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An Abstract Application Layer Interface to Transport Services
draft-ietf-taps-interface-25

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (taps WG)
Authors Brian Trammell , Michael Welzl , Reese Enghardt , Gorry Fairhurst , Mirja Kühlewind , Colin Perkins , Philipp S. Tiesel , Tommy Pauly
Last updated 2024-02-16 (Latest revision 2024-01-29)
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
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Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication
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Sep 2021
Submit document(s) to be published as Proposed Standard to the IESG specifying one or more methods to provide applications with the Transport Services identified by the WG
Document shepherd Anna Brunstrom
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2023-01-15
IESG IESG state In Last Call (ends 2024-03-01)
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Send notices to anna.brunstrom@kau.se
IANA IANA review state Version Changed - Review Needed
draft-ietf-taps-interface-25
TAPS Working Group                                      B. Trammell, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                   Google Switzerland GmbH
Intended status: Standards Track                           M. Welzl, Ed.
Expires: 2 August 2024                                University of Oslo
                                                             R. Enghardt
                                                                 Netflix
                                                            G. Fairhurst
                                                  University of Aberdeen
                                                           M. Kuehlewind
                                                                Ericsson
                                                              C. Perkins
                                                   University of Glasgow
                                                               P. Tiesel
                                                                  SAP SE
                                                                T. Pauly
                                                              Apple Inc.
                                                         30 January 2024

     An Abstract Application Layer Interface to Transport Services
                      draft-ietf-taps-interface-25

Abstract

   This document describes an abstract application programming
   interface, API, to the transport layer that enables the selection of
   transport protocols and network paths dynamically at runtime.  This
   API enables faster deployment of new protocols and protocol features
   without requiring changes to the applications.  The specified API
   follows the Transport Services architecture by providing
   asynchronous, atomic transmission of messages.  It is intended to
   replace the BSD sockets API as the common interface to the transport
   layer, in an environment where endpoints could select from multiple
   network paths and potential transport protocols.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 2 August 2024.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.1.  Terminology and Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.2.  Specification of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   2.  Overview of the API Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  API Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.1.  Usage Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.1.1.  Server Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.1.2.  Client Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.1.3.  Peer Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   4.  Transport Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.1.  Transport Property Names  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.2.  Transport Property Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   5.  Scope of the API Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   6.  Pre-Establishment Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     6.1.  Specifying Endpoints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       6.1.1.  Using Multicast Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       6.1.2.  Constraining Interfaces for Endpoints . . . . . . . .  22
       6.1.3.  Protocol-Specific Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       6.1.4.  Endpoint Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       6.1.5.  Multicast Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     6.2.  Specifying Transport Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       6.2.1.  Reliable Data Transfer (Connection) . . . . . . . . .  30
       6.2.2.  Preservation of Message Boundaries  . . . . . . . . .  30
       6.2.3.  Configure Per-Message Reliability . . . . . . . . . .  30
       6.2.4.  Preservation of Data Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . .  31

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       6.2.5.  Use 0-RTT Session Establishment with a Safely
               Replayable Message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       6.2.6.  Multistream Connections in Group  . . . . . . . . . .  31
       6.2.7.  Full Checksum Coverage on Sending . . . . . . . . . .  31
       6.2.8.  Full Checksum Coverage on Receiving . . . . . . . . .  32
       6.2.9.  Congestion control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       6.2.10. Keep alive  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       6.2.11. Interface Instance or Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       6.2.12. Provisioning Domain Instance or Type  . . . . . . . .  34
       6.2.13. Use Temporary Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       6.2.14. Multipath Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       6.2.15. Advertisement of Alternative Addresses  . . . . . . .  36
       6.2.16. Direction of communication  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       6.2.17. Notification of ICMP soft error message arrival . . .  37
       6.2.18. Initiating side is not the first to write . . . . . .  37
     6.3.  Specifying Security Parameters and Callbacks  . . . . . .  38
       6.3.1.  Allowed security protocols  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
       6.3.2.  Certificate bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       6.3.3.  Pinned server certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       6.3.4.  Application-layer protocol negotiation  . . . . . . .  40
       6.3.5.  Groups, ciphersuites, and signature algorithms  . . .  41
       6.3.6.  Session cache options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
       6.3.7.  Pre-shared key  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
       6.3.8.  Connection Establishment Callbacks  . . . . . . . . .  42
   7.  Establishing Connections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     7.1.  Active Open: Initiate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     7.2.  Passive Open: Listen  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     7.3.  Peer-to-Peer Establishment: Rendezvous  . . . . . . . . .  45
     7.4.  Connection Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     7.5.  Adding and Removing Endpoints on a Connection . . . . . .  49
   8.  Managing Connections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
     8.1.  Generic Connection Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
       8.1.1.  Required Minimum Corruption Protection Coverage for
               Receiving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       8.1.2.  Connection Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       8.1.3.  Timeout for Aborting Connection . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       8.1.4.  Timeout for keep alive packets  . . . . . . . . . . .  53
       8.1.5.  Connection Group Transmission Scheduler . . . . . . .  53
       8.1.6.  Capacity Profile  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
       8.1.7.  Policy for using Multipath Transports . . . . . . . .  55
       8.1.8.  Bounds on Send or Receive Rate  . . . . . . . . . . .  56
       8.1.9.  Group Connection Limit  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
       8.1.10. Isolate Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
       8.1.11. Read-only Connection Properties . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     8.2.  TCP-specific Properties: User Timeout Option (UTO)  . . .  59
       8.2.1.  Advertised User Timeout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59
       8.2.2.  User Timeout Enabled  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
       8.2.3.  Timeout Changeable  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60

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     8.3.  Connection Lifecycle Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
       8.3.1.  Soft Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
       8.3.2.  Path change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
   9.  Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  61
     9.1.  Messages and Framers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  61
       9.1.1.  Message Contexts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  61
       9.1.2.  Message Framers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  61
       9.1.3.  Message Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
     9.2.  Sending Data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
       9.2.1.  Basic Sending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
       9.2.2.  Send Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
       9.2.3.  Partial Sends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  72
       9.2.4.  Batching Sends  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
       9.2.5.  Send on Active Open: InitiateWithSend . . . . . . . .  73
       9.2.6.  Priority and the Transport Services API . . . . . . .  74
     9.3.  Receiving Data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
       9.3.1.  Enqueuing Receives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
       9.3.2.  Receive Events  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
       9.3.3.  Receive Message Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
   10. Connection Termination  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  80
   11. Connection State and Ordering of Operations and Events  . . .  81
   12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
   13. Privacy and Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
   14. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
   15. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
     15.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
     15.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  86
   Appendix A.  Implementation Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  90
     A.1.  Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  90
     A.2.  Events and Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     A.3.  Time Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
   Appendix B.  Convenience Functions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     B.1.  Adding Preference Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     B.2.  Transport Property Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
       B.2.1.  reliable-inorder-stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
       B.2.2.  reliable-message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
       B.2.3.  unreliable-datagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
   Appendix C.  Relationship to the Minimal Set of Transport Services
           for End Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96

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1.  Introduction

   This document specifies an abstract application programming interface
   (API) that describes the interface component of the high-level
   Transport Services architecture defined in [I-D.ietf-taps-arch].  A
   Transport Services system supports asynchronous, atomic transmission
   of messages over transport protocols and network paths dynamically
   selected at runtime, in environments where an endpoint selects from
   multiple network paths and potential transport protocols.

   Applications that adopt this API will benefit from a wide set of
   transport features that can evolve over time.  This protocol-
   independent API ensures that the system providing the API can
   optimize its behavior based on the application requirements and
   network conditions, without requiring changes to the applications.
   This flexibility enables faster deployment of new features and
   protocols, and can support applications by offering racing and
   fallback mechanisms, which otherwise need to be separately
   implemented in each application.  Transport Services Implementations
   are free to take any desired form as long as the API specification in
   this document is honored; a nonprescriptive guide to implementing a
   Transport Services system is available [I-D.ietf-taps-impl].

   The Transport Services system derives specific path and protocol
   selection properties and supported transport features from the
   analysis provided in [RFC8095], [RFC8923], and [RFC8922].  The
   Transport Services API enables an implementation to dynamically
   choose a transport protocol rather than statically binding
   applications to a protocol at compile time.  The Transport Services
   API also provides applications with a way to override transport
   selection and instantiate a specific stack, e.g., to support servers
   wishing to listen to a specific protocol.  However, forcing a choice
   to use a specific transport stack is discouraged for general use,
   because it can reduce portability.

1.1.  Terminology and Notation

   The Transport Services API is described in terms of

   *  Objects with which an application can interact;

   *  Actions the application can perform on these objects;

   *  Events, which an object can send to an application to be processed
      asynchronously; and

   *  Parameters associated with these actions and events.

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   The following notations, which can be combined, are used in this
   document:

   *  An action that creates an object:

         Object := Action()

   *  An action that creates an array of objects:

         []Object := Action()

   *  An action that is performed on an object:

         Object.Action()

   *  An object sends an event:

         Object -> Event<>

   *  An action takes a set of Parameters; an event contains a set of
      Parameters. action and event parameters whose names are suffixed
      with a question mark are optional.

         Action(param0, param1?, ...)
         Event<param0, param1?, ...>

   Objects that are passed as parameters to actions use call-by-value
   behavior.  Actions associated with no object are actions on the API;
   they are equivalent to actions on a per-application global context.

   Events are sent to the application or application-supplied code (e.g.
   framers, see Section 9.1.2) for processing; the details of event
   interfaces are platform- and implementation-specific, and can be
   implemented using other forms of asynchronous processing, as
   idiomatic for the implementing platform.

   We also make use of the following basic types:

   *  Boolean: Instances take the value true or false.

   *  Integer: Instances take integer values.

   *  Numeric: Instances take real number values.

   *  String: Instances are represented in UTF-8.

   *  IP Address: An IPv4 or IPv6 address [RFC5952].

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   *  Enumeration: A family of types in which each instance takes one of
      a fixed, predefined set of values specific to a given enumerated
      type.

   *  Tuple: An ordered grouping of multiple value types, represented as
      a comma-separated list in parentheses, e.g., (Enumeration,
      Preference).  Instances take a sequence of values each valid for
      the corresponding value type.

   *  Array: Denoted []Type, an instance takes a value for each of zero
      or more elements in a sequence of the given Type.  An array can be
      of fixed or variable length.

   *  Set: An unordered grouping of one or more different values of the
      same type.

   For guidance on how these abstract concepts can be implemented in
   languages in accordance with language-specific design patterns and
   platform features, see Appendix A.

1.2.  Specification of Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Overview of the API Design

   The design of the API specified in this document is based on a set of
   principles, themselves an elaboration on the architectural design
   principles defined in [I-D.ietf-taps-arch].  The API defined in this
   document provides:

   *  A Transport Services system that can offer a variety of transport
      protocols, independent of the Protocol Stacks that will be used at
      runtime.  To the degree possible, all common features of these
      protocol stacks are made available to the application in a
      transport-independent way.  This enables applications written to a
      single API to make use of transport protocols in terms of the
      features they provide.

   *  A unified API to datagram and stream-oriented transports, allowing
      use of a common API for Connection establishment and closing.

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   *  Message-orientation, as opposed to stream-orientation, using
      application-assisted framing and deframing where the underlying
      transport does not provide these.

   *  Asynchronous Connection establishment, transmission, and
      reception.  This allows concurrent operations during establishment
      and event-driven application interactions with the transport
      layer.

   *  Selection between alternate network paths, using additional
      information about the networks over which a Connection can operate
      (e.g.  Provisioning Domain (PvD) information [RFC7556]) where
      available.

   *  Explicit support for transport-specific features to be applied,
      when that particular transport is part of a chosen Protocol Stack.

   *  Explicit support for security properties as first-order transport
      features.

   *  Explicit support for configuration of cryptographic identities and
      transport security parameters persistent across multiple
      Connections.

   *  Explicit support for multistreaming and multipath transport
      protocols, and the grouping of related Connections into Connection
      Groups through "cloning" of Connections (see Section 7.4).  This
      function allows applications to take full advantage of new
      transport protocols supporting these features.

3.  API Summary

   An application primarily interacts with this API through two objects:
   Preconnections and Connections.  A Preconnection object (Section 6)
   represents a set of properties and constraints on the selection and
   configuration of paths and protocols to establish a Connection with
   an Endpoint.  A Connection object represents an instance of a
   transport Protocol Stack on which data can be sent to and/or received
   from a Remote Endpoint (i.e., a logical connection that, depending on
   the kind of transport, can be bi-directional or unidirectional, and
   that can use a stream protocol or a datagram protocol).  Connections
   are presented consistently to the application, irrespective of
   whether the underlying transport is connection-less or connection-
   oriented.  Connections can be created from Preconnections in three
   ways:

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   *  by initiating the Preconnection (i.e., creating a Connection from
      the Preconnection, actively opening, as in a client; see
      Initiate() in Section 7.1),

   *  by listening on the Preconnection (i.e., creating a Listener based
      on the Preconnection, passively opening, as in a server; see
      Listen() in Section 7.2),

   *  or by a rendezvous for the Preconnection (i.e., peer to peer
      establishment; see Rendezvous() in Section 7.3).

   Once a Connection is established, data can be sent and received on it
   in the form of Messages.  The API supports the preservation of
   message boundaries both via explicit Protocol Stack support, and via
   application support through a Message Framer that finds message
   boundaries in a stream.  Messages are received asynchronously through
   event handlers registered by the application.  Errors and other
   notifications also happen asynchronously on the Connection.  It is
   not necessary for an application to handle all events; some events
   can have implementation-specific default handlers.

   The application SHOULD NOT assume that ignoring events (e.g., errors)
   is always safe.

3.1.  Usage Examples

   The following usage examples illustrate how an application might use
   the Transport Services API to:

   *  Act as a server, by listening for incoming Connections, receiving
      requests, and sending responses, see Section 3.1.1.

   *  Act as a client, by connecting to a Remote Endpoint using
      Initiate, sending requests, and receiving responses, see
      Section 3.1.2.

   *  Act as a peer, by connecting to a Remote Endpoint using Rendezvous
      while simultaneously waiting for incoming Connections, sending
      Messages, and receiving Messages, see Section 3.1.3.

   The examples in this section presume that a transport protocol is
   available between the Local and Remote Endpoints that provides
   Reliable Data Transfer, Preservation of Data Ordering, and
   Preservation of Message Boundaries.  In this case, the application
   can choose to receive only complete Messages.

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   If none of the available transport protocols provides Preservation of
   Message Boundaries, but there is a transport protocol that provides a
   reliable ordered byte-stream, an application could receive this byte-
   stream as partial Messages and transform it into application-layer
   Messages.  Alternatively, an application might provide a Message
   Framer, which can transform a sequence of Messages into a byte-stream
   and vice versa (Section 9.1.2).

3.1.1.  Server Example

   This is an example of how an application might listen for incoming
   Connections using the Transport Services API, receive a request, and
   send a response.

   LocalSpecifier := NewLocalEndpoint()
   LocalSpecifier.WithInterface("any")
   LocalSpecifier.WithService("https")

   TransportProperties := NewTransportProperties()
   TransportProperties.Require(preserveMsgBoundaries)
   // Reliable Data Transfer and Preserve Order are Required by default

   SecurityParameters := NewSecurityParameters()
   SecurityParameters.Set(serverCertificate, myCertificate)

   // Specifying a Remote Endpoint is optional when using Listen
   Preconnection := NewPreconnection(LocalSpecifier,
                                     TransportProperties,
                                     SecurityParameters)

   Listener := Preconnection.Listen()

   Listener -> ConnectionReceived<Connection>

   // Only receive complete messages in a Conn.Received handler
   Connection.Receive()

   Connection -> Received<messageDataRequest, messageContext>

   //---- Receive event handler begin ----
   Connection.Send(messageDataResponse)
   Connection.Close()

   // Stop listening for incoming Connections
   // (this example supports only one Connection)
   Listener.Stop()
   //---- Receive event handler end ----

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3.1.2.  Client Example

   This is an example of how an application might open two Connections
   to a remote application using the Transport Services API, and send a
   request as well as receive a response on each of them.  The code
   designated with comments as "Ready event handler" could, e.g., be
   implemented as a callback function, for example.  This function would
   receive the Connection that it expects to operate on ("Connection"
   and "Connection2" in the example), handed over using the variable
   name "C".

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   RemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()
   RemoteSpecifier.WithHostName("example.com")
   RemoteSpecifier.WithService("https")

   TransportProperties := NewTransportProperties()
   TransportProperties.Require(preserve-msg-boundaries)
   // Reliable Data Transfer and Preserve Order are Required by default

   SecurityParameters := NewSecurityParameters()
   TrustCallback := NewCallback({
     // Verify identity of the Remote Endpoint, return the result
   })
   SecurityParameters.SetTrustVerificationCallback(TrustCallback)

   // Specifying a Local Endpoint is optional when using Initiate
   Preconnection := NewPreconnection(RemoteSpecifier,
                                     TransportProperties,
                                     SecurityParameters)

   Connection := Preconnection.Initiate()
   Connection2 := Connection.Clone()

   Connection -> Ready<>
   Connection2 -> Ready<>

   //---- Ready event handler for any Connection C begin ----
   C.Send(messageDataRequest)

   // Only receive complete messages
   C.Receive()
   //---- Ready event handler for any Connection C end ----

   Connection -> Received<messageDataResponse, messageContext>
   Connection2 -> Received<messageDataResponse, messageContext>

   // Close the Connection in a Receive event handler
   Connection.Close()
   Connection2.Close()

   A Preconnection serves as a template for creating a Connection via
   initiating, listening, or via rendezvous.  Once a Connection has been
   created, changes made to the Preconnection that was used to create it
   do not affect this Connection.  Preconnections are reusable after
   being used to create a Connection, whether this Connection was closed
   or not.  Hence, in the above example, it would be correct for the
   client to initiate a third Connection to the example.com server by
   continuing as follows:

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   //.. carry out adjustments to the Preconnection, if desired
   Connection3 := Preconnection.Initiate()

3.1.3.  Peer Example

   This is an example of how an application might establish a Connection
   with a peer using Rendezvous, send a Message, and receive a Message.

   // Configure local candidates: a port on the Local Endpoint
   // and via a STUN server
   HostCandidate := NewLocalEndpoint()
   HostCandidate.WithPort(9876)

   StunCandidate := NewLocalEndpoint()
   StunCandidate.WithStunServer(address, port, credentials)

   LocalCandidates = [HostCandidate, StunCandidate]

   TransportProperties := // ...Configure transport properties
   SecurityParameters  := // ...Configure security properties

   Preconnection := NewPreconnection(LocalCandidates,
                                     [], // No remote candidates yet
                                     TransportProperties,
                                     SecurityParameters)

   // Resolve the LocalCandidates. The Preconnection.Resolve()
   // call resolves both local and remote candidates but, since
   // the remote candidates have not yet been specified, the
   // ResolvedRemote list returned will be empty and is not
   // used.
   ResolvedLocal, ResolvedRemote = Preconnection.Resolve()

   // Application-specific code goes here to send the ResolvedLocal
   // list to peer via some out-of-band signalling channel (e.g.,
   // in a SIP message)
   ...

   // Application-specific code goes here to receive RemoteCandidates
   // (type []RemoteEndpoint, a list of RemoteEndpoint objects) from
   // the peer via the signalling channel
   ...

   // Add remote candidates and initiate the rendezvous:
   Preconnection.AddRemote(RemoteCandidates)
   Preconnection.Rendezvous()

   Preconnection -> RendezvousDone<Connection>

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   //---- RendezvousDone event handler begin ----
   Connection.Send(messageDataRequest)
   Connection.Receive()
   //---- RendezvousDone event handler end ----

   Connection -> Received<messageDataResponse, messageContext>

   // If new Remote Endpoint candidates are received from the
   // peer over the signalling channel, for example if using
   // Trickle ICE, then add them to the Connection:
   Connection.AddRemote(NewRemoteCandidates)

   // On a PathChange<> event, resolve the Local Endpoint Identifiers to
   // see if a new Local Endpoint has become available and, if
   // so, send to the peer as a new candidate and add to the
   // Connection:
   Connection -> PathChange<>

   //---- PathChange event handler begin ----
   ResolvedLocal, ResolvedRemote = Preconnection.Resolve()
   if ResolvedLocal has changed:
     // Application-specific code goes here to send the
     // ResolvedLocal list to peer via signalling channel
     ...

