DNS privacy considerations
draft-ietf-dprive-problem-statement-04

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Document Type Active Internet-Draft (dprive WG)
Author St├ęphane Bortzmeyer 
Last updated 2015-05-01 (latest revision 2015-03-23)
Replaces draft-bortzmeyer-dnsop-dns-privacy
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DNS PRIVate Exchange (dprive) Working Group                S. Bortzmeyer
Internet-Draft                                                     AFNIC
Intended status: Informational                            March 23, 2015
Expires: September 24, 2015

                       DNS privacy considerations
                 draft-ietf-dprive-problem-statement-04

Abstract

   This document describes the privacy issues associated with the use of
   the DNS by Internet users.  It is intended to be an analysis of the
   present situation and does not prescribe solutions.

Status of This Memo

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   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 24, 2015.

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   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Bortzmeyer             Expires September 24, 2015               [Page 1]
Internet-Draft                 DNS privacy                    March 2015

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  The alleged public nature of DNS data . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Data in the DNS request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.3.  Cache snooping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.4.  On the wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.5.  In the servers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       2.5.1.  In the recursive resolvers  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       2.5.2.  In the authoritative name servers . . . . . . . . . .   8
       2.5.3.  Rogue servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.6.  Re-identification and other inferences  . . . . . . . . .  10
   3.  Actual "attacks"  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Legalities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  IANA considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.3.  URIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   This document is an analysis of the DNS privacy issues, in the spirit
   of section 8 of [RFC6973].

   The Domain Name System is specified in [RFC1034] and [RFC1035].  It
   is one of the most important infrastructure components of the
   Internet and often ignored or misunderstood.  Almost every activity
   on the Internet starts with a DNS query (and often several).  Its use
   has many privacy implications and this is an attempt at a
   comprehensive and accurate list.

   Let us begin with a simplified reminder of how the DNS works.  (See
   also [I-D.hoffman-dns-terminology].)  A client, the stub resolver,
   issues a DNS query to a server, called the recursive resolver (also
   called caching resolver or full resolver or recursive name server).
   Let's use the query "What are the AAAA records for www.example.com?"
   as an example.  AAAA is the qtype (Query Type), and www.example.com
   is the qname (Query Name).  (The description which follows assume a
   cold cache, for instance because the server just started.)  The
   recursive resolver will first query the root nameservers.  In most
   cases, the root nameservers will send a referral.  In this example,
   the referral will be to the .com nameservers.  The resolver repeats
   the query to one of the .com nameservers.  The .com nameservers, in
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