.

   The authors await the inevitable Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures

Authors' Addresses

   Peter Gutmann
   University of Auckland
   Department of Computer Science
   New Zealand

   Corey Bonnell