     // Add the new Local Endpoints to the Connection:
     Connection.AddLocal(ResolvedLocal)
   //---- PathChange event handler end ----

   // Close the Connection in a Receive event handler
   Connection.Close()

4.  Transport Properties

   Each application using the Transport Services API declares its
   preferences for how the Transport Services system is to operate.
   This is done by using Transport Properties, as defined in
   [I-D.ietf-taps-arch], at each stage of the lifetime of a Connection.

   Transport Properties are divided into Selection, Connection, and
   Message Properties.

   Selection Properties (see Section 6.2) can only be set during pre-
   establishment.  They are only used to specify which paths and
   Protocol Stacks can be used and are preferred by the application.
   Calling Initiate on a Preconnection creates an outbound Connection,
   and the Selection Properties remain readable from the Connection, but

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   become immutable.  Selection Properties can be set on Preconnections,
   and the effect of Selection Properties can be queried on Connections
   and Messages.

   Connection Properties (see Section 8.1) are used to inform decisions
   made during establishment and to fine-tune the established
   Connection.  They can be set during pre-establishment, and can be
   changed later.  Connection Properties can be set on Connections and
   Preconnections; when set on Preconnections, they act as an initial
   default for the resulting Connections.

   Message Properties (see Section 9.1.3) control the behavior of the
   selected protocol stack(s) when sending Messages.  Message Properties
   can be set on Messages, Connections, and Preconnections; when set on
   the latter two, they act as an initial default for the Messages sent
   over those Connections.

   Note that configuring Connection Properties and Message Properties on
   Preconnections is preferred over setting them later.  Early
   specification of Connection Properties allows their use as additional
   input to the selection process.  Protocol-specific Properties, which
   enable configuration of specialized features of a specific protocol
   (see Section 3.2 of [I-D.ietf-taps-arch]) are not used as an input to
   the selection process, but only support configuration if the
   respective protocol has been selected.

4.1.  Transport Property Names

   Transport Properties are referred to by property names, represented
   as case-insensitive strings.  These names serve two purposes:

   *  Allowing different components of a Transport Services
      Implementation to pass Transport Properties, e.g., between a
      language frontend and a policy manager, or as a representation of
      properties retrieved from a file or other storage.

   *  Making the code of different Transport Services Implementations
      look similar.  While individual programming languages might
      preclude strict adherence to the aforementioned naming convention
      (for instance, by prohibiting the use of hyphens in symbols),
      users interacting with multiple implementations will still benefit
      from the consistency resulting from the use of visually similar
      symbols.

   Transport Property Names are hierarchically organized in the form
   [<Namespace>.]<PropertyName>.

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   *  The optional Namespace component and its trailing character . MUST
      be omitted for well-known, generic properties, i.e., for
      properties that are not specific to a protocol.

   *  Protocol-specific Properties MUST use the protocol acronym as the
      Namespace (e.g., a Connection that uses TCP could support a TCP-
      specific Transport Property, such as the TCP user timeout value,
      in a Protocol-specific Property called tcp.userTimeoutValue (see
      Section 8.2)).

   *  Vendor or implementation specific properties MUST be placed in a
      Namespace starting with the underscore _ character and SHOULD use
      a string identifying the vendor or implementation.

   *  For IETF protocols, the name of a Protocol-specific Property MUST
      be specified in an IETF document published in the RFC Series after
      IETF review.  An IETF protocol Namespace does not start with an
      underscore character.

   Namespaces for each of the keywords provided in the IANA protocol
   numbers registry (see https://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-
   numbers/protocol-numbers.xhtml) are reserved for Protocol-specific
   Properties and MUST NOT be used for vendor or implementation-specific
   properties.  Terms listed as keywords as in the protocol numbers
   registry SHOULD be avoided as any part of a vendor- or
   implementation-specific property name.

   Though Transport Property Names are case-insensitive, it is
   recommended to use camelCase to improve readability.  Implementations
   may transpose Transport Property Names into snake_case or PascalCase
   to blend into the language environment.

4.2.  Transport Property Types

   Each Transport Property has one of the basic types described in
   Section 1.1.

   Most Selection Properties (see Section 6.2) are of the Enumeration
   type, and use the Preference Enumeration, which takes one of five
   possible values (Prohibit, Avoid, No Preference, Prefer, or Require)
   denoting the level of preference for a given property during protocol
   selection.

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5.  Scope of the API Definition

   This document defines a language- and platform-independent API of a
   Transport Services system.  Given the wide variety of languages and
   language conventions used to write applications that use the
   transport layer to connect to other applications over the Internet,
   this independence makes this API necessarily abstract.

   There is no interoperability benefit in tightly defining how the API
   is presented to application programmers across diverse platforms.
   However, maintaining the "shape" of the abstract API across different
   platforms reduces the effort for programmers who learn to use the
   Transport Services API to then apply their knowledge to another
   platform.  That said, implementations have significant freedom in
   presenting this API to programmers, balancing the conventions of the
   protocol with the shape of the API.  We make the following
   recommendations:

   *  Actions, events, and errors in implementations of the Transport
      Services API SHOULD use the names given for them in the document,
      subject to capitalization, punctuation, and other typographic
      conventions in the language of the implementation, unless the
      implementation itself uses different names for substantially
      equivalent objects for networking by convention.

   *  Transport Services systems SHOULD implement each Selection
      Property, Connection Property, and Message Context Property
      specified in this document.  These features SHOULD be implemented
      even when in a specific implementation it will always result in no
      operation, e.g. there is no action when the API specifies a
      Property that is not available in a transport protocol implemented
      on a specific platform.  For example, if TCP is the only
      underlying transport protocol, the Message Property msgOrdered can
      be implemented (trivially, as a no-op) as disabling the
      requirement for ordering will not have any effect on delivery
      order for Connections over TCP.  Similarly, the msgLifetime
      Message Property can be implemented but ignored, as the
      description of this Property states that "it is not guaranteed
      that a Message will not be sent when its Lifetime has expired".

   *  Implementations can use other representations for Transport
      Property Names, e.g., by providing constants, but should provide a
      straight-forward mapping between their representation and the
      property names specified here.

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6.  Pre-Establishment Phase

   The pre-establishment phase allows applications to specify properties
   for the Connections that they are about to make, or to query the API
   about potential Connections they could make.

   A Preconnection object represents a potential Connection.  It is a
   passive object (a data structure) that merely maintains the state
   that describes the properties of a Connection that might exist in the
   future.  This state comprises Local Endpoint and Remote Endpoint
   objects that denote the endpoints of the potential Connection (see
   Section 6.1), the Selection Properties (see Section 6.2), any
   preconfigured Connection Properties (Section 8.1), and the security
   parameters (see Section 6.3):

      Preconnection := NewPreconnection([]LocalEndpoint,
                                        []RemoteEndpoint,
                                        TransportProperties,
                                        SecurityParameters)

   At least one Local Endpoint MUST be specified if the Preconnection is
   used to Listen for incoming Connections, but the list of Local
   Endpoints MAY be empty if the Preconnection is used to Initiate
   connections.  If no Local Endpoint is specified, the Transport
   Services system will assign an ephemeral local port to the Connection
   on the appropriate interface(s).  At least one Remote Endpoint MUST
   be specified if the Preconnection is used to Initiate Connections,
   but the list of Remote Endpoints MAY be empty if the Preconnection is
   used to Listen for incoming Connections.  At least one Local Endpoint
   and one Remote Endpoint MUST be specified if a peer-to-peer
   Rendezvous is to occur based on the Preconnection.

   If more than one Local Endpoint is specified on a Preconnection, then
   the application is indicating that all of the Local Endpoints are
   eligible to be used for Connections.  For example, their Endpoint
   Identifiers might correspond to different interfaces on a multi-homed
   host, or their Endpoint Identifiers might correspond to local
   interfaces and a STUN server that can be resolved to a server
   reflexive address for a Preconnection used to make a peer-to-peer
   Rendezvous.

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   If more than one Remote Endpoint is specified on the Preconnection,
   the application is indicating that it expects all of the Remote
   Endpoints to offer an equivalent service, and that the Transport
   Services system can choose any of them for a Connection.  For
   example, a Remote Endpoint might represent various network interfaces
   of a host, or a server reflexive address that can be used to reach a
   host, or a set of hosts that provide equivalent local balanced
   service.

   In most cases, it is expected that a single Remote Endpoint will be
   specified by name, and a later call to Initiate on the Preconnection
   (see Section 7.1) will internally resolve that name to a list of
   concrete Endpoint Identifers.  Specifying multiple Remote Endpoints
   on a Preconnection allows applications to override this for more
   detailed control.

   If Message Framers are used (see Section 9.1.2), they MUST be added
   to the Preconnection during pre-establishment.

6.1.  Specifying Endpoints

   The Transport Services API uses the Local Endpoint and Remote
   Endpoint objects to refer to the endpoints of a Connection.
   Endpoints can be created as either remote or local:

   RemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()
   LocalSpecifier := NewLocalEndpoint()

   A single Endpoint object represents the identity of a network host.
   That endpoint can be more or less specific depending on which
   Endpoint Identifiers are set.  For example, an Endpoint that only
   specifies a hostname can, in fact, finally correspond to several
   different IP addresses on different hosts.

   An Endpoint object can be configured with the following identifiers:

   *  HostName (string):

   RemoteSpecifier.WithHostName("example.com")

   *  Port (a 16-bit unsigned Integer):

   RemoteSpecifier.WithPort(443)

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   *  Service (an identifier string that maps to a port; either a
      service name associated with a port number, from
      https://www.iana.org/assignments/service-names-port-numbers/
      service-names-port-numbers.xhtml, or a DNS SRV service name to be
      resolved):

   RemoteSpecifier.WithService("https")

   *  IP address (IPv4 or IPv6 address):

   RemoteSpecifier.WithIPAddress(192.0.2.21)

   RemoteSpecifier.WithIPAddress(2001:db8:4920:e29d:a420:7461:7073:a)

   *  Interface name (string), e.g., to qualify link-local addresses
      (see Section 6.1.2 for details):

   LocalSpecifier.WithInterface("en0")

   The Resolve action on a Preconnection can be used to obtain a list of
   available local interfaces.

   Note that an IPv6 address specified with a scope zone ID (e.g.
   fe80::2001:db8%en0) is equivalent to WithIPAddress with an unscoped
   address and WithInterface together.

   Applications creating Endpoint objects using WithHostName SHOULD
   provide fully-qualified domain names (FQDNs).  Not providing an FQDN
   will result in the Transport Services Implementation needing to use
   DNS search domains for name resolution, which might lead to
   inconsistent or unpredictable behavior.

   The design of the API MUST NOT permit an Endpoint object to be
   configured with multiple Endpoint Identifiers of the same type.  For
   example, an Endpoint object cannot specify two IP addresses.  Two
   separate IP addresses are represented as two Endpoint objects.  If a
   Preconnection specifies a Remote Endpoint with a specific IP address
   set, it will only establish Connections to that IP address.  If, on
   the other hand, a Remote Endpoint specifies a hostname but no
   addresses, the Transport Services Implementation can perform name
   resolution and attempt using any address derived from the original
   hostname of the Remote Endpoint.  Note that multiple Remote Endpoints
   can be added to a Preconnection, as discussed in Section 7.5.

   The Transport Services system resolves names internally, when the
   Initiate, Listen, or Rendezvous method is called to establish a
   Connection.  Privacy considerations for the timing of this resolution
   are given in Section 13.

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   The Resolve action on a Preconnection can be used by the application
   to force early binding when required, for example with some Network
   Address Translator (NAT) traversal protocols (see Section 7.3).

6.1.1.  Using Multicast Endpoints

   To use multicast, a Preconnection is first created with the Local/
   Remote Endpoint Identifer specifying the any-source multicast (ASM)
   or source-specific multicast (SSM) multicast group and destination
   port number.  This is then followed by a call to either Initiate,
   Listen, or Rendezvous depending on whether the resulting Connection
   is to be used to send messages to the multicast group, receive
   messages from the group, or, for an any-source multicast group, to
   both send and receive messages.

   Note that the Transport Services API has separate specifier calls for
   multicast groups to avoid introducing filter properties for single-
   source multicast and seeks to avoid confusion that can be caused by
   overloading the unicast specifiers.

   Calling Initiate on that Preconnection creates a Connection that can
   be used to send Messages to the multicast group.  The Connection
   object that is created will support Send but not Receive.  Any
   Connections created this way are send-only, and do not join the
   multicast group.  The resulting Connection will have a Local Endpoint
   identifying the local interface to which the Connection is bound and
   a Remote Endpoint identifying the multicast group.

   The following API calls can be used to configure a Preconnection
   before calling Initiate:

   RemoteSpecifier.WithMulticastGroupIP(GroupAddress)
   RemoteSpecifier.WithPort(PortNumber)
   RemoteSpecifier.WithHopLimit(HopLimit)

   Calling Listen on a Preconnection with a multicast group specified on
   the Remote Endpoint will join the multicast group to receive
   Messages.  This Listener will create one Connection for each Remote
   Endpoint sending to the group, with the Local Endpoint Identifer
   specified as a group address.  The set of Connection objects created
   forms a Connection Group.  The receiving interface can be restricted
   by passing it as part of the LocalSpecifier or queried through the
   Message Context on the Messages received (see Section 9.1.1 for
   further details).

   Specifying WithHopLimit sets the Time To Live (TTL) field in the
   header of IPv4 packets or the Hop Count field in the header of IPv6
   packets.

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   The following API calls can be used to configure a Preconnection
   before calling Listen:

   LocalSpecifier.WithSingleSourceMulticastGroupIP(GroupAddress,
                                                   SourceAddress)
   LocalSpecifier.WithAnySourceMulticastGroupIP(GroupAddress)
   LocalSpecifier.WithPort(PortNumber)

   Calling Rendezvous on a Preconnection with an any-source multicast
   group address as the Remote Endpoint Identifer will join the
   multicast group, and also indicates that the resulting Connection can
   be used to send Messages to the multicast group.  The Rendezvous call
   will return both a Connection that can be used to send to the group,
   that acts the same as a Connection returned by calling Initiate with
   a multicast Remote Endpoint, and a Listener that acts as if Listen
   had been called with a multicast Remote Endpoint.  Calling Rendezvous
   on a Preconnection with a source-specific multicast group address as
   the Local Endpoint Identifer results in an EstablishmentError.

   The following API calls can be used to configure a Preconnection
   before calling Rendezvous:

   RemoteSpecifier.WithMulticastGroupIP(GroupAddress)
   RemoteSpecifier.WithPort(PortNumber)
   RemoteSpecifier.WithHopLimit(HopLimit)
   LocalSpecifier.WithAnySourceMulticastGroupIP(GroupAddress)
   LocalSpecifier.WithPort(PortNumber)
   LocalSpecifier.WithHopLimit(HopLimit)

   See Section 6.1.5 for more examples.

6.1.2.  Constraining Interfaces for Endpoints

   Note that this API has multiple ways to constrain and prioritize
   endpoint candidates based on the network interface:

   *  Specifying an interface on a Remote Endpoint qualifies the scope
      zone of the Remote Endpoint, e.g., for link-local addresses.

   *  Specifying an interface on a Local Endpoint explicitly binds all
      candidates derived from this Endpoint to use the specified
      interface.

   *  Specifying an interface using the interface Selection Property
      (Section 6.2.11) or indirectly via the pvd Selection Property
      (Section 6.2.12) influences the selection among the available
      candidates.

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   While specifying an Interface on an Endpoint restricts the candidates
   available for Connection establishment in the Pre-Establishment
   Phase, the Selection Properties prioritize and constrain the
   Connection establishment.

6.1.3.  Protocol-Specific Endpoints

   An Endpoint can have an alternative definition when using different
   protocols.  For example, a server that supports both TLS/TCP and QUIC
   could be accessible on two different port numbers depending on which
   protocol is used.

   To scope an Endpoint to apply conditionally to a specific transport
   protocol (such as defining an alternate port to use when QUIC is
   selected, as opposed to TCP), an Endpoint can be associated with a
   protocol identifier.  Protocol identifiers are objects or enumeration
   values provided by the Transport Services API, which will vary based
   on which protocols are implemented in a particular system.

   AlternateRemoteSpecifier.WithProtocol(QUIC)

   The following example shows a case where example.com has a server
   running on port 443, with an alternate port of 8443 for QUIC.  Both
   endpoints can be passed when creating a Preconnection.

   RemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()
   RemoteSpecifier.WithHostName("example.com")
   RemoteSpecifier.WithPort(443)

   QUICRemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()
   QUICRemoteSpecifier.WithHostName("example.com")
   QUICRemoteSpecifier.WithPort(8443)
   QUICRemoteSpecifier.WithProtocol(QUIC)

   RemoteSpecifiers := [ RemoteSpecifier, QUICRemoteSpecifier ]

6.1.4.  Endpoint Examples

   The following examples of Endpoints show common usage patterns.

   Specify a Remote Endpoint using a hostname "example.com" and a
   service name "https", which tells the system to use the default port
   for HTTPS (443):

   RemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()
   RemoteSpecifier.WithHostName("example.com")
   RemoteSpecifier.WithService("https")

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   Specify a Remote Endpoint using an IPv6 address and remote port:

   RemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()
   RemoteSpecifier.WithIPAddress(2001:db8:4920:e29d:a420:7461:7073:a)
   RemoteSpecifier.WithPort(443)

   Specify a Remote Endpoint using an IPv4 address and remote port:

   RemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()
   RemoteSpecifier.WithIPAddress(192.0.2.21)
   RemoteSpecifier.WithPort(443)

   Specify a Local Endpoint using a local interface name and no local
   port, to let the system assign an ephemeral local port:

   LocalSpecifier := NewLocalEndpoint()
   LocalSpecifier.WithInterface("en0")

   Specify a Local Endpoint using a local interface name and local port:

   LocalSpecifier := NewLocalEndpoint()
   LocalSpecifier.WithInterface("en0")
   LocalSpecifier.WithPort(443)

   As an alternative to specifying an interface name for the Local
   Endpoint, an application can express more fine-grained preferences
   using the Interface Instance or Type Selection Property, see
   Section 6.2.11.  However, if the application specifies Selection
   Properties that are inconsistent with the Local Endpoint, this will
   result in an error once the application attempts to open a
   Connection.

   Specify a Local Endpoint using a STUN server:

   LocalSpecifier := NewLocalEndpoint()
   LocalSpecifier.WithStunServer(address, port, credentials)

6.1.5.  Multicast Examples

   The following examples show how multicast groups can be used.

   Join an Any-Source Multicast group in receive-only mode, bound to a
   known port on a named local interface:

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      RemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()

      LocalSpecifier := NewLocalEndpoint()
      LocalSpecifier.WithAnySourceMulticastGroupIP(233.252.0.0)
      LocalSpecifier.WithPort(5353)
      LocalSpecifier.WithInterface("en0")

      TransportProperties := ...
      SecurityParameters  := ...

      Preconnection := NewPreconnection(LocalSpecifier,
                                        RemoteSpecifier,
                                        TransportProperties,
                                        SecurityProperties)
      Listener := Preconnection.Listen()

   Join a Source-Specific Multicast group in receive-only mode, bound to
   a known port on a named local interface:

      RemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()

      LocalSpecifier := NewLocalEndpoint()

      LocalSpecifier.WithSingleSourceMulticastGroupIP(233.252.0.0,
                                                      198.51.100.10)
      LocalSpecifier.WithPort(5353)
      LocalSpecifier.WithInterface("en0")

      TransportProperties := ...
      SecurityParameters  := ...

      Preconnection := NewPreconnection(LocalSpecifier,
                                        RemoteSpecifier,
                                        TransportProperties,
                                        SecurityProperties)
      Listener := Preconnection.Listen()

   Create a Source-Specific Multicast group as a sender:

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      RemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()
      RemoteSpecifier.WithMulticastGroupIP(233.251.240.1)
      RemoteSpecifier.WithPort(5353)
      RemoteSpecifier.WithHopLimit(8)

      LocalSpecifier := NewLocalEndpoint()
      LocalSpecifier.WithIPAddress(192.0.2.22)
      LocalSpecifier.WithInterface("en0")

      TransportProperties := ...
      SecurityParameters  := ...

      Preconnection := NewPreconnection(LocalSpecifier,
                                        RemoteSpecifier,
                                        TransportProperties,
                                        SecurityProperties)
      Connection := Preconnection.Initiate()

   Join an any-source multicast group as both a sender and a receiver:

      RemoteSpecifier := NewRemoteEndpoint()
      RemoteSpecifier.WithMulticastGroupIP(233.252.0.0)
      RemoteSpecifier.WithPort(5353)
      RemoteSpecifier.WithHopLimit(8)

      LocalSpecifier := NewLocalEndpoint()
      LocalSpecifier.WithAnySourceMulticastGroupIP(233.252.0.0)
      LocalSpecifier.WithIPAddress(192.0.2.22)
      LocalSpecifier.WithPort(5353)
      LocalSpecifier.WithInterface("en0")

      TransportProperties := ...
      SecurityParameters  := ...

      Preconnection := NewPreconnection(LocalSpecifier,
                                        RemoteSpecifier,
                                        TransportProperties,
                                        SecurityProperties)
      Connection, Listener := Preconnection.Rendezvous()

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6.2.  Specifying Transport Properties

   A Preconnection object holds properties reflecting the application's
   requirements and preferences for the transport.  These include
   Selection Properties for selecting Protocol Stacks and paths, as well
   as Connection Properties and Message Properties for configuration of
   the detailed operation of the selected Protocol Stacks on a per-
   Connection and Message level.

   The protocol(s) and path(s) selected as candidates during
   establishment are determined and configured using these properties.
   Since there could be paths over which some transport protocols are
   unable to operate, or Remote Endpoints that support only specific
   network addresses or transports, transport protocol selection is
   necessarily tied to path selection.  This could involve choosing
   between multiple local interfaces that are connected to different
   access networks.

   When additional information (such as Provisioning Domain (PvD)
   information [RFC7556]) is available about the networks over which an
   endpoint can operate, this can inform the selection between alternate
   network paths.  Path information can include PMTU, set of supported
   DSCPs, expected usage, cost, etc.  The usage of this information by
   the Transport Services System is generally independent of the
   specific mechanism/protocol used to receive the information (e.g.
   zero-conf, DHCP, or IPv6 RA).

   Most Selection Properties are represented as Preferences, which can
   take one of five values:

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          +============+========================================+
          | Preference | Effect                                 |
          +============+========================================+
          | Require    | Select only protocols/paths providing  |
          |            | the property, fail otherwise           |
          +------------+----------------------------------------+
          | Prefer     | Prefer protocols/paths providing the   |
          |            | property, proceed otherwise            |
          +------------+----------------------------------------+
          | No         | No preference                          |
          | Preference |                                        |
          +------------+----------------------------------------+
          | Avoid      | Prefer protocols/paths not providing   |
          |            | the property, proceed otherwise        |
          +------------+----------------------------------------+
          | Prohibit   | Select only protocols/paths not        |
          |            | providing the property, fail otherwise |
          +------------+----------------------------------------+

               Table 1: Selection Property Preference Levels

   The implementation MUST ensure an outcome that is consistent with all
   application requirements expressed using Require and Prohibit.  While
   preferences expressed using Prefer and Avoid influence protocol and
   path selection as well, outcomes can vary given the same Selection
   Properties, because the available protocols and paths can differ
   across systems and contexts.  However, implementations are
   RECOMMENDED to seek to provide a consistent outcome to an
   application, when provided with the same set of Selection Properties.

   Note that application preferences can conflict with each other.  For
   example, if an application indicates a preference for a specific path
   by specifying an interface, but also a preference for a protocol, a
   situation might occur in which the preferred protocol is not
   available on the preferred path.  In such cases, applications can
   expect properties that determine path selection to be prioritized
   over properties that determine protocol selection.  The transport
   system SHOULD determine the preferred path first, regardless of
   protocol preferences.  This ordering is chosen to provide consistency
   across implementations, based on the fact that it is more common for
   the use of a given network path to determine cost to the user (i.e.,
   an interface type preference might be based on a user's preference to
   avoid being charged more for a cellular data plan).

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   Selection and Connection Properties, as well as defaults for Message
   Properties, can be added to a Preconnection to configure the
   selection process and to further configure the eventually selected
   Protocol Stack(s).  They are collected into a TransportProperties
   object to be passed into a Preconnection object:

   TransportProperties := NewTransportProperties()

   Individual properties are then set on the TransportProperties object.
   Setting a Transport Property to a value overrides the previous value
   of this Transport Property.

   TransportProperties.Set(property, value)

   To aid readability, implementations MAY provide additional
   convenience functions to simplify use of Selection Properties: see
   Appendix B.1 for examples.  In addition, implementations MAY provide
   a mechanism to create TransportProperties objects that are
   preconfigured for common use cases, as outlined in Appendix B.2.

   Transport Properties for an established Connection can be queried via
   the Connection object, as outlined in Section 8.

   A Connection gets its Transport Properties either by being explicitly
   configured via a Preconnection, by configuration after establishment,
   or by inheriting them from an antecedent via cloning; see Section 7.4
   for more.

   Section 8.1 provides a list of Connection Properties, while Selection
   Properties are listed in the subsections below.  Selection Properties
   are only considered during establishment, and can not be changed
   after a Connection is established.  After a Connection is
   established, Selection Properties can only be read to check the
   properties used by the Connection.  Upon reading, the Preference type
   of a Selection Property changes into Boolean, where true means that
   the selected Protocol Stack supports the feature or uses the path
   associated with the Selection Property, and false means that the
   Protocol Stack does not support the feature or use the path.
   Implementations of Transport Services systems could alternatively use
   the two Preference values Require and Prohibit to represent true and
   false, respectively.  Other types of Selection Properties remain
   unchanged when they are made available for reading after a Connection
   is established.

   An implementation of the Transport Services API needs to provide
   sensible defaults for Selection Properties.  The default values for
   each property below represent a configuration that can be implemented
   over TCP.  If these default values are used and TCP is not supported

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   by a Transport Services system, then an application using the default
   set of Properties might not succeed in establishing a Connection.
   Using the same default values for independent Transport Services
   systems can be beneficial when applications are ported between
   different implementations/platforms, even if this default could lead
   to a Connection failure when TCP is not available.  If default values
   other than those suggested below are used, it is RECOMMENDED to
   clearly document any differences.

6.2.1.  Reliable Data Transfer (Connection)

   Name:  reliability

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  Require

   This property specifies whether the application needs to use a
   transport protocol that ensures that all data is received at the
   Remote Endpoint in order without loss or duplication.  When reliable
   data transfer is enabled, this also entails being notified when a
   Connection is closed or aborted.

6.2.2.  Preservation of Message Boundaries

   Name:  preserveMsgBoundaries

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  No Preference

   This property specifies whether the application needs or prefers to
   use a transport protocol that preserves message boundaries.

6.2.3.  Configure Per-Message Reliability

   Name:  perMsgReliability

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  No Preference

   This property specifies whether an application considers it useful to
   specify different reliability requirements for individual Messages in
   a Connection.

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6.2.4.  Preservation of Data Ordering

   Name:  preserveOrder

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  Require

   This property specifies whether the application wishes to use a
   transport protocol that can ensure that data is received by the
   application at the Remote Endpoint in the same order as it was sent.

6.2.5.  Use 0-RTT Session Establishment with a Safely Replayable Message

   Name:  zeroRttMsg

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  No Preference

   This property specifies whether an application would like to supply a
   Message to the transport protocol before connection establishment
   that will then be reliably transferred to the Remote Endpoint before
   or during connection establishment.  This Message can potentially be
   received multiple times (i.e., multiple copies of the Message data
   could be passed to the Remote Endpoint).  See also Section 9.1.3.4.

6.2.6.  Multistream Connections in Group

   Name:  multistreaming

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  Prefer

   This property specifies whether the application would prefer multiple
   Connections within a Connection Group to be provided by streams of a
   single underlying transport connection where possible.

6.2.7.  Full Checksum Coverage on Sending

   Name:  fullChecksumSend

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  Require

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   This property specifies the application's need for protection against
   corruption for all data transmitted on this Connection.  Disabling
   this property could enable the application to influence the sender
   checksum coverage after Connection establishment (see
   Section 9.1.3.6).

6.2.8.  Full Checksum Coverage on Receiving

   Name:  fullChecksumRecv

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  Require

   This property specifies the application's need for protection against
   corruption for all data received on this Connection.  Disabling this
   property could enable the application to influence the required
   minimum receiver checksum coverage after Connection establishment
   (see Section 8.1.1).

6.2.9.  Congestion control

   Name:  congestionControl

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  Require

   This property specifies whether the application would like the
   Connection to be congestion controlled or not.  Note that if a
   Connection is not congestion controlled, an application using such a
   Connection SHOULD itself perform congestion control in accordance
   with [RFC2914] or use a circuit breaker in accordance with [RFC8084],
   whichever is appropriate.  Also note that reliability is usually
   combined with congestion control in protocol implementations,
   rendering "reliable but not congestion controlled" a request that is
   unlikely to succeed.  If the Connection is congestion controlled,
   performing additional congestion control in the application can have
   negative performance implications.

6.2.10.  Keep alive

   Name:  keepAlive

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  No Preference

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   This property specifies whether the application would like the
   Connection to send keep-alive packets or not.  Note that if a
   Connection determines that keep-alive packets are being sent, the
   application SHOULD itself avoid generating additional keep-alive
   messages.  Note that when supported, the system will use the default
   period for generation of the keep alive-packets.  (See also
   Section 8.1.4).

6.2.11.  Interface Instance or Type

   Name:  interface

   Type:  Set of (Preference, Enumeration)

   Default:  Empty (not setting a preference for any interface)

   This property allows the application to select any specific network
   interfaces or categories of interfaces it wants to Require, Prohibit,
   Prefer, or Avoid.  Note that marking a specific interface as Require
   strictly limits path selection to that single interface, and often
   leads to less flexible and resilient connection establishment.

   In contrast to other Selection Properties, this property is a set of
   tuples of (Enumerated) interface identifier and preference.  It can
   either be implemented directly as such, or for making one preference
   available for each interface and interface type available on the
   system.

   The set of valid interface types is implementation- and system-
   specific.  For example, on a mobile device, there could be Wi-Fi and
   Cellular interface types available; whereas on a desktop computer,
   Wi-Fi and Wired Ethernet interface types might be available.  An
   implementation should provide all types that are supported on the
   local system, to allow applications to be written generically.  For
   example, if a single implementation is used on both mobile devices
   and desktop devices, it ought to define the Cellular interface type
   for both systems, since an application might wish to always prohibit
   cellular.

   The set of interface types is expected to change over time as new
   access technologies become available.  The taxonomy of interface
   types on a given Transport Services system is implementation-
   specific.

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   Interface types SHOULD NOT be treated as a proxy for properties of
   interfaces such as metered or unmetered network access.  If an
   application needs to prohibit metered interfaces, this should be
   specified via Provisioning Domain attributes (see Section 6.2.12) or
   another specific property.

   Note that this property is not used to specify an interface scope
   zone for a particular Endpoint.  Section 6.1.2 provides details about
   how to qualify endpoint candidates on a per-interface basis.

6.2.12.  Provisioning Domain Instance or Type

   Name:  pvd

   Type:  Set of (Preference, Enumeration)

   Default:  Empty (not setting a preference for any PvD)

   Similar to interface (see Section 6.2.11), this property allows the
   application to control path selection by selecting which specific
   Provisioning Domain (PvD) or categories of PVDs it wants to Require,
   Prohibit, Prefer, or Avoid.  Provisioning Domains define consistent
   sets of network properties that might be more specific than network
   interfaces [RFC7556].

   As with interface instances and types, this property is a set of
   tuples of (Enumerated) PvD identifier and preference.  It can either
   be implemented directly as such, or for making one preference
   available for each interface and interface type available on the
   system.

   The identification of a specific PvD is implementation- and system-
   specific.  [RFC8801] defines how to use an FQDN to identify a PvD
   when advertised by a network, but systems might also use other
   locally-relevant identifiers such as string names or Integers to
   identify PvDs.  As with requiring specific interfaces, requiring a
   specific PvD strictly limits the path selection.

   Categories or types of PvDs are also defined to be implementation-
   and system-specific.  These can be useful to identify a service that
   is provided by a PvD.  For example, if an application wants to use a
   PvD that provides a Voice-Over-IP service on a Cellular network, it
   can use the relevant PvD type to require a PvD that provides this
   service, without needing to look up a particular instance.  While
   this does restrict path selection, it is broader than requiring
   specific PvD instances or interface instances, and should be
   preferred over these options.

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6.2.13.  Use Temporary Local Address

   Name:  useTemporaryLocalAddress

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  Avoid for Listeners and Rendezvous Connections.  Prefer for
      other Connections.

   This property allows the application to express a preference for the
   use of temporary local addresses, sometimes called "privacy"
   addresses [RFC8981].  Temporary addresses are generally used to
   prevent linking connections over time when a stable address,
   sometimes called "permanent" address, is not needed.  There are some
   caveats to note when specifying this property.  First, if an
   application Requires the use of temporary addresses, the resulting
   Connection cannot use IPv4, because temporary addresses do not exist
   in IPv4.  Second, temporary local addresses might involve trading off
   privacy for performance.  For instance, temporary addresses (e.g.,
   [RFC8981]) can interfere with resumption mechanisms that some
   protocols rely on to reduce initial latency.

6.2.14.  Multipath Transport

   Name:  multipath

   Type:  Enumeration

   Default:  Disabled for Connections created through initiate and
      rendezvous, Passive for Listeners

   This property specifies whether and how applications want to take
   advantage of transferring data across multiple paths between the same
   end hosts.  Using multiple paths allows Connections to migrate
   between interfaces or aggregate bandwidth as availability and
   performance properties change.  Possible values are:

   Disabled:  The Connection will not use multiple paths once
      established, even if the chosen transport supports using multiple
      paths.

   Active:  The Connection will negotiate the use of multiple paths if
      the chosen transport supports this.

   Passive:  The Connection will support the use of multiple paths if
      the Remote Endpoint requests it.

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   The policy for using multiple paths is specified using the separate
   multipathPolicy property, see Section 8.1.7 below.  To enable the
   peer endpoint to initiate additional paths towards a local address
   other than the one initially used, it is necessary to set the
   advertisesAltaddr property (see Section 6.2.15 below).

   Setting this property to Active can have privacy implications: It
   enables the transport to establish connectivity using alternate paths
   that might result in users being linkable across the multiple paths,
   even if the advertisesAltaddr property (see Section 6.2.15 below) is
   set to false.

   Note that Multipath Transport has no corresponding Selection Property
   of type Preference.  Enumeration values other than Disabled are
   interpreted as a preference for choosing protocols that can make use
   of multiple paths.  The Disabled value implies a requirement not to
   use multiple paths in parallel but does not prevent choosing a
   protocol that is capable of using multiple paths, e.g., it does not
   prevent choosing TCP, but prevents sending the MP_CAPABLE option in
   the TCP handshake.

6.2.15.  Advertisement of Alternative Addresses

   Name:  advertisesAltaddr

   Type:  Boolean

   Default:  false

   This property specifies whether alternative addresses, e.g., of other
   interfaces, ought to be advertised to the peer endpoint by the
   Protocol Stack.  Advertising these addresses enables the peer
   endpoint to establish additional connectivity, e.g., for Connection
   migration or using multiple paths.

   Note that this can have privacy implications because it might result
   in users being linkable across the multiple paths.  Also, note that
   setting this to false does not prevent the local Transport Services
   system from _establishing_ connectivity using alternate paths (see
   Section 6.2.14 above); it only prevents _proactive advertisement_ of
   addresses.

6.2.16.  Direction of communication

   Name:  direction

   Type:  Enumeration

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   Default:  Bidirectional

   This property specifies whether an application wants to use the
   Connection for sending and/or receiving data.  Possible values are:

   Bidirectional:  The Connection must support sending and receiving
      data

   Unidirectional send:  The Connection must support sending data, and
      the application cannot use the Connection to receive any data

   Unidirectional receive:  The Connection must support receiving data,
      and the application cannot use the Connection to send any data

   Since unidirectional communication can be supported by transports
   offering bidirectional communication, specifying unidirectional
   communication might cause a transport stack that supports
   bidirectional communication to be selected.

6.2.17.  Notification of ICMP soft error message arrival

   Name:  softErrorNotify

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  No Preference

   This property specifies whether an application considers it useful to
   be informed when an ICMP error message arrives that does not force
   termination of a connection.  When set to true, received ICMP errors
   are available as SoftError events, see Section 8.3.1.  Note that even
   if a protocol supporting this property is selected, not all ICMP
   errors will necessarily be delivered, so applications cannot rely
   upon receiving them [RFC8085].

6.2.18.  Initiating side is not the first to write

   Name:  activeReadBeforeSend

   Type:  Preference

   Default:  No Preference

   The most common client-server communication pattern involves the
   client actively opening a Connection, then sending data to the
   server.  The server listens (passive open), reads, and then answers.
   This property specifies whether an application wants to diverge from
   this pattern -- either by actively opening with Initiate, immediately

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   followed by reading, or passively opening with Listen, immediately
   followed by writing.  This property is ignored when establishing
   connections using Rendezvous.  Requiring this property limits the
   choice of mappings to underlying protocols, which can reduce
   efficiency.  For example, it prevents the Transport Services system
   from mapping Connections to SCTP streams, where the first transmitted
   data takes the role of an active open signal.

6.3.  Specifying Security Parameters and Callbacks

   Most security parameters, e.g., TLS ciphersuites, local identity and
   private key, etc., can be configured statically.  Others are
   dynamically configured during Connection establishment.  Security
   parameters and callbacks are partitioned based on their place in the
   lifetime of Connection establishment.  Similar to Transport
   Properties, both parameters and callbacks are inherited during
   cloning (see Section 7.4).

   This document specifies an abstract API, which could appear to
   conflict with the need for security parameters to be unambiguous.
   The Transport Services System SHOULD provide reasonable, secure
   defaults for each enumerated security parameter, such that users of
   the system only need to specify parameters required to establish a
   secure connection (e.g., serverCertificate, clientCertificate).
   Specifying security parameters from enumerated values (e.g., specific
   ciphersuites) might constrain which transport protocols can be
   selected during Connection establishment.

   Security configuration parameters are specified in the pre-
   establishment phase and are created as follows:

   SecurityParameters := NewSecurityParameters()

   Specific parameters are added using a call to Set() on the
   SecurityParameters.

   As with the rest of the Transport Services API, the exact names of
   parameters and/or values of enumerations (e.g., ciphersuites) used in
   the security parameters are system- and implementation-specific, and
   ought to be chosen to follow the principle of least surprise for
   users of the platform / language environment in question.

   For security parameters that are enumerations of known values, such
   as TLS ciphersuites, implementations are responsible for exposing the
   set of values they support.  For security parameters that are not
   simple value types, such as certificates and keys, implementations
   are responsible for exposing types appropriate for the platform /
   language environment.

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   Applications SHOULD use common safe defaults for values such as TLS
   ciphersuites whenever possible.  However, as discussed in [RFC8922],
   many transport security protocols require specific security
   parameters and constraints from the client at the time of
   configuration and actively during a handshake.

   The set of security parameters defined here is not exhaustive, but
   illustrative.  Implementations SHOULD expose an equivalent to the
   parameters listed below to allow for sufficient configuration of
   security parameters, but the details are expected to vary based on
   platform and implementation constraints.  Applications MUST be able
   to constrain the security protocols and versions that the Transport
   Services System will use.

   Representation of security parameters in implementations ought to
   parallel that chosen for Transport Property names as suggested in
   Section 5.

   Connections that use Transport Services SHOULD use security in
   general.  However, for compatibility with endpoints that do not
   support transport security protocols (such as a TCP endpoint that
   does not support TLS), applications can initialize their security
   parameters to indicate that security can be disabled, or can be
   opportunistic.  If security is disabled, the Transport Services
   system will not attempt to add transport security automatically.  If
   security is opportunistic, it will allow Connections without
   transport security, but will still attempt to use unauthenticated
   security if available.

   SecurityParameters := NewDisabledSecurityParameters()

   SecurityParameters := NewOpportunisticSecurityParameters()

6.3.1.  Allowed security protocols

   Name:  allowedSecurityProtocols

   Type:  Implementation-specific enumeration of security protocol names
      and/or versions.

   Default:  Implementation-specific best available security protocols

   This property allows applications to restrict which security
   protocols and security protocol versions can be used in the protocol
   stack.  Applications MUST be able to constrain the security protocols
   used by this or an equivalent mechanism, in order to prevent the use
   of security protocols with unknown or weak security properties.

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  SecurityParameters.Set(allowedSecurityProtocols, [ tls_1_2, tls_1_3 ])

6.3.2.  Certificate bundles

   Names:  serverCertificate, clientCertificate

   Type:  Array of certificate objects

   Default:  Empty array

   One or more certificate bundles identifying the Local Endpoint,
   whether as a server certificate or a client certificate.  Multiple
   bundles may be provided to allow selection among different protocol
   stacks that may require differently formatted bundles.  The form and
   format of the certificate bundle is implementation-specific.  Note
   that if the private keys associated with a bundle are not available,
   e.g., since they are stored in hardware security modules (HSMs),
   handshake callbacks are necessary.  See below for details.

   SecurityParameters.Set(serverCertificate, myCertificateBundle[])
   SecurityParameters.Set(clientCertificate, myCertificateBundle[])

6.3.3.  Pinned server certificate

   Name:  pinnedServerCertificate

   Type:  Array of certificate chain objects

   Default:  Empty array

   Zero or more certificate chains to use as pinned server certificates,
   such that connecting will fail if the presented server certificate
   does not match one of the supplied pinned certificates.  The form and
   format of the certificate chain is implementation-specific.

 SecurityParameters.Set(pinnedServerCertificate, yourCertificateChain[])

6.3.4.  Application-layer protocol negotiation

   Name:  alpn

   Type:  Array of Strings

   Default:  Automatic selection

   Application-layer protocol negotiation (ALPN) values: used to
   indicate which application-layer protocols are negotiated by the
   security protocol layer.  See [ALPN] for definition of the ALPN

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   field.  Note that the Transport Services System can provide ALPN
   values automatically, based on the protocols being used, if not
   explicitly specified by the application.

   SecurityParameters.Set(alpn, ["h2"])

6.3.5.  Groups, ciphersuites, and signature algorithms

   Names:  supportedGroup, ciphersuite, signatureAlgorithm

   Types:  Arrays of implementation-specific enumerations

   Default:  Automatic selection

   These are used to restrict what cryptographic parameters are used by
   underlying transport security protocols.  When not specified, these
   algorithms should use known and safe defaults for the system.

   SecurityParameters.Set(supportedGroup, secp256r1)
   SecurityParameters.Set(ciphersuite, TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256)
   SecurityParameters.Set(signatureAlgorithm, ecdsa_secp256r1_sha256)

6.3.6.  Session cache options

   Names:  maxCachedSessions, cachedSessionLifetimeSeconds

   Type:  Integer

   Default:  Automatic selection

   These values are used to tune session cache capacity and lifetime,
   and can be extended to include other policies.

   SecurityParameters.Set(maxCachedSessions, 16)
   SecurityParameters.Set(cachedSessionLifetimeSeconds, 3600)

6.3.7.  Pre-shared key

   Name:  preSharedKey

   Type:  Key and identity (platform-specific)

   Default:  None

   Used to install pre-shared keying material established out-of-band.
   Each instance of pre-shared keying material is associated with some
   identity that typically identifies its use or has some protocol-
   specific meaning to the Remote Endpoint.  Note that use of a pre-

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   shared key will tend to select a single security protocol, and
   therefore directly select a single underlying protocol stack.  A
   Transport Services API could express None in an environment-typical
   way, e.g., as a Union type or special value.

   SecurityParameters.Set(preSharedKey, key, myIdentity)

6.3.8.  Connection Establishment Callbacks

   Security decisions, especially pertaining to trust, are not static.
   Once configured, parameters can also be supplied during Connection
   establishment.  These are best handled as client-provided callbacks.
   Callbacks block the progress of the Connection establishment, which
   distinguishes them from other events in the transport system.  How
   callbacks and events are implemented is specific to each
   implementation.  Security handshake callbacks that could be invoked
   during Connection establishment include:

   *  Trust verification callback: Invoked when a Remote Endpoint's
      trust must be verified before the handshake protocol can continue.
      For example, the application could verify an X.509 certificate as
      described in [RFC5280].

   TrustCallback := NewCallback({
     // Handle trust, return the result
   })
   SecurityParameters.SetTrustVerificationCallback(TrustCallback)

   *  Identity challenge callback: Invoked when a private key operation
      is required, e.g., when local authentication is requested by a
      Remote Endpoint.

   ChallengeCallback := NewCallback({
     // Handle challenge
   })
   SecurityParameters.SetIdentityChallengeCallback(ChallengeCallback)

7.  Establishing Connections

   Before a Connection can be used for data transfer, it needs to be
   established.  Establishment ends the pre-establishment phase; all
   transport properties and cryptographic parameter specification must
   be complete before establishment, as these will be used to select
   candidate Paths and Protocol Stacks for the Connection.
   Establishment can be active, using the Initiate action; passive,
   using the Listen action; or simultaneous for peer-to-peer, using the
   Rendezvous action.  These actions are described in the subsections
   below.

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7.1.  Active Open: Initiate

   Active open is the action of establishing a Connection to a Remote
   Endpoint presumed to be listening for incoming Connection requests.
   Active open is used by clients in client-server interactions.  Active
   open is supported by the Transport Services API through the Initiate
   action:

   Connection := Preconnection.Initiate(timeout?)

   The timeout parameter specifies how long to wait before aborting
   Active open.  Before calling Initiate, the caller must have populated
   a Preconnection object with a Remote Endpoint object to identify the
   endpoint, optionally a Local Endpoint object (if not specified, the
   system will attempt to determine a suitable Local Endpoint), as well
   as all properties necessary for candidate selection.

   The Initiate action returns a Connection object.  Once Initiate has
   been called, any changes to the Preconnection MUST NOT have any
   effect on the Connection.  However, the Preconnection can be reused,
   e.g., to Initiate another Connection.

   Once Initiate is called, the candidate Protocol Stack(s) can cause
   one or more candidate transport-layer connections to be created to
   the specified Remote Endpoint.  The caller could immediately begin
   sending Messages on the Connection (see Section 9.2) after calling
   Initiate; note that any data marked as "safely replayable" that is
   sent while the Connection is being established could be sent multiple
   times or on multiple candidates.

   The following events can be sent by the Connection after Initiate is
   called:

   Connection -> Ready<>

   The Ready event occurs after Initiate has established a transport-
   layer connection on at least one usable candidate Protocol Stack over
   at least one candidate Path.  No Receive events (see Section 9.3)
   will occur before the Ready event for Connections established using
   Initiate.

   Connection -> EstablishmentError<reason?>

   An EstablishmentError occurs either when the set of transport
   properties and security parameters cannot be fulfilled on a
   Connection for initiation (e.g., the set of available Paths and/or
   Protocol Stacks meeting the constraints is empty) or reconciled with
   the Local and/or Remote Endpoints; when a remote Endpoint Identifier

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   cannot be resolved; or when no transport-layer connection can be
   established to the Remote Endpoint (e.g., because the Remote Endpoint
   is not accepting connections, the application is prohibited from
   opening a Connection by the operating system, or the establishment
   attempt has timed out for any other reason).

   Connection establishment and transmission of the first Message can be
   combined in a single action (Section 9.2.5).

7.2.  Passive Open: Listen

   Passive open is the action of waiting for Connections from Remote
   Endpoints, commonly used by servers in client-server interactions.
   Passive open is supported by the Transport Services API through the
   Listen action and returns a Listener object:

   Listener := Preconnection.Listen()

   Before calling Listen, the caller must have initialized the
   Preconnection during the pre-establishment phase with a Local
   Endpoint object, as well as all properties necessary for Protocol
   Stack selection.  A Remote Endpoint can optionally be specified, to
   constrain what Connections are accepted.

   The Listen action returns a Listener object.  Once Listen has been
   called, any changes to the Preconnection MUST NOT have any effect on
   the Listener.  The Preconnection can be disposed of or reused, e.g.,
   to create another Listener.

   Listener.Stop()

   Listening continues until the global context shuts down, or until the
   Stop action is performed on the Listener object.

   Listener -> ConnectionReceived<Connection>

   The ConnectionReceived event occurs when a Remote Endpoint has
   established or cloned (e.g., by creating a new stream in a multi-
   stream transport; see Section 7.4) a transport-layer connection to
   this Listener (for Connection-oriented transport protocols), or when
   the first Message has been received from the Remote Endpoint (for
   Connectionless protocols or streams of a multi-streaming transport),
   causing a new Connection to be created.  The resulting Connection is
   contained within the ConnectionReceived event, and is ready to use as
   soon as it is passed to the application via the event.

   Listener.SetNewConnectionLimit(value)

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   If the caller wants to rate-limit the number of inbound Connections
   that will be delivered, it can set a cap using SetNewConnectionLimit.
   This mechanism allows a server to protect itself from being drained
   of resources.  Each time a new Connection is delivered by the
   ConnectionReceived event, the value is automatically decremented.
   Once the value reaches zero, no further Connections will be delivered
   until the caller sets the limit to a higher value.  By default, this
   value is Infinite.  The caller is also able to reset the value to
   Infinite at any point.

   Listener -> EstablishmentError<reason?>

   An EstablishmentError occurs either when the Properties and security
   parameters of the Preconnection cannot be fulfilled for listening or
   cannot be reconciled with the Local Endpoint (and/or Remote Endpoint,
   if specified), when the Local Endpoint (or Remote Endpoint, if
   specified) cannot be resolved, or when the application is prohibited
   from listening by policy.

   Listener -> Stopped<>

   A Stopped event occurs after the Listener has stopped listening.

7.3.  Peer-to-Peer Establishment: Rendezvous

   Simultaneous peer-to-peer Connection establishment is supported by
   the Rendezvous action:

   Preconnection.Rendezvous()

   A Preconnection object used in a Rendezvous MUST have both the Local
   Endpoint candidates and the Remote Endpoint candidates specified,
   along with the Transport Properties and security parameters needed
   for Protocol Stack selection, before the Rendezvous action is
   initiated.

   The Rendezvous action listens on the Local Endpoint candidates for an
   incoming Connection from the Remote Endpoint candidates, while also
   simultaneously trying to establish a Connection from the Local
   Endpoint candidates to the Remote Endpoint candidates.

   If there are multiple Local Endpoints or Remote Endpoints configured,
   then initiating a Rendezvous action will cause the Transport Services
   Implementation to systematically probe the reachability of those
   endpoint candidates following an approach such as that used in
   Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE) [RFC8445].

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   If the endpoints are suspected to be behind a NAT, and the Local
   Endpoint supports a method of discovering NAT bindings, such as
   Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN) [RFC8489] or Traversal
   Using Relays around NAT (TURN) [RFC8656], then the Resolve action on
   the Preconnection can be used to discover such bindings:

   []LocalEndpoint, []RemoteEndpoint := Preconnection.Resolve()

   The Resolve call returns lists of Local Endpoints and Remote
   Endpoints that represent the concrete addresses, local and server
   reflexive, on which a Rendezvous for the Preconnection will listen
   for incoming Connections, and to which it will attempt to establish
   Connections.

   Note that the set of Local Endpoints returned by Resolve might or
   might not contain information about all possible local interfaces
   depending on how the Preconnection is configured.  The set of
   available local interfaces can also change over time so care needs to
   be taken when using stored interface names.

   An application that uses Rendezvous to establish a peer-to-peer
   Connection in the presence of NATs will configure the Preconnection
   object with at least one Local Endpoint that supports NAT binding
   discovery.  It will then Resolve the Preconnection, and pass the
   resulting list of Local Endpoint candidates to the peer via a
   signalling protocol, for example as part of an ICE [RFC8445] exchange
   within SIP [RFC3261] or WebRTC [RFC7478].  The peer will then, via
   the same signalling channel, return the Remote Endpoint candidates.
   The set of Remote Endpoint candidates are then configured onto the
   Preconnection:

   Preconnection.AddRemote([]RemoteEndpoint)

   The Rendezvous action is initiated, and causes the Transport Services
   Implementation to begin connectivity checks, once the application has
   added both the Local Endpoint candidates and the Remote Endpoint
   candidates retrieved from the peer via the signalling channel to the
   Preconnection.

   If successful, the Rendezvous action returns a Connection object via
   a RendezvousDone<> event:

   Preconnection -> RendezvousDone<Connection>

   The RendezvousDone<> event occurs when a Connection is established
   with the Remote Endpoint.  For Connection-oriented transports, this
   occurs when the transport-layer connection is established; for
   Connectionless transports, it occurs when the first Message is

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   received from the Remote Endpoint.  The resulting Connection is
   contained within the RendezvousDone<> event, and is ready to use as
   soon as it is passed to the application via the event.  Changes made
   to a Preconnection after Rendezvous has been called MUST NOT have any
   effect on existing Connections.

   An EstablishmentError occurs either when the Properties and Security
   Parameters of the Preconnection cannot be fulfilled for rendezvous or
   cannot be reconciled with the Local and/or Remote Endpoints, when the
   Local Endpoint or Remote Endpoint cannot be resolved, when no
   transport-layer connection can be established to the Remote Endpoint,
   or when the application is prohibited from rendezvous by policy:

   Preconnection -> EstablishmentError<reason?>

7.4.  Connection Groups

   Connection Groups can be created using the Clone action:

   Connection := Connection.Clone(framer?, connectionProperties?)

   Calling Clone on a Connection yields a Connection Group containing
   two Connections: the parent Connection on which Clone was called, and
   a resulting cloned Connection.  The new Connection is actively
   opened, and it will locally send a Ready event or an
   EstablishmentError event.  Calling Clone on any of these Connections
   adds another Connection to the Connection Group.  Connections in a
   Connection Group share all Connection Properties except connPriority
   (see Section 8.1.2), and these Connection Properties are entangled:
   Changing one of the Connection Properties on one Connection in the
   Connection Group automatically changes the Connection Property for
   all others.  For example, changing connTimeout (see Section 8.1.3) on
   one Connection in a Connection Group will automatically make the same
   change to this Connection Property for all other Connections in the
   Connection Group.  Like all other Properties, connPriority is copied
   to the new Connection when calling Clone, but in this case, a later
   change to the connPriority on one Connection does not change it on
   the other Connections in the same Connection Group.

   The optional connectionProperties parameter allows passing Transport
   Properties that control the behavior of the underlying stream or
   connection to be created, e.g., Protocol-specific Properties to
   request specific stream IDs for SCTP or QUIC.

   Message Properties set on a Connection also apply only to that
   Connection.

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   A new Connection created by Clone can have a Message Framer assigned
   via the optional framer parameter of the Clone action.  If this
   parameter is not supplied, the stack of Message Framers associated
   with a Connection is copied to the cloned Connection when calling
   Clone.  Then, a cloned Connection has the same stack of Message
   Framers as the Connection from which they are cloned, but these
   Framers can internally maintain per-Connection state.

   It is also possible to check which Connections belong to the same
   Connection Group.  Calling GroupedConnections on a specific
   Connection returns a set of all Connections in the same group.

   []Connection := Connection.GroupedConnections()

   Connections will belong to the same group if the application
   previously called Clone.  Passive Connections can also be added to
   the same group -- e.g., when a Listener receives a new Connection
   that is just a new stream of an already active multi-streaming
   protocol instance.

   If the underlying protocol supports multi-streaming, it is natural to
   use this functionality to implement Clone.  In that case, Connections
   in a Connection Group are multiplexed together, giving them similar
   treatment not only inside Endpoints, but also across the end-to-end
   Internet path.

   Note that calling Clone can result in on-the-wire signaling, e.g., to
   open a new transport connection, depending on the underlying Protocol
   Stack.  When Clone leads to the opening of multiple such connections,
   the Transport Services system will ensure consistency of Connection
   Properties by uniformly applying them to all underlying connections
   in a group.  Even in such a case, there are possibilities for a
   Transport Services system to implement prioritization within a
   Connection Group [TCP-COUPLING] [RFC8699].

   Attempts to clone a Connection can result in a CloneError:

   Connection -> CloneError<reason?>

   A CloneError can also occur later, after Clone was successfully
   called.  In this case, it informs the application that the Connection
   that sends the CloneError is no longer a part of any Connection
   Group.  For example, this can occur when the Transport Services
   system is unable to implement entanglement (a Connection Property was
   changed on a different Connection in the Connection Group, but this
   change could not be successfully applied to the Connection that sends
   the CloneError).

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   The connPriority Connection Property operates on Connections in a
   Connection Group using the same approach as in Section 9.1.3.2: when
   allocating available network capacity among Connections in a
   Connection Group, sends on Connections with numerically lower
   Priority values will be prioritized over sends on Connections that
   have numerically higher Priority values.  Capacity will be shared
   among these Connections according to the connScheduler property
   (Section 8.1.5).  See Section 9.2.6 for more.

7.5.  Adding and Removing Endpoints on a Connection

   Transport protocols that are explicitly multipath aware are expected
   to automatically manage the set of Remote Endpoints that they are
   communicating with, and the paths to those endpoints.  A PathChange<>
   event, described in Section 8.3.2, will be generated when the path
   changes.

   In some cases, however, it is necessary to explicitly indicate to a
   Connection that a new Remote Endpoint has become available for use,
   or to indicate that a Remote Endpoint is no longer available.  This
   is most common in the case of peer to peer connections using Trickle
   ICE [RFC8838].

   The AddRemote action can be used to add one or more new Remote
   Endpoints to a Connection:

   Connection.AddRemote([]RemoteEndpoint)

   Endpoints that are already known to the Connection are ignored.  A
   call to AddRemote makes the new Remote Endpoints available to the
   Connection, but whether the Connection makes use of those Endpoints
   will depend on the underlying transport protocol.

   Similarly, the RemoveRemote action can be used to tell a Connection
   to stop using one or more Remote Endpoints:

   Connection.RemoveRemote([]RemoteEndpoint)

   Removing all known Remote Endpoints can have the effect of aborting
   the connection.  The effect of removing the active Remote Endpoint(s)
   depends on the underlying transport: multipath aware transports might
   be able to switch to a new path if other reachable Remote Endpoints
   exist, or the connection might abort.

   Similarly, the AddLocal and RemoveLocal actions can be used to add
   and remove Local Endpoints to/from a Connection.

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8.  Managing Connections

   During pre-establishment and after establishment, (Pre-)Connections
   can be configured and queried using Connection Properties, and
   asynchronous information could be available about the state of the
   Connection via SoftError events.

   Connection Properties represent the configuration and state of the
   selected Protocol Stack(s) backing a Connection.  These Connection
   Properties can be generic, applying regardless of transport protocol,
   or specific, applicable to a single implementation of a single
   transport Protocol Stack.  Generic Connection Properties are defined
   in Section 8.1 below.

   Protocol-specific Properties are defined in a transport- and
   implementation-specific way to permit more specialized protocol
   features to be used.  Too much reliance by an application on
   Protocol-specific Properties can significantly reduce the flexibility
   of a transport services system to make appropriate selection and
   configuration choices.  Therefore, it is RECOMMENDED that Generic
   Connection Properties are used for properties common across different
   protocols and that Protocol-specific Connection Properties are only
   used where specific protocols or properties are necessary.

   The application can set and query Connection Properties on a per-
   Connection basis.  Connection Properties that are not read-only can
   be set during pre-establishment (see Section 6.2), as well as on
   Connections directly using the SetProperty action:

   ErrorCode := Connection.SetProperty(property, value)

   If an error is encountered in setting a property (for example, if the
   application tries to set a TCP-specific property on a Connection that
   is not using TCP), the application MUST be informed about this error
   via the ErrorCode Object.  Such errors MUST NOT cause the Connection
   to be terminated.  Note that changing one of the Connection
   Properties on one Connection in a Connection Group will also change
   it for all other Connections of that group; see further Section 7.4.

   At any point, the application can query Connection Properties.

   ConnectionProperties := Connection.GetProperties()
   value := ConnectionProperties.Get(property)
   if ConnectionProperties.Has(boolean_or_preference_property) then ...

   Depending on the status of the Connection, the queried Connection
   Properties will include different information:

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   *  The Connection state, which can be one of the following:
      Establishing, Established, Closing, or Closed (see
      Section 8.1.11.1).

   *  Whether the Connection can be used to send data (see
      Section 8.1.11.2).  A Connection can not be used for sending if
      the Connection was created with the Selection Property direction
      set to unidirectional receive or if a Message marked as Final was
      sent over this Connection.  See also Section 9.1.3.5.

   *  Whether the Connection can be used to receive data (see
      Section 8.1.11.3).  A Connection cannot be used for receiving if
      the Connection was created with the Selection Property direction
      set to unidirectional send or if a Message marked as Final was
      received.  See Section 9.3.3.3.  The latter is only supported by
      certain transport protocols, e.g., by TCP as half-closed
      connection.

   *  For Connections that are Established, Closing, or Closed:
      Connection Properties (Section 8.1) of the actual protocols that
      were selected and instantiated, and Selection Properties that the
      application specified on the Preconnection.  Selection Properties
      of type Preference will be exposed as boolean values indicating
      whether or not the property applies to the selected transport.
      Note that the instantiated Protocol Stack might not match all
      Protocol Selection Properties that the application specified on
      the Preconnection.

   *  For Connections that are Established: Transport Services system
      implementations ought to provide information concerning the
      path(s) used by the Protocol Stack.  This can be derived from
      local PVD information, measurements by the Protocol Stack, or
      other sources.  For example, a Transport System that is configured
      to receive and process PVD information [RFC7556] could also
      provide network configuration information for the chosen path(s).

8.1.  Generic Connection Properties

   Generic Connection Properties are defined independent of the chosen
   Protocol Stack and therefore available on all Connections.

   Many Connection Properties have a corresponding Selection Property
   that enables applications to express their preference for protocols
   providing a supporting transport feature.

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8.1.1.  Required Minimum Corruption Protection Coverage for Receiving

   Name:  recvChecksumLen

   Type:  Integer (non-negative) or Full Coverage

   Default:  Full Coverage

   If this property is an Integer, it specifies the minimum number of
   bytes in a received Message that need to be covered by a checksum.  A
   receiving endpoint will not forward Messages that have less coverage
   to the application.  The application is responsible for handling any
   corruption within the non-protected part of the Message [RFC8085].  A
   special value of 0 means that a received packet might also have a
   zero checksum field, and the enumerated value Full Coverage means
   that the entire Message needs to be protected by a checksum.  An
   implementation is supposed to express Full Coverage in an
   environment-typical way, e.g., as a Union type or special value.

8.1.2.  Connection Priority

   Name:  connPriority

   Type:  Integer (non-negative)

   Default:  100

   This property is a non-negative Integer representing the priority of
   this Connection relative to other Connections in the same Connection
   Group.  A numerically lower value reflects a higher priority.  It has
   no effect on Connections not part of a Connection Group.  As noted in
   Section 7.4, this property is not entangled when Connections are
   cloned, i.e., changing the Priority on one Connection in a Connection
   Group does not change it on the other Connections in the same
   Connection Group.  No guarantees of a specific behavior regarding
   Connection Priority are given; a Transport Services system could
   ignore this property.  See Section 9.2.6 for more details.

8.1.3.  Timeout for Aborting Connection

   Name:  connTimeout

   Type:  Numeric (positive) or Disabled

   Default:  Disabled

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   If this property is Numeric, it specifies how long to wait before
   deciding that an active Connection has failed when trying to reliably
   deliver data to the Remote Endpoint.  Adjusting this property will
   only take effect when the underlying stack supports reliability.  If
   this property has the enumerated value Disabled, it means that no
   timeout is scheduled.  A Transport Services API could express
   Disabled in an environment-typical way, e.g., as a Union type or
   special value.

8.1.4.  Timeout for keep alive packets

   Name:  keepAliveTimeout

   Type:  Numeric (positive) or Disabled

   Default:  Disabled

   A Transport Services API can request a protocol that supports sending
   keep alive packets (Section 6.2.10).  If this property is Numeric, it
   specifies the maximum length of time an idle Connection (one for
   which no transport packets have been sent) ought to wait before the
   Local Endpoint sends a keep-alive packet to the Remote Endpoint.
   Adjusting this property will only take effect when the underlying
   stack supports sending keep-alive packets.  Guidance on setting this
   value for connection-less transports is provided in [RFC8085].  A
   value greater than the Connection timeout (Section 8.1.3) or the
   enumerated value Disabled will disable the sending of keep-alive
   packets.  A Transport Services API could express Disabled in an
   environment-typical way, e.g., as a Union type or special value.

8.1.5.  Connection Group Transmission Scheduler

   Name:  connScheduler

   Type:  Enumeration

   Default:  Weighted Fair Queueing (see Section 3.6 of [RFC8260])

   This property specifies which scheduler is used among Connections
   within a Connection Group to apportion the available capacity
   according to Connection priorities (see Section 7.4 and
   Section 8.1.2).  A set of schedulers is described in [RFC8260].

8.1.6.  Capacity Profile

   Name:  connCapacityProfile

   Type:  Enumeration

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   Default:  Default Profile (Best Effort)

   This property specifies the desired network treatment for traffic
   sent by the application and the tradeoffs the application is prepared
   to make in path and protocol selection to receive that desired
   treatment.  When the capacity profile is set to a value other than
   Default, the Transport Services system SHOULD select paths and
   configure protocols to optimize the tradeoff between delay, delay
   variation, and efficient use of the available capacity based on the
   capacity profile specified.  How this is realized is implementation-
   specific.  The capacity profile MAY also be used to set markings on
   the wire for Protocol Stacks supporting this.  Recommendations for
   use with DSCP are provided below for each profile; note that when a
   Connection is multiplexed, the guidelines in Section 6 of [RFC7657]
   apply.

   The following values are valid for the capacity profile:

   Default:  The application provides no information about its expected
      capacity profile.  Transport Services systems that map the
      requested capacity profile onto per-connection DSCP signaling
      SHOULD assign the DSCP Default Forwarding [RFC2474] Per Hop
      Behaviour (PHB).

   Scavenger:  The application is not interactive.  It expects to send
      and/or receive data without any urgency.  This can, for example,
      be used to select Protocol Stacks with scavenger transmission
      control and/or to assign the traffic to a lower-effort service.
      Transport Services systems that map the requested capacity profile
      onto per-connection DSCP signaling SHOULD assign the DSCP Less
      than Best Effort [RFC8622] PHB.

   Low Latency/Interactive:  The application is interactive, and prefers
      loss to latency.  Response time SHOULD be optimized at the expense
      of delay variation and efficient use of the available capacity
      when sending on this Connection.  This can be used by the system
      to disable the coalescing of multiple small Messages into larger
      packets (Nagle's algorithm); to prefer immediate acknowledgment
      from the peer endpoint when supported by the underlying transport;
      and so on.  Transport Services systems that map the requested
      capacity profile onto per-connection DSCP signaling without
      multiplexing SHOULD assign a DSCP Assured Forwarding
      (AF41,AF42,AF43,AF44) [RFC2597] PHB.  Inelastic traffic that is
      expected to conform to the configured network service rate could
      be mapped to the DSCP Expedited Forwarding [RFC3246] or [RFC5865]
      PHBs.

   Low Latency/Non-Interactive:  The application prefers loss to

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      latency, but is not interactive.  Response time SHOULD be
      optimized at the expense of delay variation and efficient use of
      the available capacity when sending on this Connection.  Transport
      system implementations that map the requested capacity profile
      onto per-connection DSCP signaling without multiplexing SHOULD
      assign a DSCP Assured Forwarding (AF21,AF22,AF23,AF24) [RFC2597]
      PHB.

   Constant-Rate Streaming:  The application expects to send/receive
      data at a constant rate after Connection establishment.  Delay and
      delay variation SHOULD be minimized at the expense of efficient
      use of the available capacity.  This implies that the Connection
      might fail if the Path is unable to maintain the desired rate.  A
      transport can interpret this capacity profile as preferring a
      circuit breaker [RFC8084] to a rate-adaptive congestion
      controller.  Transport system implementations that map the
      requested capacity profile onto per-connection DSCP signaling
      without multiplexing SHOULD assign a DSCP Assured Forwarding
      (AF31,AF32,AF33,AF34) [RFC2597] PHB.

   Capacity-Seeking:  The application expects to send/receive data at
      the maximum rate allowed by its congestion controller over a
      relatively long period of time.  Transport Services systems that
      map the requested capacity profile onto per-connection DSCP
      signaling without multiplexing SHOULD assign a DSCP Assured
      Forwarding (AF11,AF12,AF13,AF14) [RFC2597] PHB per Section 4.8 of
      [RFC4594].

   The capacity profile for a selected Protocol Stack may be modified on
   a per-Message basis using the Transmission Profile Message Property;
   see Section 9.1.3.8.

8.1.7.  Policy for using Multipath Transports

   Name:  multipathPolicy

   Type:  Enumeration

   Default:  Handover

   This property specifies the local policy for transferring data across
   multiple paths between the same end hosts if Multipath Transport is
   not set to Disabled (see Section 6.2.14).  Possible values are:

   Handover:  The Connection ought only to attempt to migrate between
      different paths when the original path is lost or becomes
      unusable.  The thresholds used to declare a path unusable are
      implementation specific.

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   Interactive:  The Connection ought only to attempt to minimize the
      latency for interactive traffic patterns by transmitting data
      across multiple paths when this is beneficial.  The goal of
      minimizing the latency will be balanced against the cost of each
      of these paths.  Depending on the cost of the lower-latency path,
      the scheduling might choose to use a higher-latency path.  Traffic
      can be scheduled such that data may be transmitted on multiple
      paths in parallel to achieve a lower latency.  The specific
      scheduling algorithm is implementation-specific.

   Aggregate:  The Connection ought to attempt to use multiple paths in
      parallel to maximize available capacity and possibly overcome the
      capacity limitations of the individual paths.  The actual strategy
      is implementation specific.

   Note that this is a local choice – the Remote Endpoint can choose a
   different policy.

8.1.8.  Bounds on Send or Receive Rate

   Name:  minSendRate / minRecvRate / maxSendRate / maxRecvRate

   Type:  Numeric (positive) or Unlimited / Numeric (positive) or
      Unlimited / Numeric (positive) or Unlimited / Numeric (positive)
      or Unlimited

   Default:  Unlimited / Unlimited / Unlimited / Unlimited

   Numeric values of these properties specify an upper-bound rate that a
   transfer is not expected to exceed (even if flow control and
   congestion control allow higher rates), and/or a lower-bound
   application-layer rate below which the application does not deem it
   will be useful.  These rate values are measured at the application
   layer, i.e. do not consider the header overhead from protocols used
   by the Transport Services system.  The values are specified in bits
   per second, and assumed to be measured over one-second time
   intervals.  E.g., specifying a maxSendRate of X bits per second means
   that, from the moment at which the property value is chosen, not more
   than X bits will be send in any following second.  The enumerated
   value Unlimited indicates that no bound is specified.  A Transport
   Services API could express Unlimited in an environment-typical way,
   e.g., as a Union type or special value.

8.1.9.  Group Connection Limit

   Name:  groupConnLimit

   Type:  Numeric (positive) or Unlimited

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   Default:  Unlimited

   If this property is Numeric, it controls the number of Connections
   that can be accepted from a peer as new members of the Connection's
   group.  Similar to SetNewConnectionLimit, this limits the number of
   ConnectionReceived events that will occur, but constrained to the
   group of the Connection associated with this property.  For a multi-
   streaming transport, this limits the number of allowed streams.  A
   Transport Services API could express Unlimited in an environment-
   typical way, e.g., as a Union type or special value.

8.1.10.  Isolate Session

   Name:  isolateSession

   Type:  Boolean

   Default:  false

   When set to true, this property will initiate new Connections using
   as little cached information (such as session tickets or cookies) as
   possible from previous Connections that are not in the same
   Connection Group.  Any state generated by this Connection will only
   be shared with Connections in the same Connection Group.  Cloned
   Connections will use saved state from within the Connection Group.
   This is used for separating Connection Contexts as specified in
   Section 4.2.3 of [I-D.ietf-taps-arch].

   Note that this does not guarantee no leakage of information, as
   implementations might not be able to fully isolate all caches (e.g.
   RTT estimates).  Note that this property could degrade Connection
   performance.

8.1.11.  Read-only Connection Properties

   The following generic Connection Properties are read-only, i.e. they
   cannot be changed by an application.

8.1.11.1.  Connection state

   Name:  connState

   Type:  Enumeration

   This property informs about the current state of the Connection.
   Possible values are: Establishing, Established, Closing or Closed;
   for more details on Connection state, see Section 11.

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8.1.11.2.  Can Send Data

   Name:  canSend

   Type:  Boolean

   This property can be queried to learn whether the Connection can be
   used to send data.

8.1.11.3.  Can Receive Data

   Name:  canReceive

   Type:  Boolean

   This property can be queried to learn whether the Connection can be
   used to receive data.

8.1.11.4.  Maximum Message Size Before Fragmentation or Segmentation

   Name:  singularTransmissionMsgMaxLen

   Type:  Integer (non-negative) or Not applicable

   This property, if applicable, represents the maximum Message size
   that can be sent without incurring network-layer fragmentation at the
   sender.  It is specified as a number of bytes and is less than or
   equal to the Maximum Message Size on Send.  It exposes a readable
   value to the application based on the Maximum Packet Size (MPS).  The
   value of this property can change over time (and can be updated by
   Datagram PLPMTUD [RFC8899]).  This value allows a sending stack to
   avoid unwanted fragmentation at the network-layer or segmentation by
   the transport layer before choosing the message size and/or after a
   SendError occurs indicating an attempt to send a Message that is too
   large.  A Transport Services API could express Not applicable in an
   environment-typical way, e.g., as a Union type or special value
   (e.g., 0).

8.1.11.5.  Maximum Message Size on Send

   Name:  sendMsgMaxLen

   Type:  Integer (non-negative)

   This property represents the maximum Message size that an application
   can send.  It is specified as the number of bytes.  A value of 0
   indicates that sending is not possible.

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8.1.11.6.  Maximum Message Size on Receive

   Name:  recvMsgMaxLen

   Type:  Integer (non-negative)

   This property represents the maximum Message size that an application
   can receive.  It is specified as the number of bytes.  A value of 0
   indicates that receiving is not possible.

8.2.  TCP-specific Properties: User Timeout Option (UTO)

   These properties specify configurations for the TCP User Timeout
   Option (UTO).  This is a TCP-specific property, that is only used in
   the case that TCP becomes the chosen transport protocol and useful
   only if TCP is implemented in the Transport Services system.
   Protocol-specific options could also be defined for other transport
   protocols.

   These are included here because the feature Suggest timeout to the
   peer is part of the minimal set of transport services [RFC8923],
   where this feature was categorized as "functional".  This means that
   when a Transport Services system offers this feature, the Transport
   Services API has to expose an interface to the application.
   Otherwise, the implementation might violate assumptions by the
   application, which could cause the application to fail.

   All of the below properties are optional (e.g., it is possible to
   specify User Timeout Enabled as true, but not specify an Advertised
   User Timeout value; in this case, the TCP default will be used).
   These properties reflect the API extension specified in Section 3 of
   [RFC5482].

8.2.1.  Advertised User Timeout

   Name:  tcp.userTimeoutValue

   Type:  Integer (positive)

   Default:  the TCP default

   This time value is advertised via the TCP User Timeout Option (UTO)
   [RFC5482] to the Remote Endpoint which can use it to adapt its own
   Timeout for aborting Connection (see Section 8.1.3) value.

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8.2.2.  User Timeout Enabled

   Name:  tcp.userTimeoutEnabled

   Type:  Boolean

   Default:  false

   This property controls whether the TCP UTO option is enabled for a
   connection.  This applies to both sending and receiving.

8.2.3.  Timeout Changeable

   Name:  tcp.userTimeoutChangeable

   Type:  Boolean

   Default:  true

   This property controls whether the TCP connTimeout (see
   Section 8.1.3) can be changed based on a UTO option received from the
   remote peer.  This boolean becomes false when connTimeout (see
   Section 8.1.3) is used.

8.3.  Connection Lifecycle Events

   During the lifetime of a Connection there are events that can occur
   when configured.

8.3.1.  Soft Errors

   Asynchronous introspection is also possible, via the SoftError event.
   This event informs the application about the receipt and contents of
   an ICMP error message related to the Connection.  This will only
   happen if the underlying Protocol Stack supports access to soft
   errors; however, even if the underlying stack supports it, there is
   no guarantee that a soft error will be signaled.

   Connection -> SoftError<>

8.3.2.  Path change

   This event notifies the application when at least one of the paths
   underlying a Connection has changed.  Changes occur on a single path
   when the PMTU changes as well as when multiple paths are used and
   paths are added or removed, the set of local endpoints changes, or a
   handover has been performed.

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   Connection -> PathChange<>

9.  Data Transfer

   Data is sent and received as Messages, which allows the application
   to communicate the boundaries of the data being transferred.

9.1.  Messages and Framers

   Each Message has an optional Message Context, which allows adding
   Message Properties, identify Send events related to a specific
   Message or to inspect meta-data related to the Message sent.  Framers
   can be used to extend or modify the Message data with additional
   information that can be processed at the receiver to detect message
   boundaries.

9.1.1.  Message Contexts

   Using the MessageContext object, the application can set and retrieve
   meta-data of the Message, including Message Properties (see
   Section 9.1.3) and framing meta-data (see Section 9.1.2.2).
   Therefore, a MessageContext object can be passed to the Send action
   and is returned by each Send and Receive related event.

   Message Properties can be set and queried using the Message Context:

   MessageContext.add(property, value)
   PropertyValue := MessageContext.get(property)

   These Message Properties can be generic properties or Protocol-
   specific Properties.

   For MessageContexts returned by Send events (see Section 9.2.2) and
   Receive events (see Section 9.3.2), the application can query
   information about the Local and Remote Endpoint:

   RemoteEndpoint := MessageContext.GetRemoteEndpoint()
   LocalEndpoint := MessageContext.GetLocalEndpoint()

9.1.2.  Message Framers

   Although most applications communicate over a network using well-
   formed Messages, the boundaries and metadata of the Messages are
   often not directly communicated by the transport protocol itself.
   For example, HTTP applications send and receive HTTP messages over a
   byte-stream transport, requiring that the boundaries of HTTP messages
   be parsed from the stream of bytes.

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   Message Framers allow extending a Connection's Protocol Stack to
   define how to encapsulate or encode outbound Messages, and how to
   decapsulate or decode inbound data into Messages.  Message Framers
   allow message boundaries to be preserved when using a Connection
   object, even when using byte-stream transports.  This is designed
   based on the fact that many of the current application protocols
   evolved over TCP, which does not provide message boundary
   preservation, and since many of these protocols require message
   boundaries to function, each application layer protocol has defined
   its own framing.

   To use a Message Framer, the application adds it to its Preconnection
   object.  Then, the Message Framer can intercept all calls to Send or
   Receive on a Connection to add Message semantics, in addition to
   interacting with the setup and teardown of the Connection.  A Framer
   can start sending data before the application sends data if the
   framing protocol requires a prefix or handshake (see [RFC9329] for an
   example of such a framing protocol).

     Initiate()   Send()   Receive()   Close()
         |          |         ^          |
         |          |         |          |
    +----v----------v---------+----------v-----+
    |                Connection                |
    +----+----------+---------^----------+-----+
         |          |         |          |
         |      +-----------------+      |
         |      |    Messages     |      |
         |      +-----------------+      |
         |          |         |          |
    +----v----------v---------+----------v-----+
    |                Framer(s)                 |
    +----+----------+---------^----------+-----+
         |          |         |          |
         |      +-----------------+      |
         |      |   Byte-stream   |      |
         |      +-----------------+      |
         |          |         |          |
    +----v----------v---------+----------v-----+
    |         Transport Protocol Stack         |
    +------------------------------------------+

             Figure 1: Protocol Stack showing a Message Framer

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   Note that while Message Framers add the most value when placed above
   a protocol that otherwise does not preserve message boundaries, they
   can also be used with datagram- or message-based protocols.  In these
   cases, they add a transformation to further encode or encapsulate,
   and can potentially support packing multiple application-layer
   Messages into individual transport datagrams.

   The API to implement a Message Framer can vary depending on the
   implementation; guidance on implementing Message Framers can be found
   in [I-D.ietf-taps-impl].

9.1.2.1.  Adding Message Framers to Pre-Connections

   The Message Framer object can be added to one or more Preconnections
   to run on top of transport protocols.  Multiple Framers can be added
   to a Preconnection; in this case, the Framers operate as a framing
   stack, i.e. the last one added runs first when framing outbound
   Messages, and last when parsing inbound data.

   The following example adds a basic HTTP Message Framer to a
   Preconnection:

   framer := NewHTTPMessageFramer()
   Preconnection.AddFramer(framer)

   Since Message Framers pass from Preconnection to Listener or
   Connection, addition of Framers must happen before any operation that
   might result in the creation of a Connection.

9.1.2.2.  Framing Meta-Data

   When sending Messages, applications can add Framer-specific
   properties to a MessageContext (Section 9.1.1) with the add action.
   To avoid naming conflicts, the property names SHOULD be prefixed with
   a namespace referencing the framer implementation or the protocol it
   implements as described in Section 4.1.

   This mechanism can be used, for example, to set the type of a Message
   for a TLV format.  The namespace of values is custom for each unique
   Message Framer.

   messageContext := NewMessageContext()
   messageContext.add(framer, key, value)
   Connection.Send(messageData, messageContext)

   When an application receives a MessageContext in a Receive event, it
   can also look to see if a value was set by a specific Message Framer.

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   messageContext.get(framer, key) -> value

   For example, if an HTTP Message Framer is used, the values could
   correspond to HTTP headers:

   httpFramer := NewHTTPMessageFramer()
   ...
   messageContext := NewMessageContext()
   messageContext.add(httpFramer, "accept", "text/html")

9.1.3.  Message Properties

   Applications needing to annotate the Messages they send with extra
   information (for example, to control how data is scheduled and
   processed by the transport protocols supporting the Connection) can
   include this information in the Message Context passed to the Send
   action.  For other uses of the Message Context, see Section 9.1.1.

   Message Properties are per-Message, not per-Send if partial Messages
   are sent (Section 9.2.3).  All data blocks associated with a single
   Message share properties specified in the Message Contexts.  For
   example, it would not make sense to have the beginning of a Message
   expire, but allow the end of a Message to still be sent.

   A MessageContext object contains metadata for the Messages to be sent
   or received.

   messageData := "hello"
   messageContext := NewMessageContext()
   messageContext.add(parameter, value)
   Connection.Send(messageData, messageContext)

   The simpler form of Send, which does not take any MessageContext, is
   equivalent to passing a default MessageContext without adding any
   Message Properties.

   If an application wants to override Message Properties for a specific
   Message, it can acquire an empty MessageContext object and add all
   desired Message Properties to that object.  It can then reuse the
   same MessageContext object for sending multiple Messages with the
   same properties.

   Properties can be added to a MessageContext object only before the
   context is used for sending.  Once a MessageContext has been used
   with a Send action, further modifications to the MessageContext
   object do not have any effect on this Send call.  Message Properties
   that are not added to a MessageContext object before using the
   context for sending will either take a specific default value or be

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   configured based on Selection or Connection Properties of the
   Connection that is associated with the Send call.  This
   initialization behavior is defined per Message Property below.

   The Message Properties could be inconsistent with the properties of
   the Protocol Stacks underlying the Connection on which a given
   Message is sent.  For example, a Protocol Stack must be able to
   provide ordering if the msgOrdered property of a Message is enabled.
   Sending a Message with Message Properties inconsistent with the
   Selection Properties of the Connection yields an error.

   If a Message Property contradicts a Connection Property, and if this
   per-Message behavior can be supported, it overrides the Connection
   Property for the specific Message.  For example, if reliability is
   set to Require and a protocol with configurable per-Message
   reliability is used, setting msgReliable to false for a particular
   Message will allow this Message to be sent without any reliability
   guarantees.  Changing the msgReliable Message Property is only
   possible for Connections that were established enabling the Selection
   Property perMsgReliability.  If the contradicting Message Property
   cannot be supported by the Connection (such as requiring reliability
   on a Connection that uses an unreliable protocol), the Send action
   will result in a SendError event.

   The following Message Properties are supported:

9.1.3.1.  Lifetime

   Name:  msgLifetime

   Type:  Numeric (positive)

   Default:  infinite

   The Lifetime specifies how long a particular Message can wait in the
   Transport Services system before it is sent to the Remote Endpoint.
   After this time, it is irrelevant and no longer needs to be
   (re-)transmitted.  This is a hint to the Transport Services system --
   it is not guaranteed that a Message will not be sent when its
   Lifetime has expired.

   Setting a Message's Lifetime to infinite indicates that the
   application does not wish to apply a time constraint on the
   transmission of the Message, but it does not express a need for
   reliable delivery; reliability is adjustable per Message via the
   perMsgReliability property (see Section 9.1.3.7).  The type and units
   of Lifetime are implementation-specific.

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9.1.3.2.  Priority

   Name:  msgPriority

   Type:  Integer (non-negative)

   Default:  100

   This property specifies the priority of a Message, relative to other
   Messages sent over the same Connection.  A numerically lower value
   represents a higher priority.

   A Message with Priority 2 will yield to a Message with Priority 1,
   which will yield to a Message with Priority 0, and so on.  Priorities
   can be used as a sender-side scheduling construct only, or be used to
   specify priorities on the wire for Protocol Stacks supporting
   prioritization.

   Note that this property is not a per-Message override of connPriority
   - see Section 8.1.2.  The priority properties might interact, but can
   be used independently and be realized by different mechanisms; see
   Section 9.2.6.

9.1.3.3.  Ordered

   Name:  msgOrdered

   Type:  Boolean

   Default:  the queried Boolean value of the Selection Property
      preserveOrder (Section 6.2.4)

   The order in which Messages were submitted for transmission via the
   Send action will be preserved on delivery via Receive events for all
   Messages on a Connection that have this Message Property set to true.

   If false, the Message is delivered to the receiving application
   without preserving the ordering.  This property is used for protocols
   that support preservation of data ordering, see Section 6.2.4, but
   allow out-of-order delivery for certain Messages, e.g., by
   multiplexing independent Messages onto different streams.

   If it is not configured by the application before sending, this
   property's default value will be based on the Selection Property
   preserveOrder of the Connection associated with the Send action.

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9.1.3.4.  Safely Replayable

   Name:  safelyReplayable

   Type:  Boolean

   Default:  false

   If true, safelyReplayable specifies that a Message is safe to send to
   the Remote Endpoint more than once for a single Send action.  It
   marks the data as safe for certain 0-RTT establishment techniques,
   where retransmission of the 0-RTT data could cause the remote
   application to receive the Message multiple times.

   For protocols that do not protect against duplicated Messages, e.g.,
   UDP, all Messages need to be marked as "safely replayable" by
   enabling this property.  To enable protocol selection to choose such
   a protocol, safelyReplayable needs to be added to the
   TransportProperties passed to the Preconnection.  If such a protocol
   was chosen, disabling safelyReplayable on individual Messages MUST
   result in a SendError.

9.1.3.5.  Final

   Name:  final

   Type:  Boolean

   Default:  false

   If true, this indicates a Message is the last that the application
   will send on a Connection.  This allows underlying protocols to
   indicate to the Remote Endpoint that the Connection has been
   effectively closed in the sending direction.  For example, TCP-based
   Connections can send a FIN once a Message marked as Final has been
   completely sent, indicated by marking endOfMessage.  Protocols that
   do not support signalling the end of a Connection in a given
   direction will ignore this property.

   A Final Message must always be sorted to the end of a list of
   Messages.  The Final property overrides Priority and any other
   property that would re-order Messages.  If another Message is sent
   after a Message marked as Final has already been sent on a
   Connection, the Send action for the new Message will cause a
   SendError event.

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9.1.3.6.  Sending Corruption Protection Length

   Name:  msgChecksumLen

   Type:  Integer (non-negative) or Full Coverage

   Default:  Full Coverage

   If this property is an Integer, it specifies the minimum length of
   the section of a sent Message, starting from byte 0, that the
   application requires to be delivered without corruption due to lower
   layer errors.  It is used to specify options for simple integrity
   protection via checksums.  A value of 0 means that no checksum needs
   to be calculated, and the enumerated value Full Coverage means that
   the entire Message needs to be protected by a checksum.  Only Full
   Coverage is guaranteed, any other requests are advisory, which may
   result in Full Coverage being applied.

9.1.3.7.  Reliable Data Transfer (Message)

   Name:  msgReliable

   Type:  Boolean

   Default:  the queried Boolean value of the Selection Property
      reliability (Section 6.2.1)

   When true, this property specifies that a Message should be sent in
   such a way that the transport protocol ensures all data is received
   by the Remote Endpoint.  Changing the msgReliable property on
   Messages is only possible for Connections that were established
   enabling the Selection Property perMsgReliability.  When this is not
   the case, changing msgReliable will generate an error.

   Disabling this property indicates that the Transport Services system
   could disable retransmissions or other reliability mechanisms for
   this particular Message, but such disabling is not guaranteed.

   If it is not configured by the application before sending, this
   property's default value will be based on the Selection Property
   reliability of the Connection associated with the Send action.

9.1.3.8.  Message Capacity Profile Override

   Name:  msgCapacityProfile

   Type:  Enumeration

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   Default:  inherited from the Connection Property connCapacityProfile
      (Section 8.1.6)

   This enumerated property specifies the application's preferred
   tradeoffs for sending this Message; it is a per-Message override of
   the connCapacityProfile Connection Property (see Section 8.1.6).  If
   it is not configured by the application before sending, this
   property's default value will be based on the Connection Property
   connCapacityProfile of the Connection associated with the Send
   action.

9.1.3.9.  No Network-Layer Fragmentation

   Name:  noFragmentation

   Type:  Boolean

   Default:  false

   This property specifies that a Message should be sent and received
   without network-layer fragmentation, if possible.  It can be used to
   avoid network layer fragmentation when transport segmentation is
   preferred.

   This only takes effect when the transport uses a network layer that
   supports this functionality.  When it does take effect, setting this
   property to true will cause the sender to avoid network-layer source
   fragmentation.  When using IPv4, this will result in the Don't
   Fragment bit being set in the IP header.

   Attempts to send a Message with this property that result in a size
   greater than the transport's current estimate of its maximum packet
   size (singularTransmissionMsgMaxLen) can result in transport
   segmentation when permitted, or in a SendError.

   Note: noSegmentation is used when it is desired to only send a
   Message within a single network packet.

9.1.3.10.  No Segmentation

   Name:  noSegmentation

   Type:  Boolean

   Default:  false

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   When set to true, this property requests the transport layer to not
   provide segmentation of Messages larger than the maximum size
   permitted by the network layer, and also to avoid network-layer
   source fragmentation of Messages.  When running over IPv4, setting
   this property to true will result in a sending endpoint setting the
   Don't Fragment bit in the IPv4 header of packets generated by the
   transport layer.

   An attempt to send a Message that results in a size greater than the
   transport's current estimate of its maximum packet size
   (singularTransmissionMsgMaxLen) will result in a SendError.  This
   only takes effect when the transport and network layer support this
   functionality.

9.2.  Sending Data

   Once a Connection has been established, it can be used for sending
   Messages.  By default, Send enqueues a complete Message, and takes
   optional per-Message properties (see Section 9.2.1).  All Send
   actions are asynchronous, and deliver events (see Section 9.2.2).
   Sending partial Messages for streaming large data is also supported
   (see Section 9.2.3).

   Messages are sent on a Connection using the Send action:

   Connection.Send(messageData, messageContext?, endOfMessage?)

   where messageData is the data object to send, and messageContext
   allows adding Message Properties, identifying Send events related to
   a specific Message or inspecting meta-data related to the Message
   sent (see Section 9.1.1).

   The optional endOfMessage parameter supports partial sending and is
   described in Section 9.2.3.

9.2.1.  Basic Sending

   The most basic form of sending on a Connection involves enqueuing a
   single Data block as a complete Message with default Message
   Properties.

   messageData := "hello"
   Connection.Send(messageData)

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   The interpretation of a Message to be sent is dependent on the
   implementation, and on the constraints on the Protocol Stacks implied
   by the Connection’s transport properties.  For example, a Message
   could be the payload of a single datagram for a UDP Connection; or an
   HTTP Request for an HTTP Connection.

   Some transport protocols can deliver arbitrarily sized Messages, but
   other protocols constrain the maximum Message size.  Applications can
   query the Connection Property sendMsgMaxLen (Section 8.1.11.5) to
   determine the maximum size allowed for a single Message.  If a
   Message is too large to fit in the Maximum Message Size for the
   Connection, the Send will fail with a SendError event
   (Section 9.2.2.3).  For example, it is invalid to send a Message over
   a UDP connection that is larger than the available datagram sending
   size.

9.2.2.  Send Events

   Like all actions in Transport Services API, the Send action is
   asynchronous.  There are several events that can be delivered in
   response to sending a Message.  Exactly one event (Sent, Expired, or
   SendError) will be delivered in response to each call to Send.

   Note that if partial Send calls are used (Section 9.2.3), there will
   still be exactly one Send event delivered for each call to Send.  For
   example, if a Message expired while two requests to Send data for
   that Message are outstanding, there will be two Expired events
   delivered.

   The Transport Services API should allow the application to correlate
   which Send action resulted in a particular Send event.  The manner in
   which this correlation is indicated is implementation-specific.

9.2.2.1.  Sent

   Connection -> Sent<messageContext>

   The Sent event occurs when a previous Send call has completed, i.e.,
   when the data derived from the Message has been passed down or
   through the underlying Protocol Stack and is no longer the
   responsibility of the Transport Services API.  The exact disposition
   of the Message (i.e., whether it has actually been transmitted, moved
   into a buffer on the network interface, moved into a kernel buffer,
   and so on) when the Sent event occurs is implementation-specific.
   The Sent event contains a reference to the Message Context of the
   Message to which it applies.

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   Sent events allow an application to obtain an understanding of the
   amount of buffering it creates.  That is, if an application calls the
   Send action multiple times without waiting for a Sent event, it has
   created more buffer inside the Transport Services system than an
   application that always waits for the Sent event before calling the
   next Send action.

9.2.2.2.  Expired

   Connection -> Expired<messageContext>

   The Expired event occurs when a previous Send action expired before
   completion; i.e. when the Message was not sent before its Lifetime
   (see Section 9.1.3.1) expired.  This is separate from SendError, as
   it is an expected behavior for partially reliable transports.  The
   Expired event contains a reference to the Message Context of the
   Message to which it applies.

9.2.2.3.  SendError

   Connection -> SendError<messageContext, reason?>

   A SendError occurs when a Message was not sent due to an error
   condition: an attempt to send a Message that is too large for the
   system and Protocol Stack to handle, some failure of the underlying
   Protocol Stack, or a set of Message Properties not consistent with
   the Connection's transport properties.  The SendError contains a
   reference to the Message Context of the Message to which it applies.

9.2.3.  Partial Sends

   It is not always possible for an application to send all data
   associated with a Message in a single Send action.  The Message data
   might be too large for the application to hold in memory at one time,
   or the length of the Message might be unknown or unbounded.

   Partial Message sending is supported by passing an endOfMessage
   Boolean parameter to the Send action.  This value is always true by
   default, and the simpler forms of Send are equivalent to passing true
   for endOfMessage.

   The following example sends a Message in two separate calls to Send.

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   messageContext := NewMessageContext()
   messageContext.add(parameter, value)

   messageData := "hel"
   endOfMessage := false
   Connection.Send(messageData, messageContext, endOfMessage)

   messageData := "lo"
   endOfMessage := true
   Connection.Send(messageData, messageContext, endOfMessage)

   All data sent with the same MessageContext object will be treated as
   belonging to the same Message, and will constitute an in-order series
   until the endOfMessage is marked.

9.2.4.  Batching Sends

   To reduce the overhead of sending multiple small Messages on a
   Connection, the application could batch several Send actions
   together.  This provides a hint to the system that the sending of
   these Messages ought to be coalesced when possible, and that sending
   any of the batched Messages can be delayed until the last Message in
   the batch is enqueued.

   The semantics for starting and ending a batch can be implementation-
   specific, but need to allow multiple Send actions to be enqueued.

   Connection.StartBatch()
   Connection.Send(messageData)
   Connection.Send(messageData)
   Connection.EndBatch()

9.2.5.  Send on Active Open: InitiateWithSend

   For application-layer protocols where the Connection initiator also
   sends the first Message, the InitiateWithSend action combines
   Connection initiation with a first Message sent:

   Connection := Preconnection.InitiateWithSend(messageData,
                                                messageContext?,
                                                timeout?)

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   Whenever possible, a MessageContext should be provided to declare the
   Message passed to InitiateWithSend as "safely replayable" using the
   safelyReplayable property.  This allows the Transport Services system
   to make use of 0-RTT establishment in case this is supported by the
   available Protocol Stacks.  When the selected stack(s) do not support
   transmitting data upon connection establishment, InitiateWithSend is
   identical to Initiate followed by Send.

   Neither partial sends nor send batching are supported by
   InitiateWithSend.

   The events that are sent after InitiateWithSend are equivalent to
   those that would be sent by an invocation of Initiate followed
   immediately by an invocation of Send, with the caveat that a send
   failure that occurs because the Connection could not be established
   will not result in a SendError separate from the EstablishmentError
   signaling the failure of Connection establishment.

9.2.6.  Priority and the Transport Services API

   The Transport Services API provides two properties to allow a sender
   to signal the relative priority of data transmission: msgPriority
   Section 9.1.3.2 and connPriority Section 8.1.2.  These properties are
   designed to allow the expression and implementation of a wide variety
   of approaches to transmission priority in the transport and
   application layer, including those which do not appear on the wire
   (affecting only sender-side transmission scheduling) as well as those
   that do (e.g.  [RFC9218].  A Transport Services system gives no
   guarantees about how its expression of relative priorities will be
   realized.

   The Transport Services API does order connPriority over msgPriority.
   In the absence of other externalities (e.g., transport-layer flow
   control), a priority 1 Message on a priority 0 Connection will be
   sent before a priority 0 Message on a priority 1 Connection in the
   same group.

9.3.  Receiving Data

   Once a Connection is established, it can be used for receiving data
   (unless the direction property is set to unidirectional send).  As
   with sending, the data is received in Messages.  Receiving is an
   asynchronous operation, in which each call to Receive enqueues a
   request to receive new data from the Connection.  Once data has been
   received, or an error is encountered, an event will be delivered to
   complete any pending Receive requests (see Section 9.3.2).  If
   Messages arrive at the Transport Services system before Receive
   requests are issued, ensuing Receive requests will first operate on

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   these Messages before awaiting any further Messages.

9.3.1.  Enqueuing Receives

   Receive takes two parameters to specify the length of data that an
   application is willing to receive, both of which are optional and
   have default values if not specified.

   Connection.Receive(minIncompleteLength?, maxLength?)

   By default, Receive will try to deliver complete Messages in a single
   event (Section 9.3.2.1).

   The application can set a minIncompleteLength value to indicate the
   smallest partial Message data size in bytes to be delivered in
   response to this Receive.  By default, this value is infinite, which
   means that only complete Messages should be delivered (see
   Section 9.3.2.2 and Section 9.1.2 for more information on how this is
   accomplished).  If this value is set to some smaller value, the
   associated receive event will be triggered only when at least that
   many bytes are available, or the Message is complete with fewer
   bytes, or the system needs to free up memory.  Applications SHOULD
   always check the length of the data delivered to the receive event
   and not assume it will be as long as minIncompleteLength in the case
   of shorter complete Messages or memory issues.

   The maxLength argument indicates the maximum size of a Message in
   bytes that the application is currently prepared to receive.  The
   default value for maxLength is infinite.  If an incoming Message is
   larger than the minimum of this size and the maximum Message size on
   receive for the Connection's Protocol Stack, it will be delivered via
   ReceivedPartial events (Section 9.3.2.2).

   Note that maxLength does not guarantee that the application will
   receive that many bytes if they are available; the Transport Services
   API could return ReceivedPartial events with less data than maxLength
   according to implementation constraints.  Note also that maxLength
   and minIncompleteLength are intended only to manage buffering, and
   are not interpreted as a receiver preference for Message reordering.

9.3.2.  Receive Events

   Each call to Receive will be paired with a single Receive event.
   This allows an application to provide backpressure to the transport
   stack when it is temporarily not ready to receive Messages.  For
   example, an application that will later be able to handle multiple
   receive events at the same time can make multiple calls to Receive
   without waiting for, or processing, any receive events.  An

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   application that is temporarily unable to process received events for
   a connection could refrain from calling Receive or delay calling it.
   This would lead to a build-up of unread data, which, in turn, could
   result in backpressure to the sender via a transport protocol's flow
   control.

   The Transport Services API should allow the application to correlate
   which call to Receive resulted in a particular Receive event.  The
   manner in which this correlation is indicated is implementation-
   specific.

9.3.2.1.  Received

   Connection -> Received<messageData, messageContext>

   A Received event indicates the delivery of a complete Message.  It
   contains two objects, the received bytes as messageData, and the
   metadata and properties of the received Message as messageContext.

   The messageData value provides access to the bytes that were received
   for this Message, along with the length of the byte array.  The
   messageContext value is provided to enable retrieving metadata about
   the Message and referring to the Message.  The MessageContext object
   is described in Section 9.1.1.

   See Section 9.1.2 for handling Message framing in situations where
   the Protocol Stack only provides a byte-stream transport.

9.3.2.2.  ReceivedPartial

   Connection -> ReceivedPartial<messageData, messageContext,
                                 endOfMessage>

   If a complete Message cannot be delivered in one event, one part of
   the Message can be delivered with a ReceivedPartial event.  To
   continue to receive more of the same Message, the application must
   invoke Receive again.

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   Multiple invocations of ReceivedPartial deliver data for the same
   Message by passing the same MessageContext, until the endOfMessage
   flag is delivered or a ReceiveError occurs.  All partial blocks of a
   single Message are delivered in order without gaps.  This event does
   not support delivering non-contiguous partial Messages.  If, for
   example, Message A is divided into three pieces (A1, A2, A3) and
   Message B is divided into three pieces (B1, B2, B3), and
   preserveOrder is not Required, the ReceivedPartial could deliver them
   in a sequence like this: A1, B1, B2, A2, A3, B3, because the
   MessageContext allows the application to identify the pieces as
   belonging to Message A and B, respectively.  However, a sequence
   like: A1, A3 will never occur.

   If the minIncompleteLength in the Receive request was set to be
   infinite (indicating a request to receive only complete Messages),
   the ReceivedPartial event could still be delivered if one of the
   following conditions is true:

   *  the underlying Protocol Stack supports message boundary
      preservation, and the size of the Message is larger than the
      buffers available for a single Message;

   *  the underlying Protocol Stack does not support message boundary
      preservation, and the Message Framer (see Section 9.1.2) cannot
      determine the end of the Message using the buffer space it has
      available; or

   *  the underlying Protocol Stack does not support message boundary
      preservation, and no Message Framer was supplied by the
      application

   Note that in the absence of message boundary preservation or a
   Message Framer, all bytes received on the Connection will be
   represented as one large Message of indeterminate length.

   In the following example, an application only wants to receive up to
   1000 bytes at a time from a Connection.  If a 1500-byte Message
   arrives, it would receive the Message in two separate ReceivedPartial
   events.

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   Connection.Receive(1, 1000)

   // Receive first 1000 bytes, message is incomplete
   Connection -> ReceivedPartial<messageData(1000 bytes),
                                 messageContext, false>

   Connection.Receive(1, 1000)

   // Receive last 500 bytes, message is now complete
   Connection -> ReceivedPartial<messageData(500 bytes),
                                 messageContext, true>

9.3.2.3.  ReceiveError

   Connection -> ReceiveError<messageContext, reason?>

   A ReceiveError occurs when data is received by the underlying
   Protocol Stack that cannot be fully retrieved or parsed, and when it
   is useful for the application to be notified of such errors.  For
   example, a ReceiveError can indicate that a Message (identified via
   the messageContext value) that was being partially received
   previously, but had not completed, encountered an error and will not
   be completed.  This can be useful for an application, which might
   wish to use this error as a hint to remove previously received
   Message parts from memory.  As another example, if an incoming
   Message does not fulfill the recvChecksumLen property (see
   Section 8.1.1), an application can use this error as a hint to inform
   the peer application to adjust the msgChecksumLen property (see
   Section 9.1.3.6).

   In contrast, internal protocol reception errors (e.g., loss causing
   retransmissions in TCP) are not signalled by this event.  Conditions
   that irrevocably lead to the termination of the Connection are
   signaled using ConnectionError (see Section 10).

9.3.3.  Receive Message Properties

   Each Message Context could contain metadata from protocols in the
   Protocol Stack; which metadata is available is Protocol Stack
   dependent.  These are exposed through additional read-only Message
   Properties that can be queried from the MessageContext object (see
   Section 9.1.1) passed by the receive event.  The following metadata
   values are supported:

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9.3.3.1.  UDP(-Lite)-specific Property: ECN

   When available, Message metadata carries the value of the Explicit
   Congestion Notification (ECN) field.  This information can be used
   for logging and debugging, and for building applications that need
   access to information about the transport internals for their own
   operation.  This property is specific to UDP and UDP-Lite because
   these protocols do not implement congestion control, and hence expose
   this functionality to the application (see [RFC8293], following the
   guidance in [RFC8085])

9.3.3.2.  Early Data

   In some cases it can be valuable to know whether data was read as
   part of early data transfer (before Connection establishment has
   finished).  This is useful if applications need to treat early data
   separately, e.g., if early data has different security properties
   than data sent after connection establishment.  In the case of TLS
   1.3, client early data can be replayed maliciously (see [RFC8446]).
   Thus, receivers might wish to perform additional checks for early
   data to ensure it is safely replayable.  If TLS 1.3 is available and
   the recipient Message was sent as part of early data, the
   corresponding metadata carries a flag indicating as such.  If early
   data is enabled, applications should check this metadata field for
   Messages received during Connection establishment and respond
   accordingly.

9.3.3.3.  Receiving Final Messages

   The Message Context can indicate whether or not this Message is the
   Final Message on a Connection.  For any Message that is marked as
   Final, the application can assume that there will be no more Messages
   received on the Connection once the Message has been completely
   delivered.  This corresponds to the final property that can be marked
   on a sent Message, see Section 9.1.3.5.

   Some transport protocols and peers do not support signaling of the
   final property.  Applications therefore SHOULD NOT rely on receiving
   a Message marked Final to know that the sending endpoint is done
   sending on a Connection.

   Any calls to Receive once the Final Message has been delivered will
   result in errors.

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10.  Connection Termination

   A Connection can be terminated i) by the Local Endpoint (i.e., the
   application calls the Close, CloseGroup, Abort or AbortGroup action),
   ii) by the Remote Endpoint (i.e., the remote application calls the
   Close, CloseGroup, Abort or AbortGroup action), or iii) because of an
   error (e.g., a timeout).  A local call of the Close action will cause
   the Connection to either send a Closed event or a ConnectionError
   event, and a local call of the CloseGroup action will cause all of
   the Connections in the group to either send a Closed event or a
   ConnectionError event.  A local call of the Abort action will cause
   the Connection to send a ConnectionError event, indicating local
   Abort as a reason, and a local call of the AbortGroup action will
   cause all of the Connections in the group to send a ConnectionError
   event, indicating local Abort as a reason.

   Remote action calls map to events similar to local calls (e.g., a
   remote Close causes the Connection to either send a Closed event or a
   ConnectionError event), but, different from local action calls, it is
   not guaranteed that such events will indeed be invoked.  When an
   application needs to free resources associated with a Connection, it
   ought not to therefore rely on the invocation of such events due to
   termination calls from the Remote Endpoint, but instead use the local
   termination actions.

   Close terminates a Connection after satisfying all the requirements
   that were specified regarding the delivery of Messages that the
   application has already given to the Transport Services system.  Upon
   successfully satisfying all these requirements, the Connection will
   send the Closed event.  For example, if reliable delivery was
   requested for a Message handed over before calling Close, the Closed
   event will signify that this Message has indeed been delivered.  This
   action does not affect any other Connection in the same Connection
   Group.

   An application MUST NOT assume that it can receive any further data
   on a Connection for which it has called Close, even if such data is
   already in flight.

   Connection.Close()

   The Closed event informs the application that a Close action has
   successfully completed, or that the Remote Endpoint has closed the
   Connection.  There is no guarantee that a remote Close will be
   signaled.

   Connection -> Closed<>

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   Abort terminates a Connection without delivering any remaining
   Messages.  This action does not affect any other Connection that is
   entangled with this one in a Connection Group.  When the Abort action
   has finished, the Connection will send a ConnectionError event,
   indicating local Abort as a reason.

   Connection.Abort()

   CloseGroup gracefully terminates a Connection and any other
   Connections in the same Connection Group.  For example, all of the
   Connections in a group might be streams of a single session for a
   multistreaming protocol; closing the entire group will close the
   underlying session.  See also Section 7.4.  All Connections in the
   group will send a Closed event when the CloseGroup action was
   successful.  As with Close, any Messages remaining to be processed on
   a Connection will be handled prior to closing.

   Connection.CloseGroup()

   AbortGroup terminates a Connection and any other Connections that are
   in the same Connection Group without delivering any remaining
   Messages.  When the AbortGroup action has finished, all Connections
   in the group will send a ConnectionError event, indicating local
   Abort as a reason.

   Connection.AbortGroup()

   A ConnectionError informs the application that: 1) data could not be
   delivered to the peer after a timeout, or 2) the Connection has been
   aborted (e.g., because the peer has called Abort).  There is no
   guarantee that an Abort from the peer will be signaled.

   Connection -> ConnectionError<reason?>

11.  Connection State and Ordering of Operations and Events

   This Transport Services API is designed to be independent of an
   implementation's concurrency model.  The details of how exactly
   actions are handled, and how events are dispatched, are
   implementation dependent.

   Some transitions of Connection states are associated with events:

   *  Ready<> occurs when a Connection created with Initiate or
      InitiateWithSend transitions to Established state.

   *  ConnectionReceived<> occurs when a Connection created with Listen
      transitions to Established state.

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   *  RendezvousDone<> occurs when a Connection created with Rendezvous
      transitions to Established state.

   *  Closed<> occurs when a Connection transitions to Closed state
      without error.

   *  EstablishmentError<> occurs when a Connection created with
      Initiate transitions from Establishing state to Closed state due
      to an error.

   *  ConnectionError<> occurs when a Connection transitions to Closed
      state due to an error in all other circumstances.

   The following diagram shows the possible states of a Connection and
   the events that occur upon a transition from one state to another.

                 (*)                               (**)
   Establishing -----> Established -----> Closing ------> Closed
        |                                                   ^
        |                                                   |
        +---------------------------------------------------+
                     EstablishmentError<>

   (*) Ready<>, ConnectionReceived<>, RendezvousDone<>
   (**) Closed<>, ConnectionError<>

                     Figure 2: Connection State Diagram

   The Transport Services API provides the following guarantees about
   the ordering of operations:

   *  Sent<> events will occur on a Connection in the order in which the
      Messages were sent (i.e., delivered to the kernel or to the
      network interface, depending on implementation).

   *  Received<> will never occur on a Connection before it is
      Established; i.e. before a Ready<> event on that Connection, or a
      ConnectionReceived<> or RendezvousDone<> containing that
      Connection.

   *  No events will occur on a Connection after it is closed; i.e.,
      after a Closed<> event, an EstablishmentError<> or
      ConnectionError<> will not occur on that Connection.  To ensure
      this ordering, Closed<> will not occur on a Connection while other
      events on the Connection are still locally outstanding (i.e.,
      known to the Transport Services API and waiting to be dealt with
      by the application).

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12.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.  Later versions of this
   document might create IANA registries for generic transport property
   names and transport property namespaces (see Section 4.1).

13.  Privacy and Security Considerations

   This document describes a generic API for interacting with a
   Transport Services system.  Part of this API includes configuration
   details for transport security protocols, as discussed in
   Section 6.3.  It does not recommend use (or disuse) of specific
   algorithms or protocols.  Any API-compatible transport security
   protocol ought to work in a Transport Services system.  Security
   considerations for these protocols are discussed in the respective
   specifications.

   [I-D.ietf-taps-arch] provides general security considerations and
   requirements for any system that implements the Transport Services
   architecture.  These include recommendations of relevance to the API,
   e.g. regarding the use of keying material.

   The described API is used to exchange information between an
   application and the Transport Services system.  While it is not
   necessarily expected that both systems are implemented by the same
   authority, it is expected that the Transport Services Implementation
   is either provided as a library that is selected by the application
   from a trusted party, or that it is part of the operating system that
   the application also relies on for other tasks.

   In either case, the Transport Services API is an internal interface
   that is used to exchange information locally between two systems.
   However, as the Transport Services system is responsible for network
   communication, it is in the position to potentially share any
   information provided by the application with the network or another
   communication peer.  Most of the information provided over the
   Transport Services API are useful to configure and select protocols
   and paths and are not necessarily privacy-sensitive.  Still, some
   information could be privacy sensitive because it might reveal usage
   characteristics and habits of the user of an application.

   Of course any communication over a network reveals usage
   characteristics, because all packets, as well as their timing and
   size, are part of the network-visible wire image [RFC8546].  However,
   the selection of a protocol and its configuration also impacts which
   information is visible, potentially in clear text, and which other
   entities can access it.  How Transport Services systems ought to
   choose protocols depending on the security properties required is out

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   of scope of this specification, as it is limited to transport
   protocols.  The choice of a security protocol can be informed by the
   survey provided in [RFC8922].

   In most cases, information provided for protocol and path selection
   does not directly translate to information that can be observed by
   network devices on the path.  However, there might be specific
   configuration information that is intended for path exposure, e.g., a
   DiffServ codepoint setting, that is either provided directly by the
   application or indirectly configured for a traffic profile.

   Applications should be aware that a single communication attempt can
   lead to more than one connection establishment procedure.  This is
   the case, for example, when the Transport Services system also
   executes name resolution, when support mechanisms such as TURN or ICE
   are used to establish connectivity, if protocols or paths are raced,
   or if a path fails and fallback or re-establishment is supported in
   the Transport Services system.  Applications should take special care
   when using 0-RTT session resumption (see Section 6.2.5), as early
   data sent across multiple paths during connection establishment could
   reveal information that can be used to correlate endpoints on these
   paths.

   Applications should also take care to not assume that all data
   received using the Transport Services API is always complete or well-
   formed.  Specifically, Messages that are received partially
   Section 9.3.2.2 could be a source of truncation attacks if
   applications do not distinguish between partial Messages and complete
   Messages.

   The Transport Services API explicitly does not require the
   application to resolve names, though there is a tradeoff between
   early and late binding of addresses to names.  Early binding allows
   the Transport Services Implementation to reduce Connection setup
   latency, at the cost of potentially limited scope for alternate path
   discovery during Connection establishment, as well as potential
   additional information leakage about application interest when used
   with a resolution method (such as DNS without TLS) which does not
   protect query confidentiality.  Names used with the Transport
   Services API SHOULD be fully-qualified domain names (FQDNs); not
   providing an FQDN will result in the Transport Services
   Implementation needing to to use DNS search domains for name
   resolution, which might lead to inconsistent or unpredictable
   behavior.

   These communication activities are not different from what is used
   today.  However, the goal of a Transport Services system is to
   support such mechanisms as a generic service within the transport

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   layer.  This enables applications to more dynamically benefit from
   innovations and new protocols in the transport, although it reduces
   transparency of the underlying communication actions to the
   application itself.  The Transport Services API is designed such that
   protocol and path selection can be limited to a small and controlled
   set if the application requires this or to implement a security
   policy. can be limited to a small and controlled set if required by
   the application to perform a function or to provide security.
   Further, introspection on the properties of Connection objects allows
   an application to determine which protocol(s) and path(s) are in use.
   A Transport Services system SHOULD provide a facility logging the
   communication events of each Connection.

14.  Acknowledgments

   This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020
   research and innovation programme under grant agreements No. 644334
   (NEAT) and No. 688421 (MAMI).

   This work has been supported by Leibniz Prize project funds of DFG -
   German Research Foundation: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Preis 2011 (FKZ
   FE 570/4-1).

   This work has been supported by the UK Engineering and Physical
   Sciences Research Council under grant EP/R04144X/1.

   This work has been supported by the Research Council of Norway under
   its "Toppforsk" programme through the "OCARINA" project.

   Thanks to Stuart Cheshire, Josh Graessley, David Schinazi, and Eric
   Kinnear for their implementation and design efforts, including Happy
   Eyeballs, that heavily influenced this work.  Thanks to Laurent Chuat
   and Jason Lee for initial work on the Post Sockets interface, from
   which this work has evolved.  Thanks to Maximilian Franke for asking
   good questions based on implementation experience and for
   contributing text, e.g., on multicast.

15.  References

15.1.  Normative References

   [ALPN]     Friedl, S., Popov, A., Langley, A., and E. Stephan,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Application-Layer Protocol
              Negotiation Extension", RFC 7301, DOI 10.17487/RFC7301,
              July 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7301>.

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   [I-D.ietf-taps-arch]
              Pauly, T., Trammell, B., Brunstrom, A., Fairhurst, G., and
              C. Perkins, "Architecture and Requirements for Transport
              Services", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              taps-arch-19, 9 November 2023,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-taps-
              arch-19>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8174>.

15.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-taps-impl]
              Brunstrom, A., Pauly, T., Enghardt, R., Tiesel, P. S., and
              M. Welzl, "Implementing Interfaces to Transport Services",
              Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-taps-impl-18,
              14 December 2023, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/
              draft-ietf-taps-impl-18>.

   [RFC2474]  Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black,
              "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS
              Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2474, December 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2474>.

   [RFC2597]  Heinanen, J., Baker, F., Weiss, W., and J. Wroclawski,
              "Assured Forwarding PHB Group", RFC 2597,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2597, June 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2597>.

   [RFC2914]  Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41,
              RFC 2914, DOI 10.17487/RFC2914, September 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2914>.

   [RFC3246]  Davie, B., Charny, A., Bennet, J.C.R., Benson, K., Le
              Boudec, J.Y., Courtney, W., Davari, S., Firoiu, V., and D.
              Stiliadis, "An Expedited Forwarding PHB (Per-Hop
              Behavior)", RFC 3246, DOI 10.17487/RFC3246, March 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3246>.

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   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3261>.

   [RFC4594]  Babiarz, J., Chan, K., and F. Baker, "Configuration
              Guidelines for DiffServ Service Classes", RFC 4594,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4594, August 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc4594>.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5280>.

   [RFC5482]  Eggert, L. and F. Gont, "TCP User Timeout Option",
              RFC 5482, DOI 10.17487/RFC5482, March 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5482>.

   [RFC5865]  Baker, F., Polk, J., and M. Dolly, "A Differentiated
              Services Code Point (DSCP) for Capacity-Admitted Traffic",
              RFC 5865, DOI 10.17487/RFC5865, May 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5865>.

   [RFC5952]  Kawamura, S. and M. Kawashima, "A Recommendation for IPv6
              Address Text Representation", RFC 5952,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5952, August 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5952>.

   [RFC7478]  Holmberg, C., Hakansson, S., and G. Eriksson, "Web Real-
              Time Communication Use Cases and Requirements", RFC 7478,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7478, March 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7478>.

   [RFC7556]  Anipko, D., Ed., "Multiple Provisioning Domain
              Architecture", RFC 7556, DOI 10.17487/RFC7556, June 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7556>.

   [RFC7657]  Black, D., Ed. and P. Jones, "Differentiated Services
              (Diffserv) and Real-Time Communication", RFC 7657,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7657, November 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7657>.

   [RFC8084]  Fairhurst, G., "Network Transport Circuit Breakers",
              BCP 208, RFC 8084, DOI 10.17487/RFC8084, March 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8084>.

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   [RFC8085]  Eggert, L., Fairhurst, G., and G. Shepherd, "UDP Usage
              Guidelines", BCP 145, RFC 8085, DOI 10.17487/RFC8085,
              March 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8085>.

   [RFC8095]  Fairhurst, G., Ed., Trammell, B., Ed., and M. Kuehlewind,
              Ed., "Services Provided by IETF Transport Protocols and
              Congestion Control Mechanisms", RFC 8095,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8095, March 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8095>.

   [RFC8260]  Stewart, R., Tuexen, M., Loreto, S., and R. Seggelmann,
              "Stream Schedulers and User Message Interleaving for the
              Stream Control Transmission Protocol", RFC 8260,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8260, November 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8260>.

   [RFC8293]  Ghanwani, A., Dunbar, L., McBride, M., Bannai, V., and R.
              Krishnan, "A Framework for Multicast in Network
              Virtualization over Layer 3", RFC 8293,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8293, January 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8293>.

   [RFC8303]  Welzl, M., Tuexen, M., and N. Khademi, "On the Usage of
              Transport Features Provided by IETF Transport Protocols",
              RFC 8303, DOI 10.17487/RFC8303, February 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8303>.

   [RFC8445]  Keranen, A., Holmberg, C., and J. Rosenberg, "Interactive
              Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A Protocol for Network
              Address Translator (NAT) Traversal", RFC 8445,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8445, July 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8445>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8446>.

   [RFC8489]  Petit-Huguenin, M., Salgueiro, G., Rosenberg, J., Wing,
              D., Mahy, R., and P. Matthews, "Session Traversal
              Utilities for NAT (STUN)", RFC 8489, DOI 10.17487/RFC8489,
              February 2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8489>.

   [RFC8546]  Trammell, B. and M. Kuehlewind, "The Wire Image of a
              Network Protocol", RFC 8546, DOI 10.17487/RFC8546, April
              2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8546>.

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   [RFC8622]  Bless, R., "A Lower-Effort Per-Hop Behavior (LE PHB) for
              Differentiated Services", RFC 8622, DOI 10.17487/RFC8622,
              June 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8622>.

   [RFC8656]  Reddy, T., Ed., Johnston, A., Ed., Matthews, P., and J.
              Rosenberg, "Traversal Using Relays around NAT (TURN):
              Relay Extensions to Session Traversal Utilities for NAT
              (STUN)", RFC 8656, DOI 10.17487/RFC8656, February 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8656>.

   [RFC8699]  Islam, S., Welzl, M., and S. Gjessing, "Coupled Congestion
              Control for RTP Media", RFC 8699, DOI 10.17487/RFC8699,
              January 2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8699>.

   [RFC8801]  Pfister, P., Vyncke, É., Pauly, T., Schinazi, D., and W.
              Shao, "Discovering Provisioning Domain Names and Data",
              RFC 8801, DOI 10.17487/RFC8801, July 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8801>.

   [RFC8838]  Ivov, E., Uberti, J., and P. Saint-Andre, "Trickle ICE:
              Incremental Provisioning of Candidates for the Interactive
              Connectivity Establishment (ICE) Protocol", RFC 8838,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8838, January 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8838>.

   [RFC8899]  Fairhurst, G., Jones, T., Tüxen, M., Rüngeler, I., and T.
              Völker, "Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery for
              Datagram Transports", RFC 8899, DOI 10.17487/RFC8899,
              September 2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8899>.

   [RFC8922]  Enghardt, T., Pauly, T., Perkins, C., Rose, K., and C.
              Wood, "A Survey of the Interaction between Security
              Protocols and Transport Services", RFC 8922,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8922, October 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8922>.

   [RFC8923]  Welzl, M. and S. Gjessing, "A Minimal Set of Transport
              Services for End Systems", RFC 8923, DOI 10.17487/RFC8923,
              October 2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8923>.

   [RFC8981]  Gont, F., Krishnan, S., Narten, T., and R. Draves,
              "Temporary Address Extensions for Stateless Address
              Autoconfiguration in IPv6", RFC 8981,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8981, February 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8981>.

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   [RFC9218]  Oku, K. and L. Pardue, "Extensible Prioritization Scheme
              for HTTP", RFC 9218, DOI 10.17487/RFC9218, June 2022,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc9218>.

   [RFC9329]  Pauly, T. and V. Smyslov, "TCP Encapsulation of Internet
              Key Exchange Protocol (IKE) and IPsec Packets", RFC 9329,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC9329, November 2022,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc9329>.

   [TCP-COUPLING]
              Islam, S., Welzl, M., Hiorth, K., Hayes, D., Armitage, G.,
              and S. Gjessing, "ctrlTCP: Reducing Latency through
              Coupled, Heterogeneous Multi-Flow TCP Congestion Control",
              IEEE INFOCOM Global Internet Symposium (GI) workshop (GI
              2018) , 2018.

Appendix A.  Implementation Mapping

   The way the concepts from this abstract API map into concrete APIs in
   a given language on a given platform largely depends on the features
   and norms of the language and the platform.  Actions could be
   implemented as functions or method calls, for instance, and events
   could be implemented via event queues, handler functions or classes,
   communicating sequential processes, or other asynchronous calling
   conventions.

A.1.  Types

   The basic types mentioned in Section 1.1 typically have natural
   correspondences in practical programming languages, perhaps
   constrained by implementation-specific limitations.  For example:

   *  An Integer can typically be represented in C by an int or long,
      subject to the underlying platform's ranges for each.

   *  In C, a Tuple may be represented as a struct with one member for
      each of the value types in the ordered grouping.  In Python, by
      contrast, a Tuple may be represented as a tuple, a sequence of
      dynamically-typed elements.

   *  A Set may be represented as a std::set in C++ or as a set in
      Python.  In C, it may be represented as an array or as a higher-
      level data structure with appropriate accessors defined.

   The objects described in Section 1.1 can similarly be represented in
   different ways depending on which programming language is used.
   Objects like Preconnections, Connections, and Listeners can be long-
   lived, and benefit from using object-oriented constructs.  Note that

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   in C, these objects may need to provide a way to release or free
   their underlying memory when the application is done using them.  For
   example, since a Preconnection can be used to initiate multiple
   Connections, it is the responsibility of the application to clean up
   the Preconnection memory if necessary.

A.2.  Events and Errors

   This specification treats events and errors similarly.  Errors, just
   as any other events, may occur asynchronously in network
   applications.  However, implementations of this API may report errors
   synchronously, according to the error handling idioms of the
   implementation platform, where they can be immediately detected, such
   as by generating an exception when attempting to initiate a
   Connection with inconsistent Transport Properties.  An error can
   provide an optional reason to the application with further details
   about why the error occurred.

A.3.  Time Duration

   Time duration types are implementation-specific.  For instance, it
   could be a number of seconds, number of milliseconds, or a struct
   timeval in C or a user-defined Duration class in C++.

Appendix B.  Convenience Functions

B.1.  Adding Preference Properties

   TransportProperties will frequently need to set Selection Properties
   of type Preference, therefore implementations can provide special
   actions for adding each preference level i.e,
   TransportProperties.Set(some_property, avoid) is equivalent
   toTransportProperties.Avoid(some_property)`:

   TransportProperties.Require(property)
   TransportProperties.Prefer(property)
   TransportProperties.NoPreference(property)
   TransportProperties.Avoid(property)
   TransportProperties.Prohibit(property)

B.2.  Transport Property Profiles

   To ease the use of the Transport Services API, implementations can
   provide a mechanism to create Transport Property objects (see
   Section 6.2) that are preconfigured with frequently used sets of
   properties; the following are in common use in current applications:

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B.2.1.  reliable-inorder-stream

   This profile provides reliable, in-order transport service with
   congestion control.  TCP is an example of a protocol that provides
   this service.  It should consist of the following properties:

                 +=======================+===============+
                 | Property              | Value         |
                 +=======================+===============+
                 | reliability           | require       |
                 +-----------------------+---------------+
                 | preserveOrder         | require       |
                 +-----------------------+---------------+
                 | congestionControl     | require       |
                 +-----------------------+---------------+
                 | preserveMsgBoundaries | no preference |
                 +-----------------------+---------------+

                      Table 2: reliable-inorder-stream
                                preferences

B.2.2.  reliable-message

   This profile provides message-preserving, reliable, in-order
   transport service with congestion control.  SCTP is an example of a
   protocol that provides this service.  It should consist of the
   following properties:

                    +=======================+=========+
                    | Property              | Value   |
                    +=======================+=========+
                    | reliability           | require |
                    +-----------------------+---------+
                    | preserveOrder         | require |
                    +-----------------------+---------+
                    | congestionControl     | require |
                    +-----------------------+---------+
                    | preserveMsgBoundaries | require |
                    +-----------------------+---------+

                         Table 3: reliable-message
                                preferences

B.2.3.  unreliable-datagram

   This profile provides a datagram transport service without any
   reliability guarantee.  An example of a protocol that provides this
   service is UDP.  It consists of the following properties:

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                 +=======================+===============+
                 | Property              | Value         |
                 +=======================+===============+
                 | reliability           | avoid         |
                 +-----------------------+---------------+
                 | preserveOrder         | avoid         |
                 +-----------------------+---------------+
                 | congestionControl     | no preference |
                 +-----------------------+---------------+
                 | preserveMsgBoundaries | require       |
                 +-----------------------+---------------+
                 | safelyReplayable      | true          |
                 +-----------------------+---------------+

                  Table 4: unreliable-datagram preferences

   Applications that choose this Transport Property Profile would avoid
   the additional latency that could be introduced by retransmission or
   reordering in a transport protocol.

   Applications that choose this Transport Property Profile to reduce
   latency should also consider setting an appropriate capacity profile
   Property, see Section 8.1.6 and might benefit from controlling
   checksum coverage, see Section 6.2.7 and Section 6.2.8.

Appendix C.  Relationship to the Minimal Set of Transport Services for
             End Systems

   [RFC8923] identifies a minimal set of transport services that end
   systems should offer.  These services make all non-security-related
   transport features of TCP, MPTCP, UDP, UDP-Lite, SCTP and LEDBAT
   available that 1) require interaction with the application, and 2) do
   not get in the way of a possible implementation over TCP (or, with
   limitations, UDP).  The following text explains how this minimal set
   is reflected in the present API.  For brevity, it is based on the
   list in Section 4.1 of [RFC8923], updated according to the discussion
   in Section 5 of [RFC8923].  The present API covers all elements of
   this section.  This list is a subset of the transport features in
   Appendix A of [RFC8923], which refers to the primitives in "pass 2"
   (Section 4) of [RFC8303] for further details on the implementation
   with TCP, MPTCP, UDP, UDP-Lite, SCTP and LEDBAT.  This facilitates
   finding the specifications for implementing the services listed below
   with these protocols.

   *  Connect: Initiate action (Section 7.1).

   *  Listen: Listen action (Section 7.2).

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   *  Specify number of attempts and/or timeout for the first
      establishment Message: timeout parameter of Initiate (Section 7.1)
      or InitiateWithSend action (Section 9.2.5).

   *  Disable MPTCP: multipath property (Section 6.2.14).

   *  Hand over a Message to reliably transfer (possibly multiple times)
      before connection establishment: InitiateWithSend action
      (Section 9.2.5).

   *  Change timeout for aborting connection (using retransmit limit or
      time value): connTimeout property, using a time value
      (Section 8.1.3).

   *  Timeout event when data could not be delivered for too long:
      ConnectionError event (Section 10).

   *  Suggest timeout to the peer: See "TCP-specific Properties: User
      Timeout Option (UTO)" (Section 8.2).

   *  Notification of ICMP error message arrival: softErrorNotify
      (Section 6.2.17) and SoftError event (Section 8.3.1).

   *  Choose a scheduler to operate between streams of an association:
      connScheduler property (Section 8.1.5).

   *  Configure priority or weight for a scheduler: connPriority
      property (Section 8.1.2).

   *  "Specify checksum coverage used by the sender" and "Disable
      checksum when sending": msgChecksumLen property (Section 9.1.3.6)
      and fullChecksumSend property (Section 6.2.7).

   *  "Specify minimum checksum coverage required by receiver" and
      "Disable checksum requirement when receiving": recvChecksumLen
      property (Section 8.1.1) and fullChecksumRecv property
      (Section 6.2.8).

   *  "Specify DF field": noFragmentation property (Section 9.1.3.9).

   *  Get max. transport-message size that may be sent using a non-
      fragmented IP packet from the configured interface:
      singularTransmissionMsgMaxLen property (Section 8.1.11.4).

   *  Get max. transport-message size that may be received from the
      configured interface: recvMsgMaxLen property (Section 8.1.11.6).

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   *  Obtain ECN field: This is a read-only Message Property of the
      MessageContext object (see "UDP(-Lite)-specific Property: ECN"
      Section 9.3.3.1).

   *  "Specify DSCP field", "Disable Nagle algorithm", "Enable and
      configure a Low Extra Delay Background Transfer": as suggested in
      Section 5.5 of [RFC8923], these transport features are
      collectively offered via the connCapacityProfile property
      (Section 8.1.6).  Per-Message control ("Request not to bundle
      messages") is offered via the msgCapacityProfile property
      (Section 9.1.3.8).

   *  Close after reliably delivering all remaining data, causing an
      event informing the application on the other side: this is offered
      by the Close action with slightly changed semantics in line with
      the discussion in Section 5.2 of [RFC8923] (Section 10).

   *  "Abort without delivering remaining data, causing an event
      informing the application on the other side" and "Abort without
      delivering remaining data, not causing an event informing the
      application on the other side": this is offered by the Abort
      action without promising that this is signaled to the other side.
      If it is, a ConnectionError event will be invoked at the peer
      (Section 10).

   *  "Reliably transfer data, with congestion control", "Reliably
      transfer a message, with congestion control" and "Unreliably
      transfer a message": data is transferred via the Send action
      (Section 9.2).  Reliability is controlled via the reliability
      (Section 6.2.1) property and the msgReliable Message Property
      (Section 9.1.3.7).  Transmitting data as a Message or without
      delimiters is controlled via Message Framers (Section 9.1.2).  The
      choice of congestion control is provided via the congestionControl
      property (Section 6.2.9).

   *  Configurable Message Reliability: the msgLifetime Message Property
      implements a time-based way to configure message reliability
      (Section 9.1.3.1).

   *  "Ordered message delivery (potentially slower than unordered)" and
      "Unordered message delivery (potentially faster than ordered)":
      these two transport features are controlled via the Message
      Property msgOrdered (Section 9.1.3.3).

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   *  Request not to delay the acknowledgment (SACK) of a message:
      should the protocol support it, this is one of the transport
      features the Transport Services system can apply when an
      application uses the connCapacityProfile Property (Section 8.1.6)
      or the msgCapacityProfile Message Property (Section 9.1.3.8) with
      value Low Latency/Interactive.

   *  Receive data (with no message delimiting): Receive action
      (Section 9.3.1) and Received event (Section 9.3.2.1).

   *  Receive a message: Receive action (Section 9.3.1) and Received
      event (Section 9.3.2.1), using Message Framers (Section 9.1.2).

   *  Information about partial message arrival: Receive action
      (Section 9.3.1) and ReceivedPartial event (Section 9.3.2.2).

   *  Notification of send failures: Expired event (Section 9.2.2.2) and
      SendError event (Section 9.2.2.3).

   *  Notification that the stack has no more user data to send:
      applications can obtain this information via the Sent event
      (Section 9.2.2.1).

   *  Notification to a receiver that a partial message delivery has
      been aborted: ReceiveError event (Section 9.3.2.3).

   *  Notification of Excessive Retransmissions (early warning below
      abortion threshold): SoftError event (Section 8.3.1).

Authors' Addresses

   Brian Trammell (editor)
   Google Switzerland GmbH
   Gustav-Gull-Platz 1
   CH- 8004 Zurich
   Switzerland
   Email: ietf@trammell.ch

   Michael Welzl (editor)
   University of Oslo
   PO Box 1080 Blindern
   0316  Oslo
   Norway
   Email: michawe@ifi.uio.no

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   Reese Enghardt
   Netflix
   121 Albright Way
   Los Gatos, CA 95032,
   United States of America
   Email: ietf@tenghardt.net

   Godred Fairhurst
   University of Aberdeen
   Fraser Noble Building
   Aberdeen, AB24 3UE
   Email: gorry@erg.abdn.ac.uk
   URI:   http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk/

   Mirja Kuehlewind
   Ericsson
   Ericsson-Allee 1
   Herzogenrath
   Germany
   Email: mirja.kuehlewind@ericsson.com

   Colin Perkins
   University of Glasgow
   School of Computing Science
   Glasgow  G12 8QQ
   United Kingdom
   Email: csp@csperkins.org

   Philipp S. Tiesel
   SAP SE
   George-Stephenson-Straße 7-13
   10557 Berlin
   Germany
   Email: philipp@tiesel.net

   Tommy Pauly
   Apple Inc.
   One Apple Park Way
   Cupertino, California 95014,
   United States of America
   Email: tpauly@apple.com

